Web Services Security: OpenSSO and Access Management for SOA. Sang Shin Java Technology Evangelist Sun Microsystems, Inc. javapassion.

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1 Web Services Security: OpenSSO and Access Management for SOA Sang Shin Java Technology Evangelist Sun Microsystems, Inc. javapassion.com 1

2 Agenda Need for Identity-based Web services security Single Sign-On (SSO) within an enterprise SSO across enterprises (Federated SSO) Use case scenario Identity Services OpenSSO 2

3 Need for Identity-Based Web Services Security

4 Transport Level Security End User Web Service Consumer Web Service Provider 4

5 Transport Level Security!= Identity Difficult choice between > No client authentication > Client authentication via certificates Scope of protection is limited to individual 'hops' Even with client authentication, no real non-repudiation due to difficulty of archiving and verifying message flow TLS/SSL is still essential for confidentiality and integrity at the transport level, but is not enough we need a solution at the message level 5

6 Basic Web Services Security Identity Provider End User Web Service Consumer Web Service Provider 6

7 Message Level Security Getting There Identity token carried in SOAP header > WS-Security, WS-I Basic Security Profile > Industry has converged on SAML Assertion as the token SAML allows for bearer tokens, holder-of-key tokens, audience restrictions etc Token can be archived with message But... restricting the audience to the immediate recipient leaves us with similarly limited scope of protection one hop 7

8 Requirements for Web Service Identity Identify the end user Locate the service Preserve identity > Across multiple 'hops' > Across domain boundaries > Across vendors' products Using existing technologies and idioms Maintaining privacy 8

9 Identity Web Services Identity Provider Discovery Service End User Web Service Consumer Web Service Provider 9

10 Scaling Out Identity Provider Discovery Service Web Service Provider Principal Web Service Consumer Web Service Provider/ Consumer Web Service Provider 10

11 Single Sign On (SSO) Mechanism Within an Enterprise

12 Enterprise Problems Every application wants me to log in! I have too many passwords my monitor is covered in Post-its! We're implementing Sarbanes-Oxley we need to control access to applications! We need to access outsourced functions! Our partners need to access our applications! 12

13 Web Access Management Simplest scenario is intra-enterprise Factor authentication and authorization out of web applications into web access management (WAM) solution Can use browser cookies within a DNS domain Proxy or Agent architecture implements role-based access control (RBAC) Benefits > Users get single sign-on > IT gets control 13

14 SSO Within an Enterprise Web Server Web Server SSO Server Application Server End User 14

15 How It Works SSO Server Browser Agent GET hrapp/index.html Application Redirect to SSO Server Authenticate SSO cookie GET hrapp/index.html (with SSO cookie) Is this user allowed to access hrapp/index.html? Yes! Allow request to proceed Application response 15

16 Sun Access Manager as SSO Solution Within an Enterprise

17 Web Access Management Products Sun Java System Access Manager > OpenSSO based CA (Netegrity) SiteMinder Access Manager IBM Tivoli Access Manager Oracle (Oblix) Access Manager Novell Access Maneger JA-SIG CAS JOSSO 17

18 How Access Manager Works Intercept access to a (web) resource Authenticate the user (lots of ways to do this) Issue a token (HTTP session cookie) Repeat: > > > > Intercept access to resource Use token to authorize access based on policies Provide identity attributes & data to resource Log everything that happens Until session expires or user logs out 18

19 How Access Manager Works Access Manager agents are installed to protect web resources (web sites or web-based applications) Agents interact with Access Manager policy server to handle authentication, single sign-on, and authorization requests Web User Web Agen or Applicationt Server Web or Agen Applicatio t n Server Access Manager Policy Server Directory 19

20 Login Process Initial Sign-On Process 1) Page request, but no SSOToken 2) Redirect to authentication page 3) Redirect back to original page/resource (with SSOToken) 4) Agent validates token 1 Web User 2 Web Server 3 Agen t 4 Agen t Web Server Access Manager Policy Server Directory 20

21 Web Single Sign-On (simple version) Accessing subsequent sites or applications: 1) Page request (with SSOToken) 2) Agent validates token Variations on this for sites in different DNS domains and federation (not explained or depicted here) Web User 1 Web Server Agen t 2 Agen t Web Server Access Manager Policy Server Directory 21

22 Access Manager Architecture Web Browser HTTP(S) C Applications Web / Application Server Web / J2EE Container Java Applications SDK Policy Agent Distributed Auth SDK XML/HTTP(S) HTTP(S) XML/HTTP(S) Web / J2EE Container Access Manager Services Java Applications SDK Java APIs Access Manager APIs Admin CLI (XML) Access Manager Framework SPI (Service Provider Interface) Plugin Modules Custom Plugin Modules Plugin Modules Provided by Sun Java System Access Manager Custom Plugin Modules Sun Java System Directory Server Java APIs 22

