Turkish Nationality Room

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1 the Turkish Nationality Room TÜRKIYE ODASI Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh Dedicated: March 4, 2012, Commons Room TNR2.indd 1 2/20/12 10:15:49 PM

2 North Entrance of the hospital of the Seljuk (Selçuk) Külliye (an architectural complex of mosque, school, hospital, public bath and soup kitchen) in Divriği, Turkey, AD. COVER İznik Ceramic Tiles, Topkapı Palace İstanbul, Turkey / COPYRIGHT All rights reserved by Ömer Akın, 1505 Shady Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA / LAYOUT DESIGN Ayça Akın, New York, NY / CENTER SPREAD PHOTO Mark Perrott / ISBN NUMBER Contact copyright holder 2 3 TNR2.indd 2 2/20/12 10:15:49 PM

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. The Emblem of the Turkish Nationality Room II. A Brief History of Turkey 1. Origins of Turks 2. The Seljuk Empire 3. The Ottoman Empire 4. The Republic of Turkey III. The Precedents for the Design of the TNR 1. Background 2. A Significant Precedent of the TNR: The Topkapı Palace (Saray) 3. The Yurt and the Başodası 4. Central Architectural Concepts of the TNR 5. Materials used in the Construction of the Başodası IV. The Design of the TNR 1. TNR s Design Concept 2. The Evolution of TNR s Design 3. The Final Design 3.1 Ceramic Panels 3.2 Classroom s Interior Finishes 3.3 Classroom s Mechanical and Lighting Systems 3.4 Seating Design 3.5 Led Glass Windows ll / V. Acknowledgments 1. Committee Organization 2. Financial and Administrative Support VI. Citations 1. In order of appearance 2. Other Readings 3 TNR2.indd 3 2/20/12 10:15:50 PM

4 DEDICATION This book is dedicated to E. Maxine Bruhns, without whose support and guidance, we would not have been able to realize the Turkish Nationality Room project. 2 3 TNR2.indd 2 2/20/12 10:15:50 PM

5 I. The Emblem of the Turkish Nationality Room The emblem of the Turkish Nationality Room (TNR) is the Turkish flag (Türk bayrağı). It has a white crescent moon and five-cornered star in its center, against a red background. It has a variety or references in literature and the national anthem including the red banner (alsancak), moon-star (ayyıldız), and red flag (albayrak). These symbols bear a close resemblance to the Ottoman flag adopted during the reformation period in the late 19th Century (Tanzimat); however the official color and layout of the flag (Figure 1) was adopted in The crescent and star design is not unique to the Turkish flag. Other nationalities that incorporate the crescent and star in their flags include Turkestan, Pakistan, Libya, Tunisia, and North Cyprus. The Turkish flag has been officially adopted on June 5, Like most old flags, there are many legends that describe the history and creation of the Turkish flag and the facts are sometimes hard to substantiate. Even before Turks arrived in Anatolia, there were examples of the star and crescent pattern. In 330 AD, Byzantium Emperor Constantin used this symbol while rededicating Constantinople to Virgin Mary. After the conquest of Constantinople there is a flag design with a crescent on a green base. Subsequently, this was changed to a red base in Finally, the star was added in Figure 1. The Turkish Flag 3 TNR2.indd 3 2/20/12 10:15:50 PM

