Exploring a New Rationale for Teaching Modes and Media of Hans Christian Andersen Fairytales in Four Commercial Upper-Secondary Danish Classes

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1 Towards Semiocy? Exploring a New Rationale for Teaching Modes and Media of Hans Christian Andersen Fairytales in Four Commercial Upper-Secondary Danish Classes A Design-Based Educational Intervention By Nikolaj Elf PhD Dissertation Institute of Philosophy, Education and the Study of Religions University of Southern Denmark Second Edition 2009

2 Table of content Appendices Abbreviations Preface PART I: PROLOGUE 2 Chapter 1. Introducing the study A study of Danish The semiocy rationale Research question The hypothesis The four cases Media pedagogy and H.C. Andersen Design-Based Research (DBR) Lessons from earlier research 19 Chapter 2. Design-Based intervention methodology Kant on experimenting From Kant to contemporary media and mother tongue education research DBR as applied to this study DBR, sociology and social semiotics Abductive epistemology Research in the age of uncertainty Research(ing) practice: progression in the dissertation 38 PART II: THEORY 40 Chapter 3. What is media literacy? The British School of Media Education Mapping discourses of media education A model of media pedagogy Defining a medium, or defining a problem? Four core concepts of media education Media literacy or media competence? Media literacy in the US 58

3 3.2.1 Potter s media literacy perspective Meyrowitz s three media competencies Media content competence Media form competence Media function competence Gee on semiotic domains, knowing and identity Semiotic vs. intellectual domains Knowing vs. knowledge Identity as the answer to the context problem Nordic media pedagogy Media Bildung Drotner: Media Bildung as exercises of media complexity Thavenius: Media Bildung as tomorrow s functionalism Multimodal media competence in the socio-cultural field Østerud: Bildung, literacy, and competence Erstad: Media competence Summary: The potentials of and problem with media literacy 101 Chapter 4. What is multimodal media competence in MTE/StLE? What are modes, multimodality and a medium? Defining modes and multimodality Why multimodality? Applying multimodality to Andersen and teaching Multimodality and sociocognitive sign-theory Peirce, multimodality and subject-related didactics Bridging multimodality and media pedagogy What is a medium, then and a text, and a genre? A final word on multimodality as methodology What is competence? Working definition The dominating discourses of competence (Re)constructing competence Competence in context: The European DeSeCo approach Anglo-Saxon competence thinking: Towards knowledge producing classrooms Competence in a Nordic and Danish educational research perspective What is MTE/StLE? Problems of terminology in Denmark and elsewhere A brief history of MTE Beyond the dyadic split: MTE/StLE approximating media and semiotics 140

4 4.3.4 Didactization as a research goal for subject-related studies What is multimodal media competence, and semiocy, in MTE/StLE? The model Semiocy and MTE/StLE Semiocy and multimodal media competence Summary of chapter 3 and conclusion to Part II 153 PART III: ANALYSIS 156 Chapter 5. Principles of data collection and data selection Principles in retrospect Problems in the relationship between DBR and Social Science DBR as a non-typical research design The present study is qualitative The present study is quasi-experimental The present study is a multiple-case study The present study is comparative The present study is longitudinal DBR evaluation criteria and validation tests Credibility in this study Transferability in this study Dependability in this study Confirmability in this study A chronological account of the data collection in this study Pre-experimental phase Experimental phase I The intermediate phase Experimental phase II Post-experimental phase Moving towards operative analysis 188 Chapter 6. Framing the context in the pre-experimental phase Institutional setting Danish in hhx Teachers lost and found the process of recruiting key informants Framing processes of teacher adaptation Case profiles Case 1: Karen teaching a second year class in Central Jutland Case 2: Jane teaching a first year class in Northern Jutland Case 3: Susanne teaching a second year class in Southern Zealand 201

