Lessons and Insights from

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1 Lessons and Insights from Germany Workshop Strategies to Acchieve Pro-Poor Growth in Brazil, China, India and Europe Dr. Rita Nikolai, Junior Research Group Education and Transitions into the Labour Market December, 11th 2009

2 OUTLINE Institutional Setting of the German Education System Germanys Education System Compared to other EU- Countries (the Lisbon Benchmarks) Primary Education in Germany Compared to other OECD-Countries Main Challenges for Primary Education Policies in Germany 2

3 1. Institutional Setting of the German Education System 3

4 Percentage of decisions taken at each level of government in public lower secondary education (2007) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Source: (OECD, 2008: 488) Netherlands England New Zealand Belgium (Fl.) Hungary Czech Republic Korea Sweden Italy Australia Portugal Denmark Iceland France Spain Norway Luxembourg Germany Scotland Austria Finland Japan Mexico Central State or provincial/regional level authorities or governments sub-regional or local authorities or governments School 4

5 Actors in the Education System (2009) International Level European Union OECD United Nations Federal Level Federal Government BMBF BMF BMWi BMAS Union for Education and Sciences (GEW) Level of Advisory and Coordinating Boards Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs Conference (KMK) Bundestag Federal-Provincial Joint Science Conference (GWK) Bundesrat Advisory Bodies Sciences Council German Education Council Special Interest Groups Association of German Philologists Bavarian Teachers Association Level of Provinces ( Laender ) Level of Communities Provincial ( Laender ) Governments and Parlaments Communities United Unions for Service Industries (Ver.di) Level of Educational Institutions Kindergarden Primary Schools etc. 5

6 A Rag Rug of Structures in the German Laender Baden-Württemberg Thüringen Nordrhein-Westfalen Source: GEW (2008): Start! Zeitung für junge Lehrkräfte, 4. 6

7 1. Germanys Education System Compared to other EU-Countries (the Lisbon Benchmarks) 7

8 Percentage of students below proficiency level II in reading comprehension (PISA 2000, 2003, and 2006) Lissabon-Benchmark 15,5% 8 Bulgaria Slovak Republic Greece Italy Lithuania Spain Portugal Czech Republic Luxembourg France Austria Latvia Hungary Germany Belgium United Kingdom Slovenia Poland Denmark Sweden Netherlands Estonia Ireland Finland Source: OECD Romania

9 EU share of 18- to 24-year-olds with only lower-secondary education and not in education or training, 2000, 2003, and Lissabon-Benchmark 10% 0 9 Malta Portugal Spanien Italien Rumänien Bulgarien Lettland Luxemburg Griechenland Estland Vereinigtes Königreich Deutschland Frankreich Zypern Dänemark Belgien Niederlande Schweden Irland Ungarn Österreich Litauen Finnland Slowakei Tschechische Republik Polen Slowenien Source: OECD 2007.

10 Percentage of EU 25- to 64-year-olds participating in life-long education and training four weeks prior to the survey, 2000, 2003, and Lissabon-Benchmark 12,5% 5 0 Schweden Dänemark Großbritannien Finnland Niederlande Slowenien Österreich Spanien Luxemburg Irland Deutschland Frankreich Belgien Zypern Lettland Estland Italien Tschechische Republik Malta Litauen Polen Slowakische Republik Portugal Ungarn Griechenland Rumänien Bulgarien EU-15mean Source: EUROSTAT

11 Correlation between competencies and certificates Percentage of People Aged Years not Having Completed Upper Secondary Education (2006) Benchmark 1 Benchmark 3 Benchmark Percentage of Students Aged 15 Years below Competency Level II in Literacy (PISA 2000)

12 2. Primary Education in Germany Compared to other OECD-Countries 12

13 Percentage of Primary School Students at the Competence Levels in Reading - International Comparison 100% 90% 6,9 5,3 9,8 15,4 11,2 10,8 13,6 80% 70% 60% 50% 66, , , ,2 Competence Level 5 40% Competence Level % Competence Level % 10% 26,9 23,7 23,4 21,5 14,9 13,2 13,2 0% Source: IGLU Poland France Scotland England Denmark Germany Italy 13

14 Reading Competence by Social Background: Explained Variance; in Percent, IGLU % 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% France Germany Poland Scotland England Russia Iceland Denmark Italy Hongkong Source: IGLU Note: social background: number of books, social stratum, educational attainment 14

15 Educational Filter in Germany Children of Academics Children of Non-Academics 100 Children 100 Children 88 Children Highschool Level 46 Children University 83 Children 23 Children Level Source: 18. Sozialerhebung des Deutschen Studentenwerkes 15

16 3. Main Challenges for Primary Education Policies in Germany 16

17 Returns to Education by Education Expenditures and Educational Levels Children from low socioeconomic background Source: Wößmann

18 Childcare Quota for Children (0-3 Years) in German Communities by 15/03/2008 Source: Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder, Kindertagesbetreuung regional

19 Childcare Quota for Children (3-6 Years) in German Communities by 15/03/2008 Source: Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder, Kindertagesbetreuung regional

20 Bremen Hamburg 40,9 41,6 Population under 25 Years of Age in 2005 with Migration Background, in Percent 45 35,7 19,2 24,8 25,5 26,3 27,2 29,2 33,4 34,5 35, ,1 6,2 6,7 8,1 8, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Sachsen-Anhalt Thüringen Sachsen Brandenburg Schleswig-Holstein Niedersachsen Bayern Rheinland-Pfalz Deutschland Saarland Baden-Württemberg Nordrhein-Westfalen Hessen Berlin Source: Konsortium Bildungsberichterstattung 2006.

21 Type of School Expenses per Student/ per Year (Germany) Primary School ( Grundschule ) Secondary General School ( Hauptschule ) School with several Courses of Education Secondary School ( Realschule ) Grammar School ( Gymnasium ) Integrated Comprehensive School ( Integrierte Gesamtschule ) Special School ( Förderschule ) General Education Schools (altogether) Vocational Schools (altogether) Vocational Schools (fultime) Vocational Schools in Dual System of VET Schools (altogether) Source: Klemm

22 Precaution instead of Repair Primary Educat. Secondary I Secondary II Tertiary Kindergarden Primary School Grammar School/ Gymnasium University Secondary School/ Realschule Secondary General School/ Hauptschule Integrated Comprehensive School/ Gesamtschule FOS VET Univ. of Applied Sciences/ FH Professional School/Fachschule Schools for Health Services Precaution and Provisions necessary! PISA VET-Preparation &Training 22

23 Thanks for your Attention! 23

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50.

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50. Overall Results Climate Change Performance Index 2012 Table 1 Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 1* Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 21 - Egypt***

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