6 II. A BrieF History of Turkey 2.Origins of Turks Two to three millennia ago Turkic tribes populated only Asian territories. Due to massive migrations over the ensuing period until the middle of the 13th Century, Turks are found in no less than twenty countries of Asia and Europe, in the 21st Century. Their combined population exceeds 180 Million, and includes more than twenty different ethnic branches and tribal entities. The country that is identified with modern Turks is Turkey (Türkiye) that is located in Asia Minor (Anatolia) and Thrace, the furthest South-Eastern corner of Europe (Figure 4). Anatolia has been at the cross-roads of civilizations and was host to 36 empires including Hitites, Phrygians, Lidians, Trojans, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks and the Ottomans. Therefore the ethnicity of today s Turkey is far from the pure Turkic tribes that migrated from Central Asia. During Turks intermarried, exchanged cultural artifacts, and generally coexisted with a variety of ethnic populations in close proximity including Arabs, Persians, Armenians, Georgians, Pashtuns, Kurds, North Africans, Serbs, Bulgarians, Romans, Albanians, Greeks, Macedonians, and Jews, as well as with others that migrated during the course of the last millennium, such as Sephardic Jews and Italians. The Turkish Nationality Room at the University of Pittsburgh represents all Turks, who reside or are immigrants from Turkey and who speak Turkish. 2. The Seljuk Empire A significant chapter of Turkish expansion towards the West from Central Asia took place during the waning years of the First Millennium, A.D., and the first half of the Second Millennium. Seljuk (Selçuk) Turks, descendants of the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz tribe, established themselves in Persia and then in Eastern Anatolia subsequent to their conquest of the Eastern Roman Empire territories, starting with Manzikert (Malaazgrit), in During the next three centuries, Seljuk (Selçuk) Turks, as a relatively new convert to Islam and 4 5 TNR2.indd 4 2/20/12 10:15:50 PM

7 facing the challenge of the Crusades, built an empire called the Great Seljuk (Selçuk) Empire, stitched together from smaller City States of Anatolia. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf (Figure 2). The Seljuq rule gave impetus to the Turkification of Iran. The Seljuqs Turkified Azerbaijan between the 11th century and 12th century. [1] Figure 2. The Great Seljuk Empire ( ) Figure 3. The Ottoman (Osmanlı) Empire ( ) 5 TNR2.indd 5 2/20/12 10:15:50 PM

8 3. The Ottoman Empire The Ottomans also descended from the Oghuz tribe of Central Asian Turks. Starting in the waning years of the 13th Century, they began their conquest of the territories of the declining Seljuk and Eastern Roman Empires. By the beginning of the 16th Century, under the leadership of Sultan Süleyman the Law Giver, the Ottomans realized their furthest expansion into Europe, Africa, and the Near East (Figure 3). After having entered the first World War on the side of the German Reich, in 1914, the Ottomans found themselves fighting a losing war on several fronts. The Allies, having declared the Ottoman Empire as the sick man of Europe, occupied a majority of Ottoman territories and placed economic and regulatory sanctions on the Sultanate. During , the Turkish Republic rose from the ashes of the Ottoman empire due to the grass roots uprising of the peoples of Anatolia led by the founder of Modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. 4. The Republic of Turkey In 1923, Atatürk (Mustafa Kemal) almost single handedly carved Modern Turkey out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire [2]. Turkey evolved into a democratic republic with Eastern traditions and Western sympathies. The first member to join the newly founded NATO, Turkey stood by US defense and economic policies for many decades. A participant in the Korean War and other conflicts serving the interests of the West, Turkey has demonstrated its modern position on the world stage with conviction and confidence. Arnold J. Toynbee, in the Epilogue of his seminal book titled Turkey [3] states: Japan and Turkey claim to offer a practical compromise for practical men, as opposed to North African and Russia s (Kremlin) aggression or India s passivism; a prophecy that is to be realized nearly 90 years later. Recently, Turkey has entered the world s G-20 Economies and has become a serious player in the contemporary issues on the world stage. 6 7 TNR2.indd 6 2/20/12 10:15:51 PM

