Calf nutrition and health management: Setting the course for future reproductive performance

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Calf nutrition and health management: Setting the course for future reproductive performance"

Transcription

1 Calf nutrition and health management: Setting the course for future reproductive performance Dr. Ken Leslie Visiting Scientist, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada Proceedings of the Virginia Area Dairy Conferences January 2010 Introduction The cost of rearing replacement heifers is the second largest operating expense on dairy farms. The direct costs of treatment and prevention of disease can be a significant contributor to these costs, and have been estimated at ~US $15 per calf per year for milk fed calves (Kaneene and Hurd, 1990; Miller and Dorn, 1990). Perhaps the most significant and underestimated cost of disease is the long term effects on the health and growth of calves and heifers. Some of the impacts of disease in young calves include decreased growth (Donovan et al., 1998), delayed time to first calving (Correa et al., 1988; Warnick et al., 1994) and increased risk of calving difficulty (Warnick et al., 1994). Studies have also shown that calves treated for respiratory disease (BRD) before 3 months of age are 2.5 times more likely to die after 90 days of age than calves not treated for BRD (Waltner Toews et al., 1986). The extensive economic and welfare costs associated with calf disease are daunting. However, it should be possible to manage and minimize these costs. Implementation of some straightforward preventive measures, as well as early identification of sick animals, can reduce the rate of illness and the number of treatments necessary. Both approaches will reduce the treatment costs and the length of time calves are suffering from respiratory disease (McGuirk, 2008). The long term effects of these diseases should be closely monitored. An easy system for long term monitoring of health and recovery from illness is to chart growth to identify calves with poor performance. This paper and presentation will cover four main areas of calf and heifer management that are integral in the prevention of calf disease, as well as the improvement of growth and performance. It is clear that these factors can have a very positive impact on heifer reproductive performance, and subsequently production, health, and reproduction as lactating animals. These four areas of management are: Colostrum Management Housing Systems Feeding Programs Weaning Strategies

2 Colostrum Management Colostrum management is considered the most important factor associated with the well being of a newborn calf. Studies have identified both short term (Robison et al., 1988) and long term (DeNise et al., 1989) benefits to providing neonatal calves with adequate amounts of high quality colostrum. These benefits include decreased illness and death, as well as increased milk production and growth. Colostrum quality, defined as the concentration of antibodies present in colostrum, is affected by age of cow, breed and season of calving (Donovan et al., 1986). It is useful to measure the antibody content of colostrum to ensure high quality colostrum is being fed to dairy calves. Colostrum quality can be evaluated prior to feeding by hydrometry, refractometry or laboratory methods. Hydrometry using a colostrometer is the most common method currently used. According to a US survey in 2007, 43.7% of US dairy operations have used a colostrometer to measure the immunoglobulin (IgG) content of colostrum. It is a fast, easy method for use on farm. However, the colostrometer has issues related to the fragility of the instrument and is subject to errors associated with the temperature of colostrum. Recently, a new digital BRIX refractometer has been found to be useful on farm. This method requires a small amount of colostrum for testing, is not temperature sensitive, and is more user friendly and reliable. Some important points involving the quality of colostrum, the quantity fed, the quickness it is delivered, the cleanliness maintained and some other factors are shown below, including a specific checklist of items to watch: QUALITY : Only feed non mastitic colostrum that is not visibly watery, discoloured or bloody. Avoid feeding colostrum (and milk) from Johne s positive or suspect cows. The relationship between IgG conc and volume of colostrum is unpredictable. Vaccination of cows 3 6 wks prior to calving increases passive transfer of antibodies. Cows with a dry period <21 days may have significantly lower IgG concentrations. Quality decreases quickly after calving. Collection should occur within 1 to 2 hours, max of 6 hrs. QUANTITY: 4 quarts (10 12% of body weight), by esophageal feeder if necessary. Feed at least 2 quarts more of colostrum within the next 12 20hrs, resulting in 6 quarts within 24hrs of birth. Allowing calves to suckle the cow has been shown to result in inadequate volumes being consumed. QUICKNESS: Within 4 hours of birth, max of 6 hrs. (Remember: 4 quarts in 4hrs)

3 A calf s ability to absorb colostrum declines quickly after 6hrs and is accelerated by the consumption of even small volumes, and by bacterial contamination. Feeding a small volume early will actually reduce later absorption. CLEANLINESS: Bacterial contamination commonly reduces passive transfer of IgG. To avoid contaminated colostrum, properly prep the udder, don t pool raw colostrum and discard colostrum from mastitis infected cows. Most colostrum contamination occurs after it leaves the cow. So, properly sanitize all milking, storage & feeding equipment. Replace worn or damaged equipment (e.g. esophageal feeders). Colostrum should be fed right away, or refrigerated/frozen within 1hr. Unpasteurized colostrum should only be stored for 2 days in a refrigerator. Frozen colostrum can be kept for 1 year. Other: ALL calves should be removed from the cow within 1 2hrs to prevent the first meal being manure. If commercial colostrum replacement is used because of short supply or disease management, be sure it provides g IgG (usually packages) and a nutritional source of protein & energy. Checklist for Colostrum Management Collect colostrum within 1 2 hours after calving. Clean and prep the cow s udder. Sanitize all milking, storage & feeding equipment. Feed 4 Quarts of colostrum in 4 hours (by esophageal feeder if necessary). Feed at least 2 quarts more colostrum within 12 20hrs. Don t feed colostrum that is visibly mastitic, discoloured, watery, or bloody. Avoid feeding colostrum (and milk) from Johne s positive or suspect cows. Remove calves from the maternity pen within 1 2 hours of birth Housing Systems Dairy producers are generally willing to take the necessary steps to prevent disease through management changes. However, there is a general lack of guidelines and direction for the appropriate changes to be made. The importance of minimizing stress in order to prevent immune suppression is clear, but the practical methods to achieve this goal are not obvious. Certainly, the use of calf hutches, super hutches, and properly ventilated calf barns has been greatly helpful. Yet, transitioning calves from being milkfed to weaned heifers remains a formidable challenge. Some dairy producers are attempting to minimize post weaning stress by removing dividers between individual

