A HISTORIC DISTRICT ADJACENT TO EYÜP: AYVANSARAY, FROM PAST TO PRESENT

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1 A HISTORIC DISTRICT ADJACENT TO EYÜP: AYVANSARAY, FROM PAST TO PRESENT Dr. Ahmet Kamil GÖREN Professor at Istanbul University Faculty of Literature I dedicate this work to Prof. Dr. Semavi Eyice, Art Historian, the author of countless works of research relating to Istanbul and a person under whom I had the honour of studying. He was born in Istanbul in After having graduated from the Department of Archaeology and Art History of the Faculty of Literature of the Istanbul University in 1987, he received his master's degree in 1990, from the same department, with a thesis titled, "The Place and Importance of Hüseyin Avni Lifij within Turkish Painting." He received his doctorate in 1995 with a thesis titled "The Problems Concerning Human Form as Encountered by Turkish Painters of the '1914 Generation'." In 1992 he started working at the Art History Department of the Faculty of Literature of the Istanbul University; currently he is an assistant professor in that institution. He teaches Westernisation in Turkish Art and European Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. He has written various books and articles on Turkish painting. 53

2 1. lber Ortayl, stanbul dan Safalar, (3rd Print), letiflim Yay nlar, Istanbul, 1995, p ; lber Ortayl, Eyüp te Sanayi ve Çevre Kirlenmesi, Tülay Artan (June Issue) Eyüp: Dün/Bugün December 1993 (Symposium handouts), Tarih Vakf Yurt Yay nlar, Istanbul, 1994, p. 125, Ekrem Ifl n, stanbul da Gündelik Hayat, letiflim Yay nlar, Istanbul, 1995, p Semavi, Eyice, stanbul - da hmal Edilmifl Tarihi Bir Semt Ayvansaray, TAÇ, Vol. 2, Issue: 5, (Turkish Foundation for the Protection of Monuments and Environments of Touristic value), Istanbul, April 1987, p This article by Eyice, in particular, from among his other articles on the same subject, contains a wide range of information and visual materials, and is an invaluable resource. See also; Ahmet Kamil Gören, Ayvansaray n Tarihi, Art Decor/AD, Issue: 45, Istanbul, December 1996, p ; A.K. Gören, Tarih Boyunca Ayvansaray, Sanatsal Mozaik, Issue: 17, Istanbul, January 1997, p ; A. K. Gören, Ayvansaray, ICOC (Istanbul Chamber of Commerce), Issue: 48, (April), Istanbul, 1997, p Semavi Eyice, Ayvansaray, Dünden Bugüne stanbul Ansiklopedisi (DBIA), vol. 1, Ministry of Culture and Historical Foundation Publication, Istanbul, 1993, p. 491; Eyice, stanbul da hmal Edilmifl..., TAÇ, vol. 2, Issue: 5, p. 33; S. Eyice, Ayvansaray, Islamic Encyclopaedia, vol. 4, Turkish Religious Foundation, Istanbul, 1991, p. 289; Reflad Ekrem Koçu, Ayvansaray, Istanbul Encyclopaedia, vol. 3, Istanbul, 1960, p Illustration 1. Plan of Ayvansaray (S. Eyice, stanbul da hmal Edilmifl Tarihi Bir Semt Ayvansaray, TAÇ, Volume 2, Issue. 5, page 40-41) The shores of the Golden Horn have always been among the most important settlement areas of Istanbul, and its districts have been populated throughout history by Christians, Jews and Muslims. For example, of these districts Balat was a centre for Jews, Fener for Christians and Eyüp for Muslims. 1 Ayvansaray, whose name has always been mentioned together with that of neighbouring Eyüp, was a Christian settlement, but after the conquest of Istanbul turned into a strongly Muslim area. Today Christians and Muslims live side by side. However, following the conquest, the Turkish character of Ayvansaray began to come to the fore and the region exerted a strong influence on Istanbul culture, from its old Turkish houses to its streets, from its lifestyle to its folklore. In recent years Ayvansaray has become rundown and neglected. Detailed articles by Reflad Illustration 2a. Anselmi Banduri marked the Ayvansaray district as number 14 in his Plan of Istanbul dating from The major buildings located in each region are indicated in writing. (Kayra, Istanbul Haritalar, p. 81) Illustration 2. In this plan drawn by Christoph Weigel in 1720, Ayvansaray is shown as region number 14 during the reign of Emperor Theodosius II ( ). (Cahit Kayra, Maps of Istanbul, Türkiye Sinai Kalk nma Bankas, Istanbul 1990, p. 62) Ekrem Koçu, Muzaffer Esen and smail Ersevim on this district and its characteristics can be found in the Istanbul Encyclopaedia, whose publication was never completed. The person who brought Ayvansaray back onto the agenda with a monographic work encompassing all its aspects was Prof. Dr. Semavi Eyice. 