9 Table 1. Atatürk s Reformations Date Nov 1, 1922 Jul 24, 1923 Oct 29, 1923 Reformation or Passage of Civil Laws Abolition of the office of the Ottoman Sultanate. Abolition of the capitulations with the Treaty of Lausanne Proclamation of the Republic - Republic of Turkey The Weekend Act (Workweek became Monday to Friday) Mar 3, 1924 Mar 3, 1924 Abolition of the office of Caliphate held by the Ottomans The unification of education 1925 Establishment of model farms; Atatürk Orman Çiftliği 1925 The International Time Zone; (Gregorian) Calendar System Nov 25, 1925 Nov 30, 1925 Change of headgear and dress Closure of religious convents and dervish lodges The Obligation Law 1926 The Commercial Law Mar 1, 1926 Oct 4, 1926 May 31, 1927 Jan 1, 1928 Nov 1, 1928 New penal law modeled after the Italian penal code. New civil code modeled after the Swiss civil code. Establishment of the Turkish State Railways Turkish Education Association to support children in financial need and contributions to their educational life. Adoption of the new Turkish alphabet 1931 Turkish Historical Society for research on history Jul 12, 1932 Turkish Language Association to regulate the Turkish language 1933 The System of Measures (International System of Units) May 31, 1933 Dec 1, 1933 Jun 21, 1934 Nov 26, 1934 Dec 5, 1934 Regulation of the university education First Five Year Development Plan (Planned economy) Law on family names. Abolition of titles and by-names. Full political rights to women, to vote and be elected Second Five Year Development Plan (Planned economy) Feb 5, 1937 The inclusion of the principle of laïcité (secularity) in the constitution. 7 TNR2.indd 7 2/20/12 10:15:51 PM

10 Figure 4. Map of Modern Turkey (Türkiye) Simultaneously, owing to her ancient cultural and historical roots, Turkey has ascended to a leadership role in the Near East, Central Asia, and North Africa, where new nations are emerging alongside ancient ones going through significant political, ethnic, economic, and cultural transformations. For most of these nations Modern Turkey, with a 99% Muslim population, and a Western style democracy, is an exemplar and a beacon of hope. Turkey s rise to prominence at such a fast pace is, no doubt, due to Atatürk s visionary and swift reformations of Education, Secularism, Economic Development, Women s Rights, and Religious Insignia, Table 1 lists the 27 reformations, and milestones toward these reformations, that Atatürk enacted. The adoption of the Latin alphabet as the formal Turkish alphabet on November 1, 1928 is commemorated by a photograph that is the basis for one of the ceramic murals in the entrance area of the Turkish Nationality Room (Figure 5). Even though Turkey is primarily Muslim and is identified with the Turkish ethnicity, today Turkey is a melting pot of many religions, ethnicities, and nationalities: Turks, Kurds, Pontians, 8 9 TNR2.indd 8 2/20/12 10:15:52 PM

11 Figure 5. Atatürk s inauguration of the new Turkish (based on the Latin) Aphabet Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians/Syriacs, Azerbaijanis, Chechens, Circassians, Georgians, Lazs, Roma people, Jews, and Greeks. III. Precedents for the Design of the TNR The Turkish Nationality Room (TNR) is located in the area that was formerly occupied by classrooms #339 and #340 of the Cathedral of Learning, overlooking the Commons Room, the principal lobby of the building. The mission of the TNR is to represent the richness of Turkish art and culture through the installation of an interior of historical significance and broadly representative of the many cultures spanning its history. 1. Background Turkish architectural history has an abundance of impressive accomplishments. For centuries, individuals from all over the world and from within Turkey have enjoyed the spectacular sights created by Turkish architects, engineers, and urbanists. These include not only the masterpieces by state architects like Mimar Sinan but also the anonymous works of masterbuilders who have built houses and neighborhoods using particularly Turkish conceptions of space. It has been argued 9 TNR2.indd 9 2/20/12 10:15:52 PM