4 stalls in nursery barns to form groups prior to movement to the heifer rearing barn. From economic and labor standpoints, most nursery barns are not designed to house weaned calves for extended periods of time. Thus, in order to adopt this practice, producers have to make important decisions with limited information. Currently, the benefits of grouping calves in the nursery 1 week prior to movement to a new facility are being investigated. However, this is only the first step towards creating practical guidelines for producers. Factors such as the effective group size and the timing as to when calves should be grouped are unknown. Of equal importance is identifying simple indicators for detecting calves that fail to adapt to their new environments, and are at risk for the development of disease. Some important points involving housing and management factors are shown below, including a specific checklist of items to watch: In cold weather, provide ample straw bedding so calves can nest deeply (i.e. legs hidden when lying). Always provide enough bedding so that calves are clean and dry. You should be able to kneel in the pen without your knees getting wet. Calves don t make enough heat for negative pressure ventilation systems (i.e. naturally ventilated). If air quality is a problem in your calf barn, consider a positivepressure system (e.g. fans & tube ducts). Checklist for Housing Systems Keep calf pens clean and dry. In cold weather, bed calves with enough straw for them to nest deeply. Feeding Programs Historically, conventional milk feeding to dairy calves has provided 10% of body weight of whole milk or milk replacer, usually distributed over two meals per day, fed either by bottle or bucket. However, it is clear that calves will consume milk at greater than 20% of their body weight, if given free access to milk. Research on such systems has shown greatly increased body weight (Appleby et al., 2001; Jasper and Weary, 2002; Khan et al., 2007), and reduced behavioural signs of hunger (De Paula, Vieira et al., 2008; Borderas et al., 2009). Furthermore, these studies have produced no negative health impacts, and perhaps even health benefits (Appleby et al., 2001; Khan et al., 2007; Borderas et al., 2009). However, until recently, the only system for safely providing freeaccess to milk replacer has been through the use of automated calf feeders, that mix the replacer on demand by the calf. The concern with offering pre made replacer on freeaccess basis is with excessive bacterial contamination.

5 Recently, a system of implementing free access acidified milk feeding has been developed and has gained substantial adoption in Canada (Anderson, 2008). However, little controlled research has been conducted on this feeding system on calf performance and other effects. In the end, an important goal for calf feeding programs is to have calves double their birth weight and grow 4 5 inches in height by weaning. Some important points involving calf feeding programs are shown below, including a specific checklist of items to watch: Conventional feeding of 4 quarts of milk/day rarely provides adequate nutrition for a growing calf. Some experts advocate feeding volumes of milk up to 20% of calves weight (8 10 quarts/day). Increase volume of milk fed by 2 pints for every 10⁰F drop in ambient temperature, starting at ~40⁰F. If a 20:20 milk replacer is fed, on average, calves will need 1 quart more than if it was whole milk. Not all milk replacers are created equal. They vary in protein & fat content. It may be worthwhile to investigate your calf feeding practices & comparing to the NRC Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Feed high quality calf starter after 4 days of age. Start with small handfuls. Keep it fresh. Hay should be fed only after weaning as it may slow rumen development in preweaned calves. Water should be available at all times, especially in hot weather. Calves will eat more and grow better. Checklist for Calf Feeding Programs Calves should double their birth weight and grow 4 5 inches by weaning. Calves can be fed up to 20% of their weight (8 10 quarts/day). Increase volume of milk fed by 2 pints for every 10⁰F drop, starting at ~40⁰F. If 20:20 milk replacer is fed, calves need 1 quart more than if it was whole milk. Feed calf starter after 4 days of age. Start with small handfuls. Keep it fresh. Hay should be fed only after weaning. Water should be available at all times. Weaning Strategies The importance of successful weaning has been described above, under housing systems. Some important points involving weaning strategies are shown below:

6 Calves can be weaned if they consistently consume 1kg of starter daily. After weaning, calves should be kept in the same housing for 1 week to reduce stress. Resources for more information include: Questions can be directed to Ken Leslie at References Anderson, N Free access feeding of acidified milk: Setting up the system using formic acid. Appleby, M.C., D.M. Weary and B. Chua Performance and feeding behaviour of calves on ad libitum milk from artificial teats. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 74: Borderas,T.F., A.M.B. de Passille and J. Rushen Feeding behavior of calves fed small or large amounts of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 92: Correa MT, Curtis CR, Erb HN and White ME (1988). Effect of calfhood morbidity on age at first calving in New York Holstein herd. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 6: DeNise SK, Robison JD, Stott GH, Armstrong DV Effects of passive immunity on subsequent production in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 72: De Paula, Vieira, A., V. Guesdon, A.M. de Passillé, M.A.G. von Keyserlingk and D.M. Weary, Behavioural indicators of hunger in dairy calves. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 109: Donovan GA, Dohoo IR, Montgomery DM and Bennet FL (1998). Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female Holstein calves in Florida, USA. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 33: Donovan, G.A., L. Badinga,, R.J. Collier, C.J. Wilcox, and R.K. Braun Factors influencing passive transfer in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 69:

7 Jasper, J. and D.M. Weary Effects of ad libitum milk intake on dairy calves. J. DairySci. 85: Kaneene JB and Hurd S (1990). The national animal health monitoring system in Michigan. III. Cost estimates of selected dairy cattle diseases. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 8: Khan, M.A., H.J. Lee, W.S. Lee, H.S. Kim, S.B. Kim, K.S. Ki, J.K. Ha, H.G. Lee and Y.J. Choi Pre and postweaning performance of Holstein female calves fed milk through step down and conventional methods. J. Dairy Sci. 90: McGuirk SM (2008). Disease management of dairy calves and heifers. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 24: Miller GY and Dorn CR (1990). Costs of dairy cattle diseases to producers in Ohio. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 8: Robison, J.D., G.H. Stott, and S.K. DeNise Effects of passive immunity on growth and survival in the dairy heifer. J. Dairy Sci. 71: Stanton AL, LeBlanc SJ, Dingwell RT, Kelton DF, Millman ST, Wormuth J and Leslie KE (2008). An evaluation of tulathromycin treatment at post weaning movement on the incidence of respiratory disease and on growth in commercial dairy calves. Waltner Toews D, Martin SW and Meek AH (1986). The effect to early calfhood disease on survivorship and age at first calving. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 50: Warnick LD, Erb HN and White ME (1994). The association of calfhood morbidity with firstlactation calving age and dystocia in New York Holstein herds. Kenya Veterinarian. 18:

Colostral Management: Enhancing Dairy Calf Health Franklyn B Garry, DVM, ILM

Colostral Management: Enhancing Dairy Calf Health Franklyn B Garry, DVM, ILM Colostral Management: Enhancing Dairy Calf Health Franklyn B Garry, DVM, ILM For our Colorado Dairy News readership, focusing a Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) protocol on colostral management seemed

More information

Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program

Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program Robert B. Corbett, D.V.M Dairy Health Consultation Accelerating heifer growth has been a very controversial subject in recent

More information

Minnesota Dairy Team. Colostrum. Dr. Hugh Chester-Jones Animal Scientist, SROC and Neil Broadwater Extension Educator Dairy

Minnesota Dairy Team. Colostrum. Dr. Hugh Chester-Jones Animal Scientist, SROC and Neil Broadwater Extension Educator Dairy Minnesota Dairy Team Colostrum Dr. Hugh Chester-Jones Animal Scientist, SROC and Neil Broadwater Extension Educator Dairy Prepared for MN Dairy Days, 2009 This presentation will discuss colostrum management

More information

Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs

Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs Michael F. Hutjens Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, 232 ASL, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Email: hutjensm@uiuc.edu

More information

Overview. Calves. The First 3 Months. Components for Success. Dry Cow Nutrition. Improper Dry Cow Nutrition

Overview. Calves. The First 3 Months. Components for Success. Dry Cow Nutrition. Improper Dry Cow Nutrition Overview Calves The First 12 Weeks 75% of losses during 1st 3 months High quality diet a must Prone to health problems Labor intensive Quick Feedback The First 3 Months Period of maximum risk and cost

More information

Group housing and feeding systems for calves - opportunities and challenges

Group housing and feeding systems for calves - opportunities and challenges Group housing and feeding systems for calves - opportunities and challenges Dr. Bob James and Kayla Machado, graduate student Department of Dairy Science Virginia Tech Introduction. Group housing of preweaned

More information

COLD STRESS IN COWS. Brian Tarr, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc.

COLD STRESS IN COWS. Brian Tarr, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. COLD STRESS IN COWS Brian Tarr, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. Cold Stress in Cows Brian Tarr, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. Getting cows through the winter

More information

Herd Health Incentives

Herd Health Incentives 8 Herd Health Incentives UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine Dale Moore, DVM, MPVM, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Population Health and Reproduction Veterinary Medicine Extension University

More information

Does your vaccination protocol compromise newborn health?

Does your vaccination protocol compromise newborn health? Does your vaccination protocol compromise newborn health? This white paper was peer reviewed by Dr. Sheila McGuirk, veterinary clinician at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine and

More information

VACCINATION PROGRAMS FOR DAIRY YOUNG STOCK

VACCINATION PROGRAMS FOR DAIRY YOUNG STOCK Animal Health Fact Sheet VACCINATION PROGRAMS FOR DAIRY YOUNG STOCK Clell V. Bagley, DVM, Extension Veterinarian Utah State University, Logan UT 84322-5600 March 2001 AH/Dairy/06 Vaccines are an important

More information

Calf management Lifetime productivity starts when the calf is born

Calf management Lifetime productivity starts when the calf is born Calf management Lifetime productivity starts when the calf is born High lifetime productivity of cows: the well deserved result of first class calf management When a cow is culled dairy farmers the world

More information

PRACTICAL ECONOMICS OF "ACCELERATED" CALF FEEDING PROGRAMS

PRACTICAL ECONOMICS OF ACCELERATED CALF FEEDING PROGRAMS PRACTICAL ECONOMICS OF "ACCELERATED" CALF FEEDING PROGRAMS Howard Tyler Department of Animal Science Iowa State University Labor costs per animal and costs per unit of gain are higher in the preweaned

More information

Pasteurized Milk and Colostrum for Calves: An Option or Necessity?

