The German BK network: An overview in pictures. Munich, June 2005

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1 The German BK network: An overview in pictures Munich, June 2005

2 The main elements of a typical German CATV network Most of the network elements are located in the network level 3 master head-end ( BKVtSt ) head-end ( übk ) hub ( bbk ) street amplifier ( VrP ) home connect. point ( HÜP ) In-house network 1 / metropolitain area or per several cities Content is received from satellite TV signal is formed and distributed to head-ends 1 / city Local channels are added Amplifies and distributes signal to hubs 1 / part of city or per town Amplifies and distributes signal into coax distribution network (main streets) Amplifies signal approx. every 320m 1 / home Approx. 8 million HÜPs in Germany End of level 3 network Start of level 4 inhouse network Coax distribution network inside houses Approx. 27million households that are reachable by cable networks Satellite * Amplifier Up-link radio station TV-Studio TV-tower + master head-end head-end ( übk ) Coax- or fibre network (Vk-Netz) Hub ( bbk ) Coax line network (A-, B-, C- und D- Lines) Home connection point (HÜP) Network level 1 (TV studios) Network level 2 (Regional distribution network) Network level 3 (Local distribution network, approx. 500,000 km of coax cable) Network level 4 (In-House network) *Radio links are currently being replaced by optical fiber connections Seite 1

3 In a coax cable, frequencies between 5MHz and approx. 1000MHz (=1GHz) can be transmitted Currently, in a standard, non-upgraded network, TV and radio signals are being broadcasted between 47MHz and 470MHz in the framework of the PAL standard The spectrum is organized in bands, like SU (special lower band), SO (special upper band) or the hyperband In order to extend the spectrum beyond the standard limit of 470MHz, the network has to be upgraded: - To extend the spectrum until 606MHz, an exchchange of street amplifiers has to be performed - To extend the spectrum until 862MHz, some of passive splitters and buried taps have to be exchanged To enable interactivity (e.g. high speed internet, telephony), amplifiers modules for two-way transmission of signals have to be added, i.e. street amplifiers cabinets have to be modified Down stream 5 10 Up stream A Bd 65 I D A A A FM SU Bd III SO Radio A D A/D D Hyperband Band IV Currently used spectrum (in non-upgraded networks) A Analog channels (PAL) D Band V f [MHz] 862 Only if network upgraded Netw ork monitoring/management D Digital channels (QAM) (Upgraded part: data / Digital TV) Seite 2

4 Frequency spectrum and channel allocation Frequency spectrum of CATV signal Channel allocation of CATV signal (Example: Munich) Band Kanal Frequ. [MHz] A / D Beispiel Kanalbelegung München 11/2004 Every TV channel is 7MHz and 8MHz wide, respectively*. An analogue TV channel transmits one PAL program. A digital TV channel transmits 8-12 digital programs ( streams ) A D A A A FM Bd 65 I SU Bd III SO Radio Band I-II Band I-II K Analog (PAL) NEUN LIVE K Analog (PAL) TV 5 (franz.) K Analog (PAL) TRT-Intern. (türk.) UKW UKW UKW Radiokanäle SU / USB Unteres Sonderband S Digital TV Kabel Digital Program of Kabel Deutschland S Digital TV Kabel Digital Program of Kabel Deutschland S Analog (PAL) ORF 2 - Salzburg S Analog (PAL) TELE 5 S Analog (PAL) AFK Ferns. München / AG Behinderte /cityinfo tv S Analog (PAL) TV München S Analog (PAL) RTL 2 S Analog (PAL) Home Shopping Europe S Analog (PAL) Bayern Journal / RTL Band III Band III K Analog (PAL) ARD (BR) K Analog (PAL) Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen K Analog (PAL) ProSieben K Analog (PAL) Bayern Journal / SAT.1 K Analog (PAL) KABEL 1 K Analog (PAL) Kinderkanal / MTV2 -The Pop Channel K Analog (PAL) DSF (dt. Sportfernsehen) K Analog (PAL) n-tv SO / OSB Oberes Sonderband S Analog (PAL) MTV CENTRAL S Analog (PAL) VOX S Analog (PAL) Bay. Fernsehen - Altbayern+Schwaben S Analog (PAL) EUROSPORT / VIVA PLUS S Analog (PAL) VIVA S Analog (PAL) 3sat S Analog (PAL) WDR FERNSEHEN S Analog (PAL) Super RTL S Analog (PAL) Phoenix S Analog (PAL) euronews Analogue Digital Hyperband A D f [MHz] Hyperband Hyperband S Digital (*) BR-alpha S Digital (*) NDR Nordmagazin S Digital (*) CNN Intern. (engl.) S Digital (*) N24 S Digital (*) NBC (engl.) / arte S Digital Kabel Digital Program of Kabel Deutschland S Digital Premiere 1 S Digital Premiere 2 S Digital Premiere 3 S Digital Premiere 4 S Digital Premiere 5 S Digital ZDF.v ision S Digital International (Nutzung durch NE3) S Digital ARD digital S Digital (*) HOT / QVC S Digital ARD digital S Digital International (Nutzung durch NE3) S Digital Kabel Digital Program of Kabel Deutschland S Digital frei S Digital frei S Digital Kabel Digital Program of Kabel Deutschland * Currently used for transmission of analogue channels * 7 MHz: MHz; 8MHz: above 300MHz Source: KDG, Solon Seite 3