2 The Ayvansaray district is located on the northwest of Istanbul s historical peninsula, at the place where the interior land walls meet the sea walls of the Golden Horn. Today the district is under the administration of Fatih. Ayvansaray remained an important area down through history, both during Byzantine and Ottoman empires, and traditionally consisted of three neighbourhoods: Karabafl, Atik Mustafa Pafla and Abdülvedud. 3 Demirhisar Caddesi, which runs from Balat towards Eyüp, ends at the junction with Kalafatç Hüsnü Sokak, taking the name Ayvansaray Caddesi and running between the walls of the Golden Horn and the sea until it reaches Kalafat Meydan, where ships and boats were built until the 1980s. Ayvansaray Ferry Dock is located here (Illustration 1). Here Ayvansaray Caddesi ends; the road that continues towards Eyüp is known as Yavedut Caddesi. 4 An old postcard with a photograph of Kalafat Meydan shows a row of ruined buildings all along the shore. 5 The land on which Ayvansaray is positioned rises steeply to the west of Ayvansaray Caddesi until it 54

3 reaches the Tekfur Saray (Palace) at the upper limits of the district. The district is characterised by narrow streets, sometimes stepped, containing samples of old Istanbul houses that have survived against the odds, along with ruins from the Byzantine and Ottoman eras. 6 COMPETING CLAIMS RELATING TO THE NAME OF THE DISTRICT A variety of opinions and theories have been put forward as to the origin of the name of the Ayvansaray district, bound as it is on one side by the Golden Horn and on the other by the land walls. One of these is that Ayvansaray evolved from the phrase hayvan saray (the palace of the animals) which was used among the people due to the practice of using the cisterns remaining from the Byzantine era for the shelter of animals brought from hot countries. 7 According to another theory, the Byzantine palace located here was known as the Eyvan Saray - eyvan meaning tall vaulted building - and over time this evolved into the name Ayvansaray. However, Eyice indicates that he finds neither of these two theories particularly convincing. 8 The famous 18th century Istanbul historian P.. nciciyan, of Armenian origin, believed that the name of the district came from Ay Mam Saray based on the assumption that it was founded in the name of Ay Mamas (Hagios Mamas), but it seems safe to say that this claim is nothing more than a flight of fancy. Turkologist J. H. Mordtmann claimed that the name Ayvansaray came from Eyyüb Ensari; a gap in the walls at the start of the road to Eyüp known as the Eyyüb Ensari Kap s (Gate) having become known over time as the Ayvansary Kap s. The famous traveller Evliya Çelebi noted in the 17th century that this gate was named Ayyub Ansari. 9 In 16th century Western sources the district is named variously as Hagiobazazi, Ayuanzari Capi, Aybazari and Eiubasar Cap. 10 Illustration 3. The entrance gate to the garden of the Church of Vlaherna Meryem (Panhagia Blahernon/Blakhernai/Blachernae), one of the most important Orthodox places of worship in Ayvansaray. ( ) AYVANSARAY WAS LOCATED IN THE 14TH REGION OF ISTANBUL DURING THE REIGN OF EMPEROR THEODOSIUS II According to the Latin text of the book Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanea, which was written during the reign of Theodosius II ( ) and outlines the neighbourhoods of Istanbul at that time, Ayvansaray was included Illustration 4. The Church of Vlaherna Meryem (Panhagia Blakhernae), a major Orthodox places of worship in Ayvansaray. ( ) 4. Eyice, DBIA, V: 1, p. 491; Koçu, Ayvansaray Kalafat Yeri, stanbul Ansiklopedisi, V: 3, p. 1651; For plans and streets of Ayvansaray see TAÇ, V:2, Issue: 5, p Istanbul, 1960, 5. Perihan Sar öz, Bir Zamanlar stanbul, dea letiflim, Istanbul, 1996, p. 76 (A total of 371 selected postcards are contained in this 311 page book). 6. Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 491; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 491; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 491; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p

4 11. Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 492; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 492; Eyice, Istanbul da..., TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p , For the story of bonito in the Golden Horn see O uz Tekin, Byzantion un Palamutlar ve Alt n Boynuz, Tarih ve Toplum, Issue: 135, Istanbul, March, 1995, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 492; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 492; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 492; Eyice, Toklu Dede Mosque, DBIA, V: 7, p ; Eyice, Istanbul da..., TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p. 34; Nancy Patterson Sevconko- Alekander Mazdhan, * Maphorion, A. Kazhan (Ed.), Alice Mary Talbot et al, The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Volume: 2, Oxford 1991, p. 1294; Sözen-Tanzeli Sanat Kavram ve Terimleri Sözlü ü, p. 102 **Hazire: A small graveyard bound by walls or railings located in the garden of a mosque. Illustration 5. The entrance to Toklu brahim Dede Cometery ( ) in the 14th region (regio) of Istanbul. (Illustration 2, 2a) According to this work, at that time Ayvansaray was in the nature of a town adjacent to Istanbul, or Byzantium as it was then, and was surrounded by its own walls. Inside those walls were located a church, a palace, a nymphaeum (public fountain and resting place), public baths, a theatre, a lusarium (place of games), two main colonnaded streets and 167 houses. 11 The district was then known as Blacharnae, which is thought to be either because of the ample amounts of blehron (wild mint) or blehon (e reltiotu) growing in the area or because of the plentiful lahernai (bonito) that were to be caught along the shores of the Golden Horn. 12 According to Dionisios Byzantios, who is believed to have lived in the 2nd century, the town took its name from a Thracian chief or leader called Blachernas. Eyice considers this the most likely source of the name. 13 When the Byzantine land walls were enlarged and strengthened in the 5th century, the Blachernae region was annexed by Istanbul and the town became a neighbourhood or suburb of the city. It is believed that at this stage the walls to the north and east of the Blachernae region were demolished, since they were no longer necessary. Despite having become a neighbourhood or region of the city, Blachernae retained a special status by continuing to be governed as an independent site under the old system of administration, libera civitas, during the 5th century. 14 The three sections of Blachernae along the Illustration 6. View of the walls of the fort around Toklu brahim Dede Cometery. ( ) shores of the Golden Horn which remained outside the walls were sacked during the Avar siege of 626. In 627 the Emperor Heraklios expanded the walls to protect the excluded region and the Theotokos ton Blahernon Church, or the Church of Blachernae, where the robe of Mary (the maphorion) * was housed. (Illustration: 3,4) In 813 Emperor Leon V had a reinforced tower built in front of the walls for the purpose of defending the gates to the tower. Thus the fort containing the small Toklu Dede Mescidi (Masjid) and hazire ** in its inner courtyard were created. (Illustration 5, 6 and 7) This inner fort was known as Pterion in the Byzantine era. After the Blachernae palace was expanded and came into regular use by the emperors, Emperor Manuel Comnenus (who reigned from ) had a single story wall built, starting from slightly below the Tekfur Saray and continuing in a broad curve as far as the Heraclian Walls, in order to protect the upper slopes of Ayvansaray. 15 Another wall stretched out from the corner where the land walls joined the sea walls of Golden Horn down Illustration 7. Graves in the Toklu brahim Dede Graveyard ( ) 56