Pasteurized Milk and Colostrum for Calves: An Option or Necessity? Pasteurized Milk and Colostrum for Calves: An Option or Necessity? Sandra Godden and Hugh Chester-Jones Infectious Disease Control Considerations when Feeding Non-saleable Milk While the feeding of non-saleable

More information

MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME. Artificial Insemination (AI) Service

MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME. Artificial Insemination (AI) Service MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME Artificial Insemination (AI) Service 1 1.0 Introduction The fertility of a dairy cattle is very important for a dairy farmer

More information

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Oregon State University BEEF043 Beef Cattle Library Beef Cattle Sciences Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Reinaldo F. Cooke 2 Introduction On average, the U.S. cattle industry loses more than $1

More information

Sheep and Goat Herd Health Management

Sheep and Goat Herd Health Management Sheep and Goat Herd Health Management Dr.Theera Rukkwamsuk Department of Large Animal and Wildlife Clinical Science Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Kasetsart University, Kampangsaen, Nakhon-Pathom 73140

More information

PUBLICATION 1721. Weaning dairy calves. at three weeks. and feeding. fermented colostrum. I* Agriculture. Canada

PUBLICATION 1721. Weaning dairy calves. at three weeks. and feeding. fermented colostrum. I* Agriculture. Canada PUBLICATION 1721 Weaning dairy calves at three weeks and feeding fermented colostrum I* Agriculture Canada Weaning dairy calves at three weeks and feeding fermented colostrum K. A. Winter Research Station

More information

Accelerated Growth Programs for Milk-Fed Calves

Accelerated Growth Programs for Milk-Fed Calves Accelerated Growth Programs for Milk-Fed Calves James K. Drackley, Ph.D. Department of Animal Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign INTRODUCTION The most recent USDA National Animal Health

More information

1. About dairy cows. Breed of dairy cows

1. About dairy cows. Breed of dairy cows 1. About dairy cows Breed of dairy cows Holstein Holstein is a typical dairy cow, and 99% of dairy cows in Japan are Holsteins. They are originally from the Netherlands and Holstein region of Germany.

More information

What is the Cattle Data Base

What is the Cattle Data Base Farming and milk production in Denmark By Henrik Nygaard, Advisory Manager, hen@landscentret.dk Danish Cattle Federation, Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, The national Centre, Udkaersvej 15, DK-8200

More information

Faculteit Diergeneeskunde. Prof. dr. G. Opsomer Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Ghent University.

Faculteit Diergeneeskunde. Prof. dr. G. Opsomer Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Ghent University. Faculteit Diergeneeskunde Integrated veterinary herd health management as the basis for sustainable animal production (dairy herd health as an example) Prof. dr. G. Opsomer Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

More information

RAISING LAMBS ON MILK REPLACER

RAISING LAMBS ON MILK REPLACER RAISING LAMBS ON MILK REPLACER Yves M. Berger and Richard A. Schlapper Spooner Agricultural Research Station University of Wisconsin-Madison Introduction It is well known that the number of lambs born

More information

Diagnostic Testing and Strategies for BVDV

Diagnostic Testing and Strategies for BVDV Diagnostic Testing and Strategies for BVDV Dan Grooms Dept. of Large Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine Introduction Clinical diseases in cattle resulting from infection with bovine

More information

Payback News. Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn t

Payback News. Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn t November, 2015 Volume 2, Issue 4 CHS Nutrition Payback News In this issue of Payback News: Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn t Bull Wintering Tips Inside this issue: Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn

More information

Why Feed Minerals? Essential Vitamins

Why Feed Minerals? Essential Vitamins Why Feed Minerals? With increasing production levels and a higher requirement for a quality end product the proper supplementation of minerals, vitamins and trace elements is more important than ever.

More information

Digestion of feeds in the milk-fed calf

Digestion of feeds in the milk-fed calf 3 Digestion of feeds in the milk-fed calf This chapter describes the various processes of digestion in the milk-fed calf. The main points in this chapter The adult animal requires a fully functioning rumen

More information

A guide for Johne s disease risk assessments and management plans for beef herds

A guide for Johne s disease risk assessments and management plans for beef herds Handbook for Veterinarians and Beef Producers A guide for Johne s disease risk assessments and management plans for beef herds For use by veterinarians with beef clients to improve biosecurity and reduce

More information

Pseudomonas Mastitis. in Dairy Cows

Pseudomonas Mastitis. in Dairy Cows 1 Mastitis Control Program for Pseudomonas Mastitis in Dairy Cows by John Kirk Veterinary Medicine Extension, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis and Roger Mellenberger Department

More information

Managing the Young Calf Keep It Simple!

Managing the Young Calf Keep It Simple! Managing the Young Calf Keep It Simple! Sheila M. McGuirk, DVM, PhD University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine Introduction In calf rearing, the difference between health and disease

More information

How to Write a Dairy Job Description

How to Write a Dairy Job Description G95-1224-A How to Write a Dairy Job Description This NebGuide leads you through the process of developing a job description for positions in the dairy industry. Jeffrey F. Keown, Extension Dairy Specialist

More information

Effects of Alternative Protein Milk Replacer Versus All-Milk Protein Milk Replacer on. Weight Gain and Grain Intake in Pre-weaned Dairy Calves

Effects of Alternative Protein Milk Replacer Versus All-Milk Protein Milk Replacer on. Weight Gain and Grain Intake in Pre-weaned Dairy Calves Effects of Alternative Protein Milk Replacer Versus All-Milk Protein Milk Replacer on Weight Gain and Grain Intake in Pre-weaned Dairy Calves A Senior Project presented to the Faculty of the Dairy Science

More information

Urban CalfMom PAULA. Calf feeding? That s Mom s job! FEEDING TECHNOLOGY specialized in calves

Urban CalfMom PAULA. Calf feeding? That s Mom s job! FEEDING TECHNOLOGY specialized in calves Urban CalfMom PAULA Calf feeding? That s Mom s job! FEEDING TECHNOLOGY specialized in calves FEEDING TECHNOLOGY specialized in calves Stress-free calf feeding! The Urban CalfMom enables the fully automatic

More information

Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc.

Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. MANAGING HEAT STRESS IN BEEF CATTLE Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. MANAGING HEAT STRESS IN BEEF CATTLE Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc.

More information

Swine Health. Beth Ferry MSU Extension Pork Educator

Swine Health. Beth Ferry MSU Extension Pork Educator Swine Health Beth Ferry MSU Extension Pork Educator What Affects Pig Health? Resources Environment Nutrition Management Animal Care What is your job? Good Observation Key to managing health, production

More information

That Move Cow-Calf Producers Toward Profitability

That Move Cow-Calf Producers Toward Profitability 7 E-347 Seven Management Techniques 06-05 That Move Cow-Calf Producers Toward Profitability P rofitability is defined as net return to owner s equity; retained earnings (or profits) increase owner s equity.

More information

Mechanized Dairy Farming

Mechanized Dairy Farming Dairy Hub Training Booklets Titles Mechanized Dairy Farming Adopt Modern Ways - Make your Farm Profitable 1) Importance of Water 2) Fodder 3) Wheat Straw Enrichment 4) Silage (Fodder Pickle) 5) Hay Making

More information

How to Do Risk Assessments and Develop Management Plans for Johne s Disease

How to Do Risk Assessments and Develop Management Plans for Johne s Disease How to Do Risk Assessments and Develop Management Plans for Johne s Disease (Fourth Edition, 2011) A veterinary instructional handbook used for cattle herds in the Voluntary Bovine Johne s Disease Control

More information

Beef Cattle Management Update

Beef Cattle Management Update Department of Animal Science 205 Haecker Hall 1364 Eckles Avenue St. Paul, MN 55108-6118 Beef Cattle Management Update WINTERING COW: AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET TO BALANCE WINTER Issue 44 BEEF COW RATIONS, AND

More information

Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age

Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age ASC-161 Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age Donna M. Amaral-Phillips, Patty B. Scharko, John T. Johns, and Sharon Franklin As the future productive units of a dairy herd, heifers

More information

How Pigs are. Raised

How Pigs are. Raised How Pigs are Raised This little piggy went to market. Pig farmers care for their animals 365 days a year. Farmers know that responsible and humane care is important to the well-being of pigs. They know

More information

Report of the Veal Calf Vaccination Study with Rispoval IntraNasal (Zoetis)

Report of the Veal Calf Vaccination Study with Rispoval IntraNasal (Zoetis) Report of the Veal Calf Vaccination Study with Rispoval IntraNasal (Zoetis) Date: February 18, 2014 H. A. Vahl, H. Bekman and J. van Riel Introduction: Substantial percentages of antibiotics applied in

More information

Salmonella. Case Report. Bhushan Jayarao. Department of Veterinary Science Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA. Extension Veterinarian

Salmonella. Case Report. Bhushan Jayarao. Department of Veterinary Science Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA. Extension Veterinarian Salmonella Case Report Modified with permission from a slide set by Bhushan Jayarao Extension Veterinarian Department of Veterinary Science Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA PART ONE Hudson

More information

VACCINATION PROGRAM FOR BEEF CALVES

VACCINATION PROGRAM FOR BEEF CALVES Animal Health Fact Sheet VACCINATION PROGRAM FOR BEEF CALVES Clell V. Bagley, DVM, Extension Veterinarian Utah State University, Logan UT 84322-5600 October 2001 Beef 40 Vaccines are an important tool

More information

Figure 1: Use a stethoscope to check heart, lungs and rumen for abnormalities.

Figure 1: Use a stethoscope to check heart, lungs and rumen for abnormalities. The Basic Clinical Exam: Key to Early Identification of Sick Animals Ralph Bruno, DVM, MS; Ellen Jordan, PhD; Juan Hernandez-Rivera, PhD; and Kevin Lager, MS Texas AgriLife Extension Service Finding and

More information

Disposal and replacement practices in Kenya s smallholder dairy herds

Disposal and replacement practices in Kenya s smallholder dairy herds Disposal and replacement practices in Kenya s smallholder dairy herds B. Omedo Bebe 1, 2, 3, H.M.J. Udo 2 and W. Thorpe 3 1 Egerton University, Animal Science Department, Box 536 Njoro, Kenya 2 Animal

More information

Lesson Title: Beef Cattle-Animal Care is Everywhere Grade Level: K-4 Time: 1 hour Content Area: Science, Language Arts Objectives:

Lesson Title: Beef Cattle-Animal Care is Everywhere Grade Level: K-4 Time: 1 hour Content Area: Science, Language Arts Objectives: Lesson Title: Beef Cattle-Animal Care is Everywhere Grade Level: K-4 Time: 1 hour Content Area: Science, Language Arts Objectives: Identify the needs of beef animals Compare the needs of beef animals to

More information

Calf Scours 101: Basics of Calf Diarrhea for the Beef Cattle Producer

Calf Scours 101: Basics of Calf Diarrhea for the Beef Cattle Producer Calf Scours 101: Basics of Calf Diarrhea for the Beef Cattle Producer What is scours, and what causes it? Scours is a term for diarrhea; another term that may be applied to this disease is enteritis, which

More information

Setting up Dairy Farm-Cows efresh Portal Pvt. Ltd.

