Positive Behavior Support: Addressing the Behavior of All Students