23 Enterprise Problems Every application wants me to log in! I have too many passwords my monitor is covered in Post-its! We're implementing Sarbanes-Oxley we need to control access to applications! We need to access outsourced functions! Our partners need to access our applications! 23

24 Single Sign On Across Enterprises (Federated SSO)

25 Single Sign-On Across Enterprises (Federated SSO) Cookies no longer work > Need a more sophisticated protocol Can't mandate single vendor solution > Need standards for interoperability 25

26 Single Sign-On Standards Liberty Phase 1 Liberty Federation Liberty ID-FF 1.1,1.2 = SAML1 SAML1.1 Shibboleth 1.0,1.1 SAML2 Shibboleth 1.2 WS-Federation WS-Federation

27 SAML 2.0 Concepts Profiles Combining protocols, bindings, and assertions to support a defined use case Bindings Mapping SAML protocols onto standard messaging or communication protocols Authentication Context Detailed data on types and strengths of authentication Protocols Request/response pairs for obtaining assertions and doing ID management Assertions Authentication, attribute and entitlement information Metadata IdP and SP configuration data 27

28 SSO Across Enterprises (Federated SSO) Service Provider Service Provider Identity Provider Service Provider End User 28

29 Federated SSO (via SAML) Identity Provider Browser Service Provider GET hrapp/index.html Redirect with SAML Request SAML Authentication Request Authenticate HTML form with SAML Response SAML Response Response Service Provider examines SAML Response and makes access control decision 29

30 The Federated SSO Concept Log in Web User Be recognized Excite.com (Authentication authority) Pets.com (Relying party) 30

31 Federated SSO Example (1 of 2) 2 User is redirected to Identity Provider. User logs in. Authentication Authority (IdP) 3 User is authenticated. Web User 1 Service Provider uses HTTP redirect or form post to Identity Provider. Relying Party (SP) 31

32 Federated SSO Example (2 of 2) 4 Redirect back to the Service Provider with a nonce embedded in the URL. Authentication Authority 6 Web User 5 Relying party receives nonce in the redirect process. Relying party invokes SAML-based web service to obtain an authentication assertion. Relying Party 32

33 SAML 2.0 Assertion (Abbreviated!) <Assertion Version="2.0" ID="..." IssueInstant=" T16:42:28Z"> <Issuer> <Signature>...</Signature> <saml:subject> <saml:nameid Format="urn:oasis:...:persistent"...> ZG0OZ3JWP9yduIQ1zFJbVVGHlQ9M </saml:nameid> <saml:subjectconfirmation Method="urn:oasis:...:bearer"> <saml:subjectconfirmationdata.../> </saml:subjectconfirmation> </saml:subject> <saml:conditions NotBefore=" T16:42:28Z" NotOnOrAfter=" T16:52:28Z"> <saml:audiencerestriction> <saml:audience> </saml:audience> </saml:audiencerestriction> </saml:conditions> <saml:authnstatement AuthnInstant=" T16:42:28Z"...> <saml:authncontext> <saml:authncontextclassref> urn:oasis:...:passwordprotectedtransport </saml:authncontextclassref> </saml:authncontext> </saml:authnstatement> </saml:assertion> 33

34 SAML 2.0 Adoption Sun, IBM, CA all the usual suspects, except Microsoft OpenSSO (Sun) > Java, PHP, Ruby OpenSAML (Internet2) > Java, C++ SimpleSAMLphp (Feide) LASSO (Entr'ouvert) > C/SWIG ZXID (Symlabs) > C/SWIG 34

35 Liberty Identity Web Services Framework (ID-WSF) Dynamic service discovery and addressing Common web services transport mechanisms to apply identity-aware message security Abstractions and optimizations to allow anything including client devices to host identity services Unified data access/management model for developers Flexibility to develop arbitrary new services User privacy through use of pseudonyms 35

36 ID-WSF 2.0 February 2005 October 2006 SAML 2.0 > Bootstrap from SAML 2.0 single sign-on > SAML 2.0 tokens People Service > End user group, role management > Cross-provider principal references Subscription, notification > Building on Data Services Template (DST) specification 36

37 Identity Services

38 Identity Services Authentication, Authorization, Audit, and Provisioning (AAAP) exposed as Services Focused on enabling developers, simplifying security Container plug-ins for runtime injection and validation of Identity Tokens > Glassfish, WebSphere, WebLogic; possibly Tomcat, JBOSS Reusable AAAP services as building blocks for Business Integration and Composite Applications Supported on developers IDEs of choice > NetBeans, Eclipse, Visual Studio 38