Setting up Dairy Farm-Cows efresh Portal Pvt. Ltd. Setting up Dairy Farm-Cows efresh Portal Pvt. Ltd. www.efreshindia.com Empowering Indian Agriculture www.efreshindia.com 1 Setting up Dairy Farm Cows September, 2012 Index 1. Cost of Setting up Dairy with

More information

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION STUDY

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION STUDY ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION STUDY KOSOVO CLUSTER AND BUSINESS SUPPORT PROJECT 30 September 2005 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared

More information

Factors Affecting Passive Transfer in Neonatal Calves K. M. Mendonsa

Factors Affecting Passive Transfer in Neonatal Calves K. M. Mendonsa Factors Affecting Passive Transfer in Neonatal Calves K. M. Mendonsa Dairy Science Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo December 2011 2011 Kristin Marie Mendonsa ABSTRACT

More information

How to meet future needs of cows and operators in automatic milking systems?

How to meet future needs of cows and operators in automatic milking systems? How to meet future needs of cows and operators in automatic milking systems? Erich Schneider EDF-Congress Rostock Challenges on a dairy business EDF-Congress Rostock Customer objectives in Dairy farming

More information

THE UDDER OF THE COW

THE UDDER OF THE COW THE UDDER OF THE COW HOW IS IT INSIDE? Fore Quarters (40-45 %) Rear Quarters (55-60 %) Suspensory Lateral Laminas of Lateral Lobule with Alveoli Gland Cistern Udder Suspensory Lactiferous ducts Udder Lateral

More information

Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in Canada

Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in Canada Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in Canada Responsibility The calculation and publication of all dairy cattle genetic evaluations in Canada is the responsibility of Canadian Dairy Network (CDN). An 8-member

More information

My cow is unable to stand up!

My cow is unable to stand up! My cow is unable to stand up! M.S.K. Mashishi 2007 Third print 2000 Second print 1999 First print Compiled by Directorate Agricultural Information Services, Department of Agriculture in cooperation with

More information

Research Comments. Gestation Housing Systems and Sow and Litter Performance. The European Case. Research Comments. The Florida Case.

Research Comments. Gestation Housing Systems and Sow and Litter Performance. The European Case. Research Comments. The Florida Case. Gestation Housing Systems and Sow and Litter Performance A Review of Management and Housing Concepts and Potential Advantages and Disadvantages Research Comments the public needs knowledgeable research

More information

The Costs of Raising Replacement Heifers and the Value of a Purchased Versus Raised Replacement

The Costs of Raising Replacement Heifers and the Value of a Purchased Versus Raised Replacement Managing for Today s Cattle Market and Beyond March 2002 The Costs of Raising Replacement Heifers and the Value of a Purchased Versus Raised Replacement By Dillon M. Feuz, University of Nebraska Numerous

More information

Creep Feeding Beef Calves Dan E. Eversole, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia Tech

Creep Feeding Beef Calves Dan E. Eversole, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia Tech publication 400-003 Creep Feeding Beef Calves Dan E. Eversole, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia Tech OVERVIEW Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates)

More information

Job Description Farm Manager

Job Description Farm Manager Job Description Farm Manager This job description is a generic job description which, in general terms, should outline most of what you would expect from this role. To ensure your job description accurately

More information

Examination of the Fresh Cows

Examination of the Fresh Cows I. Introduction Examination of the Fresh Cows Sheila McGuirk, DVM, PhD School of Veterinary Medicine University of WI-Madison The purpose of this outline is to review a process for examination of fresh

More information

Vaccination Programs for the Cow/Calf Operation

Vaccination Programs for the Cow/Calf Operation Vaccination Programs for the Cow/Calf Operation Disease prevention is of utmost importance in a cow-calf operation because it is a low profit margin enterprise. Adequate nutrition, strategic deworming,

More information

PIG WELFARE REQUIREMENTS. On Farm and In Transit

PIG WELFARE REQUIREMENTS. On Farm and In Transit PIG WELFARE REQUIREMENTS On Farm and In Transit European Communities (Welfare of Calves and Pigs) Regulations, 2003. (S.I. No. 48 of 2003). European Communities (Protection of Animals kept for Farming

More information

Brent Czech New Heights Dairy LLC

Brent Czech New Heights Dairy LLC Brent Czech New Heights Dairy LLC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DAIRY PRODUCTION CONFERENCE Background -Grew up on 500 cow dairy, dad started in 1980 with 23 cows -Graduated from University of MN in May 2006 -New

More information

Science of Life Explorations

Science of Life Explorations Science of Life Explorations Celebrate the Growing Year: The Farmer s Year A Farmer s Year While you are in school or on a vacation, farmers are working hard to provide us with the foods we eat and the

More information

The Main Causes of Calf Mortality in Dairy Farms in Poland

The Main Causes of Calf Mortality in Dairy Farms in Poland Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A 5 (2015) 363-369 doi: 10.17265/2161-6256/2015.05.008 D DAVID PUBLISHING The Main Causes of Calf Mortality in Dairy Farms in Poland Justyna Żychlińska-Buczek

More information

SOP-Drying off describes the working steps which ensure best practice regarding drying off.

SOP-Drying off describes the working steps which ensure best practice regarding drying off. SOP-Drying off SOP-Drying off describes the working steps which ensure best practice regarding drying off. Among the topics are: Selection with application of body condition scores and gland sampling.