5 The master head-end at the Munich TV tower The master head-end on the TV Tower, 155m above ground: Satellite antennas receiving the signals Cables from antennas to the equipment of the master head-end The master head-end: processing the signals and packaging them Cable to amplifier node Amplifier node Verteiler station ( bbk ) Verstärker Koaxialkabelnetz (A -, B -, C - und D - Linien) Coax line The head-end in the basement of the TV tower Amplification of signals, Cables to hubs, leaving the head-end Cable to DIAMANT system in the tower (leaving to other, more distant hubs) Seite 4

6 Satellite antennas receive the TV signals Verstärker Location: master head-end (TV tower) Verteiler station ( bbk ) Koaxialkabelnetz (A -, B -, C - und D - Linien) Demodulation into TVchannels Forming the final* signal by multiplexing the channels Amplifiying and transmitting to the head-end Signals ( SAT-ZF ) * Except some local TV channels that are added later (at local head-end) Seite 5

7 The head-end ( übk ) serves an entire city Incoming coax-cable (from master head-end at roof/platform of TV tower) Verteiler station ( bbk ) Verstärker Koaxialkabelnetz (A -, B -, C - und D - Linien) Outgoing cables to hubs (coax cables and optical fibre lines) Seite 6

8 The hub serves parts of a city Incoming cables from head-end Outgoing cables, following down the streets Seite 7

9 Cables leaving the hub to follow down the streets Hub Cables inside hub facility Duct entry on pavement Duct with cables Seite 8

10 An amplifier street cabinet: The signal in coax cables has to be amplified approx. every 300m Inside a cabinet: metal box. with amplifier modules Incoming signal Outgoing signal Seite 9

11 A typical in-house (NE4) network serving 12 appartments NE3 NE4 1 Home connection point ( HÜP ) NE4 in-house network 2 3 Amplifier Splitter Cables to appartments (in-house wiring, here: star topology) 2 3 Number and type of modules depends on characteristics of in-house network Equipment of different suppliers is being used 1 Cable from street Seite 10

12 Annotations This information intends to provide an overview of the structure of a typical German BK network and its elements Some of the complex infrastructure and network technology is illustrated in a simplified way Pictures in this document are examples for typical configurations The document is based on various data sources. The pictures show typical network elements of a German level 3 network During recent months, networks have partly been optimized with respect to the structure of the network level 2. The general structure shown in this document however still remains unchanged Seite 11

13 Contact Dr. Philipp Geiger Solon Management Consulting GmbH & Co. KG Residenzstraße Munich Germany Tel Fax Mail: Web: Seite 12

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