12 that this concept goes back to the early nomadic tent and adobe structures built in Central Asia, for millennia [4]. However, in Turkish architecture, the classroom, the school, or the campus of educational buildings is a relatively recent phenomenon. At the very inception of the first places intended for learning, we find the Muslim medrese of the 8th Century and, a century later, its equivalent in the Christian world, in monasteries of the Carolingian Empire. While these settings were unequivocally religious, the specific places for learning were regarded as secular since their patrons considered them so. In these structures, resided the libraries, which served as classrooms, and scribes and scholars, who engaged in the encoding and dissemination of knowledge [5]. During the early medieval times, the critical factor for an academic function was the collection of information in one location, typically under the patronage of royalty. The physical facilities consisted of individual rooms or buildings either in public complexes or in private mansions and houses. There is precedence both in the traditions of the East and the West to consider these houses as the origins of the classroom. Advancement in the facilities of academic institutions came about during the period of European urbanization, namely the 12th and 13th Centuries, paralleling other institutional advancements. The first organized instruction of the kind we find in today s universities took place in international, democratic settings. These institutions did not have physical campuses but enjoyed a lively, youthful, urban existence in rented and borrowed residences. This enabled the integration of the educational institution with urban life and freedom from facility caretaker-ship. Public halls accommodated large lectures; rented halls or hostels were run under the dictum of Masters; and students lodged with town s folk [5]. In later forms of the university, for example the University of İstanbul, circa 17th Century, constructed buildings with the express purpose of supporting education in the public realm. Today s classroom designs are direct descendants of these TNR2.indd 10 2/20/12 10:15:52 PM

13 rooms used in elementary, secondary and higher education institutions around the globe. This brief look at the history of the classroom suggests two important considerations: The genesis of the classroom that represents formal educational practices in Turkish history includes the medrese as well as the university classroom. The secular house, while it is a less formal representative of the education function, is one of the authentic precedents for the Turkish place of learning. Based on these, we consider the başodası (the principal room) and the sofa (the vestibule), both examples of the public rooms of the Turkish house, to provide the most legitimate models for fashioning the Turkish Nationality Room. In fact, this approach embellished with a rich tapestry of artifacts representing Turkish customs and lifestyle represents many more dimensions of the Turkish heritage than do the medrese or the university classroom ever could. As opposed to the stark and plain interiors of the medrese or the university classroom, the başodası can be compelling and memorable for those unfamiliar with Turks and Turkish architecture. 2. A Significant Precedent of the TNR: The Topkapı Palace (Saray) The design of the TNR represents the best that the Turkish heritage has to offer. Toward this end, this design is based on the time-tested and culturally meaningful başodası (the principal room) of the Turkish house. This room type and its underlying concept is equally well situated in examples found in Topkapı, the sultan s palace in historic İstanbul, as well as those in Anatolia, Arabia, North Africa, and Eastern Europe (Figure 6). The design of the TNR borrows from all of these examples creating an amalgam of regional color in a synthesis that represents the timeless and placeless başodası (Table 2). 11 TNR2.indd 11 2/20/12 10:15:52 PM

14 Figure 6. Examples of the başodası, from Anatolia (left) and from the Saray (right) Table 2. Examples of the Başodası, Turkish House [6-7] The Turkish House in the Balkans 1 Serbia 2 Bosnia-Herzegovina 3 Macedonia 4 Montenegro 5 Athens 6 Tessalia, Tempe and Vistica Valleys 7 Edirne and Western Thrace Anatolian Region The Black Sea Shore Hinterland Region: Black Sea Coastal Houses, Rize Houses, Northern Anatolia Houses The İstanbul and Marmara Region: The House of the İstanbul and Marmara Regions The Aegean Hinterland Region: The House of the Aegean and West Anatolia Regions, Aegean Shore and Island Houses The Mediterranean Region: The Mediterranean House, The Rhodes House, The Alanya House 5 The Central Anatolia Region: The Ankara House, The Central Anatolia Adobe House, The Kayseri House 6 The Eastern Anatolia Region: The Eastern Anatolia House 7 The South-East Anatolia House: The Diyarbakır House Imperial Examples (representative and visually rich) 1 Palatial Rooms: Şehzadeler Mektebi, Topkapı Palace, Sultan Murad House in Muradiye Bursa 2 Kiosks: Köprülü Hüseyin Paşa Yalısı (recommended by Deniz Esemenli) 3 Enderun Library (recommended by Deniz Esemenli) TNR2.indd 12 2/20/12 10:15:52 PM