More information

Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators

Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators Thomas Fuhrmann, DVM DairyWorks, PO Box 2800-317, Carefree AZ 85377 Email: DairyWorks@aol.com Take Home Message This paper discusses how to use information

More information

Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf

Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Contents The Digestive System 3 Anatomy 3 Preruminant Digestion 4 Rumen Development 5 Colostrum

More information

SWINE QUIZ BOWL QUESTIONS

SWINE QUIZ BOWL QUESTIONS SWINE QUIZ BOWL QUESTIONS Swine 1 Questions 1. Name this black bodied pig that has six white points, including their nose, tail and feet. They have erect ears and dished snouts. a. Berkshire 2. Name this

More information

Makin Me Dizzy Pen Moves and Facility Designs to Maximize Transition Cow Health and Productivity

Makin Me Dizzy Pen Moves and Facility Designs to Maximize Transition Cow Health and Productivity Makin Me Dizzy Pen Moves and Facility Designs to Maximize Transition Cow Health and Productivity Introduction Nigel B. Cook MRCVS University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine The success

More information

DETAILS OF E LEARNING PROGRAM

DETAILS OF E LEARNING PROGRAM Report on Asia Dairy Network s E-Learning program on Feeding management of small holder dairy cattle in tropical Asia, March/April 2014 John Moran, Coordinator, Asia Dairy Network, Apr 2014 Over the last

More information

Feeding And Management Of The Dairy Calf: Birth To 6 Months

Feeding And Management Of The Dairy Calf: Birth To 6 Months ...- ~ Al..ABAMA,...... COOPERATIVE~ Extens1on SYSTEM CIRCULAR ANR-609 ALABAMA A&M AND AUBURN UNIVERSITIES Feeding And Management Of The Dairy Calf: Birth To 6 Months Raising young calves is one of the

More information

Organic SOP-Grazing describes the procedures that ensure the organic requirements are met with regard to cattle grazing.

Organic SOP-Grazing describes the procedures that ensure the organic requirements are met with regard to cattle grazing. Organic SOP-Grazing Organic SOP-Grazing describes the procedures that ensure the organic requirements are met with regard to cattle grazing. The description includes: Specific requirements for grazing

More information

reduce the probability of devastating disease outbreaks reduce the severity of disease agents present in a herd improve the value of products sold.

reduce the probability of devastating disease outbreaks reduce the severity of disease agents present in a herd improve the value of products sold. Vaccination Programs: Beef Cow Calf Operations Timothy Jordan, D.V.M Beef Production Medicine Program North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Goals A comprehensive herd health and

More information

Livestock Budget Estimates for Kentucky - 2000

Livestock Budget Estimates for Kentucky - 2000 Livestock Budget Estimates for Kentucky - 2000 Agricultural Economics Extension No. 2000-17 October 2000 By: RICHARD L. TRIMBLE, STEVE ISAACS, LAURA POWERS, AND A. LEE MEYER University of Kentucky Department

More information

Feed Management Plan Template (06. 21. 10) Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Homer City. Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail:

Feed Management Plan Template (06. 21. 10) Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Homer City. Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail: Feed Management Plan Template (06. 21. 10) Producer's Name: Address: LG Address: Town, State, Zip: Homer City Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail: Consultant's Name: Cargill Animal Nutrition Address: Address:

More information

Monitoring of the dairy cow for optimizing health and production - energy and protein status

Monitoring of the dairy cow for optimizing health and production - energy and protein status Monitoring of the dairy cow for optimizing health and production - energy and protein status Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark AU-FOULUM KLAUS LØNNE INGVARTSEN HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

More information

Energy in the New Dairy NRC. Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University

Energy in the New Dairy NRC. Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University Energy in the New Dairy NRC Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University Introduction Energy is vital to the function of all cells, and thus physiologically, it is vital

More information

Managing Clostridial Diseases in Cattle

Managing Clostridial Diseases in Cattle Managing Clostridial Diseases in Cattle Sheila M. McGuirk, DVM, PhD Introduction The many diseases of cattle that are attributed to Clostridial bacteria are shown in the following table. Clostridial type

More information

Keywords Ruminant; dry matter; daily dry matter intake; fresh weight; forage; reference table.

Keywords Ruminant; dry matter; daily dry matter intake; fresh weight; forage; reference table. Guidance for Calculating Ruminant Feed and Forage Intake is one of a range AWA technical papers designed to provide practical advice and support to farmers. For more information, visit www.animalwelfareapproved.org

More information

Feeding Corn to Beef Cows

Feeding Corn to Beef Cows ExEx 2048 September 2005 Animal & Range Sciences COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES / SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY / USDA Feeding Corn to Beef Cows Cody Wright, Extension beef specialist In

More information

Comparison of beef cattle management systems: pasture versus drylot year 1 ( )

Comparison of beef cattle management systems: pasture versus drylot year 1 ( ) Comparison of beef cattle management systems: pasture versus drylot year 1 (2009-2010) B. R. Ilse and V. L. Anderson NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center Introduction Land is an expensive and limited

More information

BREAK-EVEN COSTS FOR COW/CALF PRODUCERS

BREAK-EVEN COSTS FOR COW/CALF PRODUCERS L-5220 9/98 BREAK-EVEN COSTS FOR COW/CALF PRODUCERS L.R. Sprott* CALCULATING BREAK-EVEN COSTS of production can help cow/calf producers make better management decisions for the current year or for the