5 6.4.4 Case 4: Peter teaching a first year class in suburban Copenhagen Comparative cross-case analysis in the pre-experimental phase Student screening Andersen as a discursive part of the context Negotiating the framework of the four experiments 209 Chapter 7. Experiment 1: Writing reviews, becoming critical Introduction Available Designs Technological commitments Epistemological commitments Curricular, pedagogical and social commitments The integrating commitment Designing Teacher perceptions Student perceptions Designer-researcher perceptions Complexity Diversity Technology: Teaching in the age of paper Discipline: The Stalinist vs. the Anarchist Assessment Summing up on the analysis of Designing The Redesigned John and Ken in Karen s class (case 1): The naughty boy(s) Case 1 some general characteristics Case 1 compared with cases Conclusions Limitations and implications 256 Chapter 8. Experiment 2: Teaching media and/or Andersen through oral readings Introduction Available Designs Technological commitments Epistemological commitments Curricular, pedagogical and social commitments The integrating commitment Designing Teacher perceptions 270

6 8.3.2 Designer-researcher perceptions Technology Complexity (Non-)available knowledge Student competence Pedagogy and knowledge production Assessment Identity (in) production The Redesigned Louis in Susanne s class (case 3): The quiet boy and expert reader The journalism group in case Case 3 in general Case 3 compared to cases 1,2, and Conclusions, limitations, implications 298 Chapter 9. Reflexive intermezzo: The midway meeting The unstable framing of the meeting Dominating themes from a researcher s point of view Themes elaborated during the meeting Working methods changing the traditional school subject Institutional conditions at school Assessment The didactics of Danish and beyond Midway conclusions and processual planning 307 Chapter 10. Experiment 3: Teaching picture books, illustrating logo-centrism Introduction Available Designs Technological commitments Epistemological commitments Curricular, pedagogical and social commitments The integrating commitment Designing Teacher perceptions Student perceptions Designer-researcher perceptions The complexity of content Literary pedagogy vs. visual pedagogy Open and closed strategies for knowledge production 326

7 10.4 The Redesigned Case 4: Peter s initial adaptation Lisa and the rest in case 4: The genre of literary analysis and an appendix The journalistic group in case 4: An arena for multimodal homophobia? Case 4, in general: The academic vs. the techno-semiotic paradigm Case 4 compared to cases 1,2, and Conclusions and their limitations and implications 343 Chapter 11. Experiment 4: Animations that move adaptations Introduction Available Designs Technological commitments Epistemological commitments Curricular, pedagogical and social commitments The integrating commitment Designing Teacher perceptions Student perceptions Designer-researcher perceptions Semiotic resources, local complexity and change Producing knowledge at new learning sites De-familiarization of modes and media Authenticity Media globalisation Producing knowledge at school The use and misuse of learning management systems The Redesigned Sven s animation group in case 2: The Ugly Bitch and the cultural turn General findings in case 2 and the other cases Journalism as multimodal, mediated, aesthetical-didactical reflection Conclusions and their limitations Implications 394 Chapter 12: Student and teacher evaluations in the post-experimental phase Learning vs. education: A student-journalist s evaluation of the intervention Student evaluations across the cases Teacher evaluations of experiment 4 and the intervention in general 403 PART IV: EPILOGUE 412

8 Chapter 13: Towards semiocy? Critical-constructive conclusions Main findings of the intervention Theoretical conclusions Empirical findings and related theoretical work What? Conclusions about Available Designs How? Conclusions about Designing and the Redesigned Limitations of the research design and its conclusions Why? Deconstructing dyads A receipt for the H.C. Andersen 2005 Foundation 428 Summaries 430 Resumé på dansk 430 English Summary 432 References 436