15 3. The Yurt and the Başodası Turks, prior to their Uighur Empire period (6th-9th Centuries, A.D.) were primarily nomads. Their portable domicile, the Yurt, was packed on horseback. The Yurt is constructed of wooden sticks for the frame and kilims, rugs, and felt for cladding and weather protection. (Figure 6). In making a transition from this nomadic form of life to one based on permanent settlements, ancient Turks transformed the Yurt into the Başodası [4], and the stick structure into Çıtakâri and Kündekâri craft. At once this achieved a mapping between topological concepts (the mesh made of sticks to tongueand-groove interlocking of wood pieces) as well as between material entities (from a collapsible framework into large solid wood planks). Figure 7. A Yurt s frame and cover (left) and modern day Yurt s interior (right) 4. Central Architectural Concepts of the Turkish TNR The Turkish Nationality Room (TNR) employs the Kündekâri and Çıtakâri techniques as part of its interior design: in its cupboard doors, main entrance, ceiling and other wall paneling. The rationale for this decision rests on two important conditions: (1) The Nationality Rooms and Intercultural Exchange Programs of the University of Pittsburgh mandate that all nationality room installations be designed to depict conditions that predate 1787; and (2) Kündekâri and Çıtakâri are two of the most exquisite features of historical Turkish interiors that not only date far back into the Turkish artistic milieu but also symbolize its transformation from a nomadic form into a stationary (permanent) one. 13 TNR2.indd 13 2/20/12 10:15:53 PM

16 14 15 TNR2.indd 14 2/20/12 10:15:53 PM

17 15 TNR2.indd 15 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

18 The Kündekâri technique complements the overall design of the TNR that is based on the başodası room-type. The başodası, meaning the main room, is an ever-present roomtype found in Safranbolu, and the Topkapı Palace in İstanbul [4], among other historical sites in Anatolia. Most if not all of these edifices are amply adorned with Kündekâri and Çıtakâri carpentry works. 5. Materials used in the Construction of the Başodası The overall ambiance of the başodası is the synthesis resulting from the figurative and literal intersection of the two zoning divisions (the vertical and the horizontal), in threedimensional space. Figure 8. 1) Ceiling treatment. (2) Interlocking wood doors. (3) Decorative fireplace and (4) Niches for light fixtures, also used as shelf space TNR2.indd 16 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

19 The specific features that reinforce and embellish this configuration include: entry, fireplace, window, cupboards, seating, ceiling cladding, lighting, and equipment placement. Ceilings are almost always made of wood laminates Kündekâri, Çıtakâri or their combination in intricate patterns to emphasize concentric or otherwise centralized layouts (Figure 8.1). The entry door is usually constructed from wood laminates that create intricate, interlocking patterns (Figure 8.2). Windows are made of wood and glazed with small panes separated by orthogonally situated mullions (Figure 8.2). Depending on the room s opulence, the fireplace (Figure 8.3) can be hooded with a variety of materials including wood, ceramic tile, marble and lacquered wood. Cupboards are made out of wood, occasionally inlaid with mother-of-pearl, alabaster, or other wood species, once again signifying wealth. Most Anatolian examples are modest and at best adorned by wood grain or painted patterns, (Figures 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4). Seating (divan) is cushy owing to the fact that mattresses constitute their foundation. It is loosely upholstered with kilims and carpets of local color. They completely surround the room. Floors are tiled with wood, ceramic or marble. In the case of reception rooms in palatial settings, the flooring is exposed (no carpets) due to centrally located fountains or pools. In more modest examples, rugs cover the flooring that are made of low-grade wood. Lighting is portable, mostly oil lamps. 20th Century conversions have found a suitable composition by placing the hanging fixture or the chandelier in the center of the traditional ceiling pattern. Otherwise lamps were located in niches created in the wall cavity and situated in close proximity to seating. These niches, also used to keep books, head gear and other household items out of the way, almost always have the shape of parted drapery (Figure 8.4). 17 TNR2.indd 17 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