5 towards the water, separating the shore section from the outer region. A gate named Ksiloporta in this wall connected the shoreline to the outside region. It is known that this wall and gate continued to exist for many years and were finally demolished in PALACES GAIN IMPORTANCE IN AYVANSARAY FROM THE 10TH CENTURY ONWARDS 16. Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p. 492; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Eyice, DBIA, V:1, p Eyice, DBIA, V: 1, p. 493; Cyril Mango, Blachernai, Church and Place of The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, V: 1, p.293; S. Eyice, Blahernai Saray DBIA, V: 2, p. 263; see also G. Schlumberger Le palais des Blachernes which is quoted as a source by Eyice, Les iles des Princes, Paris, The Byzantine Emperors and their entourage previously resided at the Great Palace of Byzantium situated on a huge area between the Hippodrome and the Marmara Sea. However, in the 11th century this palace began to be neglected. Instead, from the 10th century until the fall of the empire the Blachernae Palace of Ayvansaray tended to be preferred by the emperors and their court. 17 It is thought that Blachernae (or Blahernai) Palace was located on the terrace where the Ivaz Efendi Camii stands today. In all probability, the Blachernae Palace Illustration 8a. Blachernae Palace and Tekfur Saray in a pirate print of Hartmann Schedel s wood graving of Istanbul dated (This plan is held in our archives as a separate card.) Illustration 8. Blachernae Palace and Tekfur Saray in Hartmann Schedel s wood graving of Istanbul in (Kayra, Istanbul Haritalar, p. 65) was founded in a triklinos (great hall) containing a place of worship, an audience hall and a bedroom that is known to have existed here in the 5th century. This triklinos was later expanded to four buildings, which were named Soros, Danubios, Anastasios and Okeanos. 18 It is thought that Manuel Comnenus I built the Tekfur Saray, which was located within the Blachernae Palace complex. The walls built by Manuel Comnenus in order to protect the Blachernae Palace stretch down towards the Golden Horn and end at the northern edge in the underground prison known as the Anemas Dungeons (Illustration 26, 27, 28). Anemas was a Byzantine commander who lived at the end of the 11th and the beginning of the 12th century. He was found to be involved in an assignation plot against Alexios Comnenus in 1107, and was first incarcerated in a tower adjacent to the Blachernae Palace that had previously been used as a prison. This tower is thought to have been part of the walls encircling the Toklu Dede 57

6 EYÜP SULTAN SYMPOSIA I-VIII: SELECTED ARTICLES 19. Eyice, DBIA, V: 1, p. 493; S. Eyice, Tekfur Saray, DBIA, V: 7, p ; Cyril Mango, Tekfur Saray, The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, V: 1, p ; For more detail on the Anemas Dungeons see: Semavi Eyice Anemas Zindan ve Kulesi, DBIA, V: 1, p ; TAÇ, V:2, I: 5, p Mango, Tekfur Saray, The Oxford Dictionary..., V: 1, p. 2022; Eyice, Tekfur Saray, DBIA, V: 7, p. 235; for various old photographs see: Robert Ousterhout-Nezih Baflgelen, Monuments of Unaging Intellect - Historic Postcards of Byzantine Istanbul, Tür Tan t m, Istanbul, 1996, p Mango, Blachernai, The Oxford Dictionary..., V: 1, p Semavi Eyice, stanbul un En Eski ki Gravürü, Antik-Dekor, I:21, Istanbul, 1993, p. 34, 47-38; Semavi Eyice, Schedel Hartmann, DBIA, V: 