9 Appendices Appendices are available for opponents of the PhD dissertation only. All appendices are electronic and handed over in a digital format. The opponents should beware that appendices are not completely anonymized. A list of pseudonyms is offered in appendix 53. For others interested in accessing the appendices, this is to some extent possible in so far no sensitive data is revealed. Please contact the present author through the homepage Appendix 1: The journalistic film in experiment 4 frames and subtitles Appendix 2: Three girls oral evaluation of experiment 3 Appendix 3: The concept semiocy explained in a report about the future of Danish Appendix 4: Teacher quotes about integration Appendix 5: Protocol of data Appendix 6: invitation to participate in project Appendix 7: Key words for my first presentation at schools for class Appendix 8: Available Designs for experiment 1 sent to teachers Appendix 9: John s letter and reflection text in experiment 1 Appendix 10: The work of two journalistic groups in experiment 1 Appendix 11: Nina s reflection text about her review of Engelen in experiment 1 Appendix 12: Available Designs for experiment 2 sent to teachers Appendix 13: Quotes from teacher evaluations about experiment 2 Appendix 14: Available Designs for experiment 3 sent to teachers Appendix 15: Group work in experiment 3 (case 1) Appendix 16: Lisa s essay about The Shadow in experiment 3 Appendix 17: Transcription of interview with Lisa in experiment 3 Appendix 18: Excerpt from Peter s evaluation of experiment 3 Appendix 19: Karen's evaluation of experiment 3 Appendix 20: Available Designs for experiment 4 sent to teachers Appendix 21: Interview with Sven in case 2 at The Animation Workshop in experiment 4 Appendix 22: Interview with students in case 1 on bus to the Animation Workshop in experiment 4 Appendix 23: Danny s essay evaluation of the whole intervention Appendix 24: Digital research log

10 Appendix 25: Profile of Karen Appendix 26: Profile of Jane Appendix 27: Profile of Susanne Appendix 28: Profile of Peter Appendix 29: Transcription of pre-experimental meeting Appendix 30: Documents from pre-experimental meeting and other documents Appendix 31: Field notes from experiment 1 Appendix 32: Field notes from experiment 2 Appendix 33: Student documents from experiment 1 Appendix 34: Student documents from experiment 2 Appendix 35: Notes from and transcriptions of audio recordings of experiment 1 Appendix 36: Notes from and transcriptions of audio recordings of experiment 2 Appendix 37: Evaluations from teachers of experiment 1 Appendix 38: Evaluations from teachers of experiment 2 Appendix 39: Recordings, transcriptions and analytical notes from intermediate meeting Appendix 40: Documents from intermediate meeting Appendix 41: Field notes from experiment 3 Appendix 42: Field notes from experiment 4 Appendix 43: Student documents from experiment 3 Appendix 44: Student documents from experiment 4 Appendix 45: Evaluations from teachers of experiment 3 Appendix 46: Evaluations from teachers of experiment 4 Appendix 47: Structured research interviews of teachers a guide Appendix 48: Transcription of structured research interviews of teachers Appendix 49: Documents from post-experimental meeting Appendix 50: Interview guide and other material for focus group interviews Appendix 51: Student questionnaire (template) Appendix 52: Interview with a vice-director and a pedagogical director at Peter s school Appendix 53: Pseudonyms Appendix 54: Interview guide for interview with consultant of Danish in hhx at the Danish Ministry of Education Note that appendices are abbreviated by a capital A followed by the number, e.g. A1.