20 IV. The Design of the TNR 1. TNR s Design Concept The Turkish House is a formal building type that has been studied by prominent Turkish architects and scholars. Sedat Hakkı Eldem, the father of traditional Turkish architecture and preeminent architectural historian, wrote the definitive text on the Turkish House [7]. A more concise and popularized version of the material can be found in Önder Küçükerman s book of the same title [4]. Several excellent texts have also been published on houses of Safranbolu [8], Kastamonu [9], and Kayseri [10]. These sources provide material that has helped incorporate within Turkish Nationality Room s conceptual design authentic historical typologies, predating 1780s, as required by Pitt s Nationality Rooms. The başodası is the universal room in the traditional Turkish house. It is based on seating/bedding arrangement (sedir) surrounding the central space which is left open to enable eating and the social (inter-personal) functions. The floor is covered with carpets centered with decorative wood paneling on the ceiling. This is where the family gathers around the metal-tray table (sini) for dinner. The room is also furnished with a hearth and bay windows (cumba) a precursor of the cell-phone, refrigerator, and the air conditioner. By virtue of the projection of the window into the street-space one can communicate with neighbors or the kids playing in the street; catch the breeze to cool the interior space; and drinking water in an earthen jug (testi) placed on the sill. The başodası is spatially structured for privacy. The main seating areas are shielded from the entrance by the orientation of the doorway and use of short partitions or cupboards. The peripheral seating allows interactions based on very different types of foci: single, in-the round, and distributed (Auerbach, 2005). This feature coupled with the privacy aspect makes the başodası an ideal candidate to be TNR2.indd 18 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

21 adapted to the contemporary classroom function. Vertically, the başodası is organized in three layers: seating, cupboards-windows, and the crown-zone which usually accommodates windows for deeper daylight penetration. Seating is low to the ground enabling easy reach for the functions that take place on the floor. It is continuous to enable ease of conversion into beds for sleeping at night. Cupboards accommodate household items and bedding, which is another feature for easy adaptation to the storage space for classroom accessories and equipment. There are innumerable precedents for this house type. Initially we searched as many examples as we could find from the list of possibilities (Table 2). 2. The Evolution of TNR s Design On September 18, 2001, Dr. Deniz Esemenli, curator at the Topkapı Palace submitted a report, describing important cases from the royal Ottoman court. In this report, Dr. Esemenli stated that the Enderun Library built by Sultan Ahmet III provides one of the more mature examples of classical Turkish educational complexes. It features the domed central hall with flanking eyvans (vaulted entrance arches) of the classical medrese type, embellished with the early Ottoman tile work and without the intrusion of decorative Baroque elements, common in later Ottoman architecture. Further, the bay window of the space allocated for this project seemed to be well suited for the irregular plan of the Enderun Library of the Topkapı Palace. We considered these examples as prototypes for the design of the Turkish Nationality Room and developed the initial concept design for the TNR based on the Enderun Library (design by Ömer Akın and illustration by Yunus Altay). This design helped highlight some of the critical problems to be solved by the final design, such as the location of the projection screen, provision of uninhibited sight lines, and creation of a contemporary, Turkish space without appearing Disney-esque. 19 TNR2.indd 19 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