6, Istanbul, 1994, p ; Eyice, Gravürler stanbul, Sanatsal Mozaik, I: 2, Istanbul, October 1995, p Illustration 9. The walls of the Ayvansaray region can be seen in a detail from an engraving entitled Golden Horn Panorama, 28.6x190cm, from the work. graveyard. However, the towers in front of the courtyard of the Ivaz Efendi Mosque later began known as the holding place of Anemas, which was not strictly correct. Of the group of buildings that made up the Blachernae Palace, today only the building known in the Turkish era as Tekfur Saray remains (Illustration: 29). This palace is an authentic example of Byzantine civil architecture, and was known by foreigners in the 16th century as Constantine s Palace (Palatium Constantini) (for example it was named the Constantini Palast by Schweigger) and later as Palace of the Porphyrogenitus. A term used to describe the Byzantine emperors and potentates in the early Ottoman era led to it being called the Tekfur Palace.19 Although Mango attributed Tekfur Saray to the Palaeologos based on the use of embrasures and household coat-of-arms, Eyice has pointed out that there is no trace of the Byzantine and Palaeologos coats-of-arms which it is claimed could be seen in the past and that these claims are not based on fact.20 Furthermore, as was mentioned above, Cyril Mango also mentions that Alexios Comnenus (born 1057, died 1118, became emperor on 4 April 1081) and Manuel Comnenus I (born 1118, died 1180, emperor from ) extended the Blachernae Palace.21 The Blachernae Palace can be seen in an engraving in the 1493 book named Weltkronik (World History) by Hartmann Schedel, who was one of the first chroniclers of Istanbul. A pavilion with a gabled roof is shown at the edge of the group of buildings that make up the palace, Illustration 10. The district of Ayvansaray in a detail taken from the depiction of Istanbul in the first volume of the Hünername of Nakkafl Osman and his team dated which is assumed to be Tekfur Palace, as described above (Illustration: 8, 8a). The Istanbul designs were created by Wolgemuth, and the wood engravings by Wilhelm Pleydenwurff.22 Additionally, some of the buildings making up the palace complex can be seen in the Portrait of Istanbul (Illustration: 9) from the 1st Volume of the Hünername of Nakkafl Osman and his team, the 1550 Istanbul plan attributed to Sebastian Münster (in fact it is not known for certain who created this plan) (Illustration: 11), the plan by Lokman Çelebi dated 1584 (Illustration: 12) and Giovanni Andrea Vavassore s Plan of Istanbul, believed to date from about (Illustration: 13) and various other visual documents (Illustrations: 14, 15, 16, 19) included in Corneille le Bruyn s Voyage au Levant, published in Paris in 1714, (Illustration: 9). In some plans and illustrations Ayvansaray is indicated only with a single letter (Illustration: 20). Illustration 11. Ayvansaray and to the left Tekfur Saray in a detail from a 16th century Map of Istanbul, artist unknown. This engraving print from a wooden mould, identified with the writing Constantinopel Griechischen Keuserthums Hauptstadt/im Landt Thracia am Meere gelegen is 20.5x30.8cm in dimension and is held in the library of Topkap Palace (Yüzy llar Boyunca Venedik ve Istanbul Görünümleri, p. 22)

7 EYÜP SULTAN SYMPOSIA I-VIII: SELECTED ARTICLES Illustration 13. The Ayvansaray region in Giovanni Andrea Vavassore s plan of Istanbul datd (Wolfgang MüllerWeiner, Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls, Verlag Ernst Wasmut, Tübingen 1977, p. 33, Illustration 7, For the same plan also see Berger, ibid. p and illustration 1, Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, Volume 5, p. 215). Illustration 12. Tekfur Saray seen in a detail from a plan of Istanbul by Lokman Çelebi dated (Kayra, Istanbul Haritalar, p. 74) Furthermore, in one of the samples generally accepted the first depictions of Istanbul s plan by Christoforo Buondelmonti, dated 1422, some