11 Preface Since 2003 the present author has been a PhD stipend at the Institute of Philosophy, Education and the Study of Religions (formerly Danish Institute for Upper-secondary Education) at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense. Research visits have been made to the Institute of Education, University of London, and School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Moreover, fieldwork has been conducted at four commercial upper-secondary schools in Denmark. I wish to THANK all with whom I have had the joy and pleasure of working and reflecting with supervisors, researchers, PhD student colleagues, teachers and students. A special thank to Thomas Derek Robinson, who has served as language consultant. The work is dedicated to my three children, Johannes, Hjalte and Juliane. Like me they enjoy H.C. Andersen, both as bedtime stories and Disney animations. Nikolaj Elf, Jelling, Denmark, Bibliograhical note: This study is connected to the fairytales of Hans Christian Andersen ( ), who was born in Denmark and is known world wide for stories such as: The Little Mermaid (1837), The Ugly Duckling (1843), The Emperor s New Clothes (1837). When referring to English titles of Andersen s fairytales, this is done as a service to non-danes, so as to present a fluent product. The name and year marked in parenthesis refers bibliographically to the first time that the Danish version of the fairytale is published, unless other information is given. In the References section you will find the reference to Danish titles as such: Andersen, H.C. (1837): Kejserens nye Klæder [The Emperor s New Clothes]. In: Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. Første Samling. Tredie Hefte. Kbh.: C.A. Reitzels Forlag. The homepage edited by Andersen researchers at the University of Southern Denmark, is recommended when searching for authorised Danish and English versions of the fairytales. One could also consult Andersen and Andersen Abbreviations often used: Hhx A DBR MTE/StLE Higher Commercial Examination [højere handelseksamen] Appendix Design-Based Research Mother Tongue Education/Standard Language Education

12 Part I: Prologue Purpose and perspective The purpose of Part I: Prologue is to introduce the study and present the methodological framework. Chapter 1 introduces the field of research, the research question, hypothesis, empirical cases and main concepts of the study. Chapter 2 presents the methodology developed as to its application in this study. 2

13 Chapter 1. Introducing the study 1.1. A study of Danish The focus in this study is upon Danish as a school subject in the commercial upper-secondary system in Denmark (often abbreviated: hhx, or Højere Handelseksamen [literally: Higher Commercial Examination]). In regard to defining or classifying the object of study, this focus is related to broader debates within a field of research, which has serious problems of terminology and self-identity. Some term it the research field of mother tongue education (MTE), while others would term it: standard language education (StLE), as Herrlitz and van de Ven (2007: 16f) have made exceedingly clear. While there are both historical and ideological reasons for choosing the former or the latter term, it is clear that the choice made for this dissertation is dependent on how we look at and understand what Sawyer and van de Ven (2006) have termed the rationale of this school subject. 1 In order to cope with the terminological and ideological controversy in a practical, yet open-ended manner it has been chosen to follow both notations: MTE/StLE; mother tongue education/standard language education. It is difficult to accept either of the two terms out of hand, and yet the problem consists in identifying a better alternative. In a sense, this study seeks to explore exactly such a better alternative. It explores a new rationale that may help us identify a new didactical 2 model, which better covers involved potential meanings, and which may be employed in future circumstances. The terminological and ideological controversy also influences the writing of the name of the school subject Danish written in quotation marks. In doing this here and in the following, it refers to a noun denoting a school subject not the adjective referring to characteristics of Denmark, Danes, or Danish language. One of the challenges in theorising and working with the past, present and future of MTE/StLE as an object of study is precisely that we should remember the significant differences between Danish and Danish or English and English, German and German, and so forth. As Herrlitz and van de Ven have put it, in referring to a research situation almost three decades ago: 1 By rationale I mean inspired by Sawyer & van de Ven 2006 the paradigm, the legitimacy, the topics, the teaching-learning processes, the knowledge regime and the agents of a school subject. In chapter 4 I shall explain in detail what these categories refer to. 2 Difficulties apply to the concept of didaktik in Danish, as explained in Haue Haue suggests that the most general understanding in Danish of didaktik or didactics in English comprises selection of materials, methods, student prerequisities as well as teaching purposes. (Haue 2007: 9). Cf. also Westbury 2000, Hudson & Schneuwly