More information

Characterization of the Beef Cow-calf Enterprise of the Northern Great Plains

Characterization of the Beef Cow-calf Enterprise of the Northern Great Plains Characterization of the Beef Cow-calf Enterprise of the Northern Great Plains Barry Dunn 1, Edward Hamilton 1, and Dick Pruitt 1 Departments of Animal and Range Sciences and Veterinary Science BEEF 2003

More information

Characterization of Pasture- Based Dairy Farms in Florida and Georgia

Characterization of Pasture- Based Dairy Farms in Florida and Georgia Characterization of Pasture- Based Dairy Farms in Florida and Georgia Fei Du Department of Animal Sciences University of Florida Master s defense July 1, 2013 Introduction Most dairy farms in the Southeast

More information

BVD Control in Beef Cattle. Working to free New Zealand cattle farms from BVD

BVD Control in Beef Cattle. Working to free New Zealand cattle farms from BVD BVD Control in Beef Cattle Working to free New Zealand cattle farms from BVD 1 Introduction from the BVD Steering Committee BVD is one of the most important viral diseases of cattle in New Zealand. Recent

More information

Calf Scours: Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Calf Scours: Causes, Prevention and Treatment Calf Scours Causes: Prevention and Treatment, G75-269-A (Revised November 1982) Page 1 of 6 G75-269-A (Revised November 1982) Calf Scours: Causes, Prevention and Treatment Calf scours or calf diarrhea:

More information

Diar in cattle. D. Luseba

Diar in cattle. D. Luseba Diar iarrhoea in cattle D. Luseba 2002 First print 2005 Second print Printed and published by Department of Agriculture Obtainable from Directorate: Agricultural Information Services Private Bag X144 Pretoria

More information

2010 National Milk Producers Federation Cover photo courtesy of USDA

2010 National Milk Producers Federation Cover photo courtesy of USDA Animal Care Manual This manual is not a legal document and is intended for educational purposes only. Producers are individually responsible for determining and complying with all requirements of local,

More information

Performance Traits in Beef Cattle:

Performance Traits in Beef Cattle: Performance Traits in Beef Cattle: Weighing Cows and Calves Performance test guidelines recommend calves be weighed when they are close to 205 days of age. The accepted age range is 160 to 250 days of

More information

IMPORTANCE OF SALT IN DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS

IMPORTANCE OF SALT IN DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS Salt Institute Newsletter (STM) Second Quarter 2011 IMPORTANCE OF SALT IN DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS by Jerry W. Spears, Ph.D. North Carolina State University INTRODUCTION Sodium and chloride

More information

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Department of Animal Science FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Dairy Cattle Production 342-450A Page 1 of 8 Feeding the Dairy Cow during Lactation There are main stages in the lactation cycle of the

More information

Brucellosis and tuberculosis. A.J. Olivier

Brucellosis and tuberculosis. A.J. Olivier Brucellosis and tuberculosis A.J. Olivier 2013 Third print 2004 Second print 2002 First print Compiled by Directorate Communication Services in cooperation with ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute Printed

More information

A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System

A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 ID-218 A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System Amanda Sterrett, Donna Amaral-Phillips,

More information

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1 Cattle and Horse Nutrition Dona Goede Livestock Specialist Introduction Many health, reproductive and production problems can be prevented with good nutrition. Poor nutrition results in: Poor conception

More information

Dairy Comp Newsletter

Dairy Comp Newsletter Dairy Comp Newsletter Backup Plans... 2 Version 8... 2 Command Line Basics... 3 Protocols/Hospital List: Meat and Milk Withholds... 4 Save time on herd health day... 5 Pocket Cowcard Trial version for

More information

What future, large-scale dairy systems might look like

What future, large-scale dairy systems might look like What future, large-scale dairy systems might look like Lior Yaron DeLaval Int. Sweden 1 Agenda Introduction Global Trends SDF Sustainable Dairy Farming Large Dairy Farms advantages/disadvantages Conclusion

More information

California Mastitis Test (CMT)

California Mastitis Test (CMT) California Mastitis Test (CMT) An Invaluable Tool for Managing Mastitis by Roger Mellenberger Dept. of Animal Sciences, Michigan State University The California Mastitis Test (CMT) is a quick, simple test

More information

Wisconsin Holstein Association Youth Embryo Share Program Guidelines

Wisconsin Holstein Association Youth Embryo Share Program Guidelines Youth Embryo Share Program Guidelines Wisconsin Holstein Association (WHA) is pleased to present this WHA Junior opportunity which is brought to you by the generosity and foresight of Tom Kestell. The

More information

Minnesota Dairy Days. Pasteurizing Milk and Colostrum for Calves: An Option or Necessity? S. Godden and H. Chester-Jones University of Minnesota

Minnesota Dairy Days. Pasteurizing Milk and Colostrum for Calves: An Option or Necessity? S. Godden and H. Chester-Jones University of Minnesota Minnesota Dairy Days Pasteurizing Milk and Colostrum for Calves: An Option or Necessity? S. Godden and H. Chester-Jones University of Minnesota Outline Pasteurizing waste milk: Considerations Potential

More information

THE COST OF MASTITIS - AN OPPORTUNITY TO GAIN MORE MONEY

THE COST OF MASTITIS - AN OPPORTUNITY TO GAIN MORE MONEY THE COST OF MASTITIS - AN OPPORTUNITY TO GAIN MORE MONEY OLAV ØSTERÅS, TINE Norwegian Dairies, Post-box 58, N-1431 ÅS, Norway Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway E-mail: olav.osteras@tine.no

More information