of the buildings of the Ayvansaray district are shown in simple outline (Illustration: 17). The buildings of the Ayvansaray district and the walls surrounding the area are shown in two anonymous drawings and in Lorich s panorama (Illustrations: 49, 50, 51) Tekfur Saray in particular is depicted in foreign sources under the name Palais de Constantin, as detailed above.23 AYVANSARAY IN PLANS, ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, MINIATURES AND OTHER DEPICTIONS The Ayvansaray district was labelled with the letter p in the plan/illustration of Istanbul in the book of Salomon Schweigger, who was a priest in the imperial embassy of Joachim Sinzendorf between , which was then clarified as Die Vorstade Aifansaria. (Vorstadt literally means suburb, or the outer fringes of a city or town, however, for the sake of continuity we take it to mean region here.) The mosques included in this plan are labelled as kirchen (churches) by the author. For exam- Illustration 14. The district of Ayvansaray in a detail taken from an 17th century engraving of a Map of Istanbul, dated 1701, Amsterdam, artist unknown. It is 21x28.5cm in dimension and is found in the Library of Topkap Palace (Yüzy llar Boyunca Venedik ve Istanbul Görünümleri, p. 25) ple, Süleymaniye Camii is labelled M in the plan, and is then clarified as Des Sultan Solimans Kirchen, while Beyaz t Camii is labelled F, and assigned the full title of Kirch des Sultan Bajazet. Additionally the New Sultan Mehmed Mosque, labelled G, and the old Sultan Mehmed Mosque, numbered 3, are defined as churches.24 That the district of Ayvansaray, labelled P by Schweigger, is shown on the Hasköy shore of the Golden Horn is interesting. Therefore it is difficult to determine which mosque is depicted with a crescent on its minaret. In his talk and slide show given on Sunday 11 May 1997, Architect Dr. Sinan Genim, fellow participant in the first Eyüp Sultan Symposium, stated that the mosque shown in the Ayvansaray district is the Eyüp 23. Panorama of Istanbul in Corneille le Bruyn s Voyage au Levant, Paris, 1714 (Anonymous, Yüzy llar Boyunca Venedik ve stanbul Gürünümleri/Vedute di Venezia ed Istanbul Attraverso I Secoli, Italian Cultural Centre, Istanbul, 10 April-10 June 1995, Exhibition Catalogue, p. 26); Depiction of Istanbul in the 1st volume of the Hünername of Nakkafl Osman and his team dated (Yüzy llar Boyunca Venedik...p. 23); The Plan of Istanbul attributed to Sebastian Münster dated 1550 (Cahit Kayra, Istanbul Haritalar /Maps of Istanbul, T. S nai Kalk nma Bankas, Istanbul, 1990, p. 70) the same plan is included in Yüzy llar Boyunca Venedik...p. 22 attributed to anonymous); Lokman Çelebi s 1584 Plan of Istanbul, (Kayra, Istanbul Haritalar, p. 74); Wolfgang MüllerWiener, Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls, Verlag Ernst Wasmut, Tübingen, 1977, p. 33, illustration 7; Albrecht Berger Zur sogenannten Stadttansicht des Vavassore, Istanbul Mitteleilungen, Band 44, Tübingen 1994, p ; In relation to these subjects see also: A. K. Gören, Geçmiflten Günümüze Sanatç Gözüyle Ayasofya, Sanatsal Mozaik, I: 9, Istanbul, May 1996, p ; A. K. Gören Geçmiflten Günümüze Gravürlerde, Minyatürlerde, Tablolarda Istanbul Temas, Istanbul u Betimleyen Ressamlar, Antik-Dekor, I:33, Istanbul, Februrary 1996, p ; Aykut Gürça lar, Hayali stanbul Manzaralar, (ITU Social Science Institute, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), Istanbul, 1996; Gürça lar, Do u-bat, Hayal -Gerçek, Topografik Resimler ve Istanbul Kenti, Antik-Décor, I: 41, Istanbul, June 1997, p Sultan Camii.25 However, given that this region is depicting Ayvansaray, we believe that this is 59