14 Mother tongue education appeared to be strongly bound to language area and to national culture. The development of general, and therefore, international theories and concepts, which is commonplace in other scientific areas, had scarcely started in the field of mother tongue education. (Herrlitz & van de Ven 2007: 18) The semiocy rationale What could be the new rationale of MTE/StLE? It is suggested that it could be a concept termed: semiocy. The semiocy neologism used in the title of the dissertation is not my own invention, rather it was presented for the first time in a report regarding The Future of Danish (my translation of the Danish title, cf. UVM 2003c). This report was written by a workgroup, including researchers such as linguists, literary researchers, education researchers and the present author (at that time still a graduate student, working as a co-working and writing secretary of the group). While the semiocy concept was only described briefly, and vaguely, it was equally pointed out that the rationale of teaching Danish changes in a knowledge society. The argument develops as follows: In knowledge society demands are increased constantly because the primary production in such a society involves, precisely, competencies in being able to interpret and use symbols, most commonly verbal signs, but also graphs, diagrams, instructional videos, programmes, statistics etc. Instead of offering literacy to the population, one now has to teach the population what one may term extended or semiotic literacy. In other words, we have moved from Lutheracy to alphabetic literacy, and now we have to move on to semiotic literacy (semiocy). 3 This quote does not define nor explains semiocy in any elaborated manner. However, one may suggest that it presents a true and interesting hypothesis in the sense that it tries to come to terms with real changes in society, and how we should deal with these changes in education, or more narrowly in MTE/StLE. The difficult question is how to move on to semiocy in practice. Can research contribute to such a process of change? From the point of view of empirical research into educational practice and reform (cf. Randi & Corno 1997 for an overview), it is a standard finding that practice represents a complex order, which is highly difficult to change. Since implementing new ideas is an extremely difficult and complex project perhaps we should rather speak of processes of adaptation, as Randi and Corno (1997; cf. also Oates 2003) recommend. Social semiotic theorists (Hodge & Kress 1988, van Leeuwen 2005) who reflect on processes of change in parallel ways would argue that any kind of social system is governed by what Hodge and Kress (1988) term: regimes of logonomic structures and ideological complexes. The terminology, which is explained in detail in the following chapter, 3 My translation. The original quote in Danish cited from UVM 2003c is found in Appendix 3. In the following Appendix is abbreviated with a capital A and references to an appendix are made in this way: A3. 4

15 in itself signals the rather rigid nature of social systems, including education. On the other hand, Hodge and Kress would argue that logonomic structures and ideological complexes can change through intervention. With regards to this study, the point is for the study through an intervention focused on the concept semiocy to change the social system of the school subject Danish and, more broadly, MTE/StLE focusing on the upper-secondary school system. Such an intervention contests didactic concepts of MTE/StLE, such as literacy and literary Bildung, which currently dominate and seem to have proved their worth (UVM 2003c, IMEN 2005, Herrlitz et al. 2007, Sawyer & van de Ven 2006; cf. chapter 4, section 3 below, page 134ff.., abbreviated like this: 4.3, p. 135ff. in the following). It is more comfortable to continue using familiar notions rather than proposing new alternatives, the point being that these older concepts no longer seem adequate due to cultural and social developments. They lack authenticity now and in the future Research question While the theoretical and conceptual issues for the whole of MTE/StLE cannot be solved at once in the present study, one may take on a specific issue such as Hans Christian Andersen fairytales and media pedagogy. The so-called Hans Christian Andersen 2005 Foundation (cf. offered this opportunity. In order to celebrate Andersen s 200 year anniversary, the Hans Christian Andersen 2005 Foundation was established in The foundation supported projects to promote Andersen nationally as well as internationally. One of the goals was to support new research and development in education, where one research angle the foundation wished to support, was an exploration of media pedagogical approaches in formal teaching at the upper-secondary level. This dissertation is the direct result of that intention. The dissertation addresses the research Interesse to echo Jürgen Habermas (1973) loosely conceived by the foundation. A research project is first and foremost guided by its specific research question. The research question asked here, in its most simple shape, is: How may we didactically rethink and integrate H.C. Andersen fairytales, media pedagogy and Danish MTE/StLE at commercial upper-secondary level? This question launches the fundamental concepts and relations to be explored within a concrete framework. A longer version that specifies the theoretical, methodological, and applicative features of the study would sound as follows: If we take the institutionally driven commitment, defined by the H.C. Andersen 2005 Foundation, of designing learning resources to be used in teaching H.C. Andersen 5