39 Why Identity Services? AAAP are core services in any identity-enabled application whether for security or personalization Injecting and consuming identity in applications must get easier > Runtime configuration for container as opposed to building into application Essential elements for building a Secure Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) 39

40 Why Identity Services? Developers: > > > > Aren t focused on identity, not a core competency Need Identity Services exposed as basic building blocks Want to focus on business logic, not the identity implementation Prefer writing secure applications over security code 40

41 OpenSSO

42 What is OpenSSO? Provides an extensible implementation of an identity services infrastructure that will facilitate single sign-on for web applications hosted on web servers and application servers. Provides open, standards-based authentication and policy-based authorization with a single, unified framework Based on Sun Java System Access Manager/Federation Manager codebase Delivered as a simple WAR file that can be deployed in minutes. 42

43 What's in OpenSSO? 3 main features > Authentication & Single Sign-On > Centralized Authorization Services (Access Control) > Federation Provides the following: > > > > > > User Session Management Authentication Service Policy-based Authorization Service SAML Service Federation Service Logging Service 43

44 Identity Services through OpenSSO 44

45 OpenSSO Architecture Integrated Console Authentication Management Authentication Admin Utilities Policy Management Federation Management Authorization CLI Single Sign-on Access Manager Server Web Policy Agents Authentication Service Policy Service Session Service SAML Service Identity Repository Service Realms Delegation Service Logging Services Liberty Service J2EE Policy Agents WS Security Agents Client SDK Data Store AM Information Tree Identity Repository 45

46 Loan Processing Use Case Scenario Loan Requestor Loan Request JSP Composite Application Loan Request Loan Processor Jane requesting for Loan WSDL WSDL WSDL WSDL Access Manager Server Integrated Console Web Policy Agents Authentication Service Policy Service Session Service SAML Service Identity Repository Service Realms Delegation Service Logging Services Liberty Service J2EE Policy Agents WS Security Agents Client SDK 46

47 Participate! OpenSSO web site - > Join now! Downloads > Try it out! Mailing Lists > dev, users, announce IRC Channel - #opensso > Real-time > On-line community 47

48 Web Services Security: OpenSSO and Access Management for SOA Sang Shin Java Technology Evangelist Sun Microsystems, Inc. javapassion.com 48 48

49 Example Use Case Scenario

50 Example: Loan Processing Application Loan Requestor Loan Request JSP Composite Application Loan Request Loan Processor Jane requesting for Loan YES/NO Ship Notice Is Loan Approved Ship Notice 50

51 Example: Loan Processing Application 1.User Authentication at JSP 2.Secure Web Service Communication from JSP to CA > User Identity must be forwarded to CA 3.CA must authenticate web service request 4.CA may authorize the operation 5.CA may obtain the identity's profile 6.CA's outbound service call(s) to Loan Processor(s) > Secure the communication > Identity Federation 51

52 Requirements for Web Service Identity Identify the Principal Locate the Service Preserve Identity > Across multiple hops > Across domain boundaries > Across vendors' products Using existing technologies and idioms Maintaining privacy 52

53 Authentication Service User Credential Validation Loan Requestor > Username & Password > Liberty ID-WSF Authentication Service > X.509 > Kerberos > Generic Callbacks Security Token Generation & Validation > Liberty Discovery Service > WS-Trust (STS) > Kerberos Loan Request JSP Composite Application Jane requesting for Loan Authentication Service 53

54 Authorization Service Based on Authenticated Identity Access Control Policies XACML Fine-grain policies Loan Requestor JSP Composite Loan Request Loan Processor Application AuthZ Service AuthZ Service 54

55 Provisioning Service User Provisioning & Self-registration User Profile Management Workflow Loan Requestor SPML Loan Request JSP CompositeLoan Request Loan Processor Application Jane requesting for Loan Identity Store Identity Store 55

56 Federated Identities Account Linking Liberty ID-FF SAML v2 WS-Federation Loan Requestor JSP Composite Loan Request Loan Processor Application Identity Store Account Federation Identity Store 56

57 Configuration Mechanisms Using APIs (product specific APIs) WSIT, JSR 196 (Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers) Plugin Policy Agent plugin for standard Application Servers JAX-WS Handlers Servlet filter 57

58 Container Plugins Loan Requestor Loan Request JSP Composite Application Loan Request Loan Processor Jane requesting for Loan User Authentication * Set Subject * Self Registration * Profile Management *... * Authenticate Request * Message Integrity * Authorize Request * Set Subject *... * Secure Web Service * Message Integrity * Confidentiality * Profile Attributes *... * 58

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