8 24. Salomon Schweigger, Ein Newe Reyssbeschreibung Auss Teutschland Nach Constantinopel uhd Jerusalem, Nürmberg 1608 (Identical print prepared and printed by Rudolf Neck, Graz, Austria, 1964), p. 102; for the same information see also: Metin And, 16. Yüzy lda stanbul, Kent-Saray-Günlük Yaflam, Akbank, Istanbu, 1993, p ; Anonymous, varofl, TDK Türkçe Sözlük, V: I-II (7th Print), Ankara, 1983, p Sinan Genim s paper entitled XV. Ve XVI Yüzy lda Eyüp which he presented to The History, Culture and Art of Eyüp Sultan, Symposium I (see: footnote 10 of Genim s article XV. Ve XVI Yüzy llarda Seyreyle Gözüm Eyüp ü included in this book of symposium presentations) 26. Uflun Tükel, Natüralist- Olmayan Betimleme Kiplerine liflkin Gösterim Üzerine, Sanat n Ortaça, Türk, Bizans ve Bat Sanat Üzerine Yaz lar (Prepared by E. Akyürek), Kabalc Yay nlar, Istanbul, 1996, p , see also: U Tükel, Beyan- Menazil in Resim Dili: Bir Yap sal Çözümleme, (I.U. Social Sciences Institute, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), Istanbul, 1990, p. 60 (Note: This thesis is being prepared for publication by Kabalc Yay nevi.) 27. The meanings of the terms that we have chosen here: Anonymous, TDK Türkçe Sözlük, V. I-II (7th print), Ankara, 1983, p. 439 true : Something that exists as situation, a thing or a quality, whose existence cannot be denied, that is a fact, hakiki. Illustration 15. Ayvansaray in a detail from the plan-cum-illustration of Istanbul engraved by B. Cl. Duflos. Its dimensions are 25.5x45.7cm and it was taken from M. Guer in Moeurs et Usages des Turcs, Leur Religion, Leur Gouvernement Civil, Militaire et Politique, Avec in Abrege de l Histoire Ottomane, volume 1, Paris It is found in the Library of Topkap Palace (Yüzy llar Boyunca Venedik ve Istanbul Görünümleri, p. 25) more likely to be the Ivaz Efendi Camii. Schweigger has not fully defined some regions in this plan/illustration. For example, the district numbered 2, defined simply as Die Vorstadt (suburb), is most likely Ayvansaray s neighbouring district Balat. Keeping in mind that such plans, illustrations, maps, engravings, miniatures etc have their own individual logic or system, it is hard to claim that a naturalist approach was always employed in these documents. Therefore it cannot be said that the artist always aimed to depict the objects that they drew in exactly their correct place. The Ayvansaray region is visible in the detail we have shown from Matrakç Nasuh s famous work the Beyan- Menazil (Illustration 18). We can call to mind the location of Topkap Palace not in the third court where it actually is but in the second court, and its orientation facing the Marmara. Similarly, the region depicted with the letter P, as mentioned above, must be Ayvansaray. In another research work by Prof. Dr. Uflun Tükel, who completed his doctorate on the Official Language of the Beyan- Menazil, he reminds us that these non-naturalist drawings contained something other than documentary value, and that each of them were created according to a certain illustrative logic. 26 However, we can approach the items represented in these uniquely executed drawings as individual depictions of real 27 things - while still accepting Tükel s point. That is, the reality Illustration 16. Ayvansaray in a detail from the Braun and Hogenberg copy of a Vavassore etching which was copied and reprinted in 1566 and 1573 in Venice, with the sultans added. (Cahit Kayra, Istanbul Mekanlar ve Zamanlar, Istanbul 1990, no. 1 of the maps included separately at the back) of whether the thing depicted - no matter what the nature of the depiction is (naturalist 28 /realist 29 /imaginary) - be it building, region, etc. is actually found at that location. If you notice, almost all places of worship are represented in a similar manner, with either domed or gabled roofs and tower style minarets topped with a crescent (the cross on the top of the tower of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which is depicted with the letter L and the presence of crescents on top of one of the towers and of the gable of the Armenian Patriarchate, marked H, along with a circle on the other tower, is interesting) rising from their side. Even if their location, scale, shape and other characteristics are not correctly represented, nonetheless the presence of the buildings that existed in the city at that time in these works gives them their factual basis. 30 In an assessment of the issue carried out together with Tükel 31, we stressed the fact that Illustration 17. The Ayvansaray region in a depiction of Istanbul (Urbis Constantinopolitane) by Cristophoro de Bondelmontibus from (Kayra, stanbul Haritalar, p. 61) 60