22 The design process continued with the participation of the members of the TNR committee. Based on these early experiences with the issues surrounding the design of the TNR, the committee moved onto organizing and implementing an international competition. The competition was announced to dozens of leading architectural firms in Turkey and elsewhere. Six entries were received on March 31, The winners, Affan Yatman, Nesrin Yatman, Yıldırım Yavuz, were invited to Pittsburgh to review the project conditions and develop a conceptual design and report of justification within six months. After the submissions of the Turkish team were reviewed by the TNR committee, Ömer Akın was designated as the Architect of Record in the USA. He started work on the construction details of the project with the assistance of Walter Boykowycz, the designer of the Ukrainian Nationality Room. 3. The Final Design Based on these early, conceptual designs, the goal of the final design of the Turkish Room was set as finding the right expression, proportions, and aesthetic values for making an installation that not only has the features described above but also embodies the indelible spirit of the Turks. It should convey the history and depth of the Turkish culture and transport them into the 21st century. The room should be equipped with advanced information technology and audiovisual equipment concealed in such a way not to take away from the overall ambiance. The basic anatomy of the başodası was best understood by way of two zoning strategies: horizontal and vertical. The horizontal zoning differentiates layers of privacy. Starting from the outside, the most public zone, one has to go through several thresholds that increase the level of privacy: the door, the vestibule-gallery, and the main classroom proper. The vestibule-gallery is separated from the classroom by a partition made up of post and beam frames. This space is conceived as a gallery that succinctly displays the TNR2.indd 20 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

23 millennia-long succession of Turkish cultures: Uighurs (9th Century AD), through to the Ottomans (17th Century AD) and finally the Turks (20th Century AD). Vertical zoning differentiates layers of use. While seated on the sedir (a continuous built in furnishing for seating) the occupant s focus will be either at the center of the room or the wall with the podium. All other furnishings will be organized along the walls behind the seats within arm s reach of the seated occupants. This is the lowest horizontal tier. The only exception to this is the podium which is a freestanding piece of furnishing situated in the open space of the classroom, near the chalkboard. The podium is designed based on the idea of the rahle (a book stand commonly used by the Ottomans). The next tier is the display cupboards and the windows. The display cases contain artifacts that are of antique value or symbolic significance for the TNR. The windows provide ambient lighting during the day and help orient the room towards the outside. The top layer of the room is for creating a sense of spaciousness, airiness, and lightness. High ceilings enable the hot air to rise during the summer keeping the lower tiers cooler. The plastered and whitewashed upper walls constitute the reflective surfaces for the peripheral, artificial, light trays. These fixtures provide more than just ambient lighting when the sun is down. They also illuminate writing surfaces which are directly below. 3.1 Ceramic Panels 21 There are four ceramic panels adorning the vestibule-gallery space (Figure 10.1). These panels created by Özgür Yıdız of Nuans Seramik Atölyesi, are painted onto clay tiles before being kilned and shipped to the United States. The panels represent several key stages in the evolution of Turkey, each published in a historical source depicting art works or significant events. The Uighur Princesses, published in Along the Ancient Silk Routes, Bezelik Temple 9, circa 9th Century, show the important role of women in early Turkic cultures. Two merchants in conversation by Mehmet Siyahkalem, TNR2.indd 21 2/20/12 10:15:54 PM

24 14th Century, signifies the invention of perspective in drawings prior to the Renaissance. In this miniature in Süleymanname, 16th Century, Sultan Süleyman (The Magnificent) is depicted at the circumsicion ceremony of Beyazit and Cihangir. And the Turkish Nation is instructed by Atatürk the on the Latin alphabet adopted in 1928 as its legal script. Figure 10. Final design by Ömer Akın and the TNRC: (1) gallery space (top left), (2) classroom space (top right), (3) seating detail (bottom left and middle), and (4) view of the gallery from the classroom (bottom right). The architectural treatment of the gallery space is sterile like a museum space and well lit like an outdoor sofa. The entrance to the classroom mimics the traditional separation of the başodası from the sofa (seki, a low step) without violating the requirements of the Americans for Disabilities Act. 3.2 Classroom s Interior Finishes A key feature of the TNR design is the separation of the inner sanctum of the room from external spaces by means of an entry vestibule. Like the sofa of the Turkish House, this vestibule mediates the outdoors and the interiors, between private and public areas. In this gallery-vestibule space of the TNR, millennia of Turkish history spanning the works of the Uighurs, Seljuks, Ottomans, and Modern Turkey are exhibited. The inner room of the TNR is not only the synthesis of classical arts and crafts but serves as a functional classroom TNR2.indd 22 2/20/12 10:15:57 PM

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