16 fairytales in commercial upper-secondary Danish classes, while integrating media pedagogy and MTE/StLE as a heuristic starting point, what kind of MTE/StLE-related, didactic Danish -rationale could then be theoretically developed? The practical and applicative issue of the question arises of adapting a design-based intervention process where the designer-researcher collaborates with teachers and students using and continuously reflecting on the resources and the didactic rationale. Such a methodological approach signals an ambition to contribute qualitatively to the inter-disciplinary field of mother tongue/standard language-related classroom research and, more broadly, didactic research (which would, in Anglo-Saxon countries, be termed curriculum research), media pedagogical research, communication research, even cultural studies. Historically, the theoretical basis for such questions goes back at least to the beginning of the 20 th century. In European and American contexts prominent media theorists, semioticians, cultural studies researchers, and education researchers have tried to deal with the question of teaching a mother tongue, as we shall see in detail later. What brings these theorists together is, in a sense, the argument that in modern culture the mother is no longer the only, or most dominant, socialising element for children being brought up, nor is the mother tongue the only, or perhaps even the primary, communicative mode for children and young people. I may be playing with words that no longer has the same meaning, but the point is that we should rethink the conceptualisation of the socalled mother tongue subject and mother tongue education, and the way this school subject relates to other school subjects asking basic didactic/curricular questions such as: Why teach this subject (the question of legitimacy), what should be taught (the question of content), and how should it be taught (the question of method)? 1.4. The hypothesis As suggested above, the exploration of these broad questions theoretically as well as empirically is guided by a hypothesis. The hypothesis is that teaching H.C. Andersen from a media pedagogical perspective may be interpreted through a didactic rationale that would guide media pedagogy within MTE/StLE. I propose that we call this rationale semiocy. In order to make this rationale operative, it is suggested that semiocy is related to a rethinking of media pedagogy, which could be termed: multimodal media pedagogy. Figure presented in chapter 4, section 4 is a model of such a pedagogy. It is suggested that the model captures essential relations of multimodal media pedagogy and semiocy. Chapters 3 and 4 will lead to it, as it is used for analysing the empirical part of the 6

17 intervention (Part III). The model answers two fundamental questions that pertain to the intervention: 1) What are the purposes and implications of seeking an alternative vocabulary for teaching media pedagogy that go beyond media literacy? 2) What are the operative dimensions of empirically oriented didactic research? It is suggested that the model implies semiocy as the broadest competence goal of MTE/StLE. 4 It follows from this that the domain within MTE/StLE often referred to as media education or media pedagogy (e.g. Buckingham 2003) would have to play a vital part in the process of moving students towards semiocy. However, media education is rethought and rephrased as multimodal media pedagogy. The goal of multimodal media pedagogy is termed multimodal media competence, which would become a sub-goal of semiocy within MTE/StLE. If this line of deductive reasoning is coherent and stringent, a rethinking of media pedagogy within MTE/StLE would imply a rethinking of MTE/StLE in its totality. In extension, we must perform a rethinking of the most commonly associated goal of media pedagogy, namely media literacy. The purpose of chapter 3 is precisely to question the concept of media literacy, and the purpose of chapter 4 is to explore and define the new basic categories and relations suggested in the model. At this introductory point, it is sufficient to propose that this model of multimodal media pedagogy/semiocy could be used as a tool for understanding and designing multimodal media pedagogy in Danish. It also follows from the model that Hans Christian Andersen fairytales, in various constellations of modes and media, could be used as a semiotic resource that could lead to multimodal media competence. The open-ended using of the modal verb could and the question mark in the title of this dissertation: Towards semiocy? suggests that we may find a fundamental discrepancy between theory and practice. In theory we may be able to develop a coherent didactical model, in practice we may not be able to adapt it. The latter, indeed, depends highly on the interpretation of the model by the primary agents in the field of education, namely teachers and students. 4 The words: competence and competency and the plural forms: competencies and competences are used in different, to some extent confusing ways in different English-speaking contexts, and there are disputes on what the spelling of these words means. Here and in the following I understand competence within the theoretical framework of a holistic model of competence inspired by one of the most acknowledged research projects on competence and education in recent years (Rychen & Salganik 2003, cf. 4.2ff). A holistic model of competence, as suggested by Rychen and Salganik, would use the spelling forms competence and competencies. The complex question of what competence means and how it can be applied is analysed in detail in chapter 4. Briefly put, competence is ability beyond skills (and competencies are abilities beyond skills). Competency with a y is associated with the ability to solve a specific demand using a specific skill. 7

18 1.5. The four cases In the present study, agents of the field refers to four teachers and their students at four different upper-secondary schools in the hhx-system. They are the key informants of the study. My main empirical focus is on these four cases, and the empirical question related to the quasi-experimental, multiple-case study (cf. chapter 5, p. 159) is: How do they adapt and interpret the designed learning curricula of four experiments informed by the model of multimodal media pedagogy/semiocy in practice? How do they understand the integration of a new media pedagogical approach with traditional Danish and the teaching of H.C. Andersen? Listening to and trying to understand their perceptions as they unfold in the longitudinal process of the intervention we will find that their answer to the model is much more ambiguous and, to some extent, quite critical. Making a trustworthy (Bryman 2004, cf. chapter 5, p. 159) account of this process is the main purpose of Part III. Briefly summing up empirical findings, it is suggested that the intervention does not simply become a success and data does not one-sidedly confirm the hypothesis or the model of multimodal media pedagogy. Rather, teacher and student perceptions lead in many different, interesting and, to some extent, critical directions that suggest debates about the potentials and constraints of teaching Danish and changing the subject. When first approaching the four participating teachers (called Karen, Jane, Susanne and Peter) in 2004, it was suggested by the present author that an experimental media pedagogical approach to Andersen should be attempted in order to rethink the rationale of the school subject. Through initial interviews it was found that all teachers shared a personal and professional interest in the project (this is reflected in a sample of data labelled Teacher Profiles, cf. A25-A28). All four teachers were particularly interested in developing their understanding of media pedagogy or perhaps one should rather say ICT pedagogy. Over and against this, H.C. Andersen did not seem to be of any particular interest. There was for instance no explicit interest in broadening the conception of what Andersen refers to in terms of textual resources. The main motivation for the four Danish teachers to be interested in media pedagogy was their confrontation with the acute problem of how to comply with new official politico-normative demands of integrating ICT within Danish. The four teachers all had limited experiences in using media and technology in the classroom Karen being an exception. When first being approached, the teachers were all engaged with in-job training programs, funded by the Danish Ministry of Education, incorporating ICT. This was an official attempt at reforming the school subject. Initial interviews with the teachers confirmed the results of existing international research (Haenens 2000; Hennesy et al. 2005; Süss 2001), namely that the effects of these intervention programs were limited and ambiguous, particularly when applied to mother 8

19 tongue education: Educational programs seeking to integrate many topics and pedagogies, such as ICT, generally lead to disintegration, or rather no integration. This also holds true for intentions to integrate media pedagogy and MTE/StLE (Buckingham 1990a, Buckingham 1990b, Buckingham & Domaille 2003). At an initial pre-experimental meeting with the participating teachers (cf. chapter 6, p. 191ff.), Karen stated that: the point of the programme [called Gymnasie-IT/ICT in Commercial uppersecondary Education] was integration. 5 The second participant, Jane, replies: We have done opposite because we are busy so we have done what we already knew, and then added the other thing on top. The third participant, Susanne, contests this, claiming that the programme had offered a new horizon on the subject. Later in the conversation, the fourth participant Peter, addressed the idea of integration by saying: Peter: I am also appointed (using an ironic tone) ict pedagogical driver The others: (laughing, someone saying) ooh we have that too Peter: (laughs a bit) it sounds ( ) it doesn t cover much more than all the other stuff, which could sound like that, it concerns primarily ( ) how one may use ict both in terms of pedagogy, but also in terms of discipline (A4, my translation) As we may see, while the participants relate to ICT in an ironic manner, they also have a positive attitude. For these, ICT and media is more or less the same thing. The official demand for teachers to integrate ICT into their teaching was related to preparing a reform of the whole system of upper-secondary education in 2005 (UVM 2000a, UVM 2003b), one year after conducting the intervention. This reform has been characterized as the most important reform of upper-secondary education in a hundred years; and all teachers received information on this in At the rhetorical level the reform implied disintegration and, simultaneously, reintegration of a number of new and old whys, whats and hows. 5 For this and the following quotes in Danish, cf. A4. For a full transcription of the meeting cf. A29. The transcription norm being used follows a slightly revised version of the norm suggested by Jacobsen & Skyum-Nielsen The six rules are: 1) words are transcribed in the chronological way they are said on tape, including transcribing words like øh, which would be translated into eh in English, 2) I use conventional orthography; abbreviations and selfinterruptions, though, can be transcribed using a hyphen, such as when ikke is pronounced [ik-], 3) comma means short pause, dash means longer pause; no capital letters are used (names, like H.C. Andersen and I in English excluded), 4) editorial remarks about the speech and its situation can be made within parenthesis, 5) stress on a syllable can be transcribed, using an accent, like this, académic [fágligt], 6) sequences and words that are impossible to understand from digital audio/audio tape, are marked, in English, like this, (nu), meaning not understandable, and like this, (uf), in Danish meaning uforståeligt. It should be noted that speech could be very difficult to translate from one language to another (cf. e.g. Kress 2003 for reflections on this). 9

20 As a part of the reform, the Danish curriculum was to be rewritten more specifically the hhxcurriculum, which is in focus in this dissertation, was also to be modified. An unpublished draft suggested that the new Danish curriculum for hhx would foreground the importance of developing the so-called cultural competencies for the pupil (speaking, listening, writing, and reading) in relation to four main subject-areas: literature, language, media, and communication. The media dimension of school subjects should be understood in terms of both teaching with and about media. The use of ICT is anticipated, as the statements made by the teachers clearly suggest. Media pedagogy, in terms of media education or teaching about media, would be designated a high priority in this circumstance. Quantitatively it would have to increase, and the same goes for using ICT across the curriculum. This macro scenario, which would directly affect teaching at the meso-level of the classroom, was probably the reason for the intervention programme being interpreted by the participant teachers as good timing. This was made clear in statements by Peter and, later, by Karen, at the pre-experimental meeting referred to above. The project suggested a possible concrete answer to the pressing questions: How should we live up to the reform in terms of integrated media pedagogy, and how to integrate theory with practice? Indeed, just about every Danish teacher was asking these questions with varying degrees of enthusiasm. Furthermore, it is likely that MTE/StLE teachers around the world were and are being pressed by similar reforms and issues Media pedagogy and H.C. Andersen As suggested in the research question, there are three basic concepts, which must be taken into consideration so as to attain their integration: the concepts of media pedagogy, the concept of Hans Christian Andersen, and the concept of Danish, where all three are related to specific research fields. I have already touched upon Danish and the problems of characterizing this subject as mother tongue education. In the following, I will sketch the frameworks for media pedagogy and Andersen. In chapters 3 and 4 all three fields of research will be elaborated more thoroughly. The research field of media pedagogy is dominated by the concept of media literacy. However, it will be argued that the development of a new principle for media pedagogy within MTE/StLE requires the dismantling of this concept, which currently dominates. In fact, teachers and researchers worldwide who use the concept of media literacy openly admit that it is problematic and unsatisfactory. As David Buckingham and Kate Domaille (2003) have pointed out in a UNESCO survey of media education (through a questionnaire send to a representative section of internationally recognized experts), the term media literacy is often used strategically in national 10

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