9 EYÜP SULTAN SYMPOSIA I-VIII: SELECTED ARTICLES 28. Metin Sözer-U ur Tanyeli, Naturalism, Sanat Kavram ve Terimleri Sözlü ü, Remzi Kitabevi, Istanbul, 1986, p. 171 Naturalism : An understanding that aims to depict natural reality in a work of art without altering anything, that embellishes without stylising or idealizing. In the same place Naturalist : Characterises in general, in every type of art and every era, especially in art and sculpture, the artistic approach that tries to remain faithful to the natural reality being depicted, artists who adopt this approach and the works which have been produced with this understanding Illustration 18. The Ayvansaray district in Matrakç Nasuh s 1537 miniature of Istanbul (Topkap Palace Library), (Kayra, stanbul Haritalar, p. 69) these (the symbols used to depict things) were used in the nature of pictograms. 32 THE DEPICTION OF THE REGION IN ENGRAVINGS AND SOME SELECTED BUILDINGS In the old panoramic engravings of the Golden Horn (such as those of Thomas Allom, Bartlett, Schranz and Sebatier), we can see that the land walls stretched down towards the Golden Horn, ending at Ayvansaray.33 Again in some engravings, and in particular in one work Illustration 19. The Palais de Constantin shown as number 9 in G. L. Le Rouge s Istanbul, dated (Kayra, Istanbul Haritalar, p. 87) Illustration 20. Ayvansaray shown with the letter V in Moryson s map (Metin And, 16. Yüzy lda Istanbul, Kent-SarayGünlük Yaflam, Istanbul 1993, p. 33) by Melling (Illustration 22), elements that are probably the Ivaz Efendi Mosque and also the boatyards can be seen, although they do not correspond to what we know today of their location and architecture. Another important structure was Hatice Sultan s waterside place, situated between the small Abdülvedud Mosque at the foot of today s Golden Horn Bridge and the place where the land walls end. We will consider this palace in more detail later. This palace can be seen clearly in the engravings.34 There are two gates in the area that could be known as the Ayvansaray Gate. The first of these is the Eyyub Ensari Kap which we mentioned in relation to Mordtmann s explanation of the naming of the district. As we stated, Mordtmann thought that this could have evolved over time into Ayvansaray Kap. Today, however, no trace remains of this gate.35 The true Ayvansaray Gate was located at the foot of today s small Ayvansaray Mosque built on the Golden Horn side of the walls. No trace remains of this gate either, though it was the 29. Sözen-Tanyeli, Sanat Kavram ve Terimleri Sözlü ü, p. 89 Realism : The understanding in art and sculpture that aims to directly copy reality from the non-art world in the figures and shapes of the work. All figures in a work created under this approach should be recognisable as existing objects or living creatures. In addition, they should be depicted in a manner that conforms to relations in the real world. Realism is an approach that is encountered in many historical periods. Even the prehistoric cave drawings have an aspect of realism. On the other hand, there was little realism in the early agricultural civilisations until that of ancient Greece. After the realistic tendencies of Ancient Greece and Rome, the middle ages can be characterised more as expressionist. Realism entered European art with the Renaissance and dominated it until the birth of Modern Art at the beginning of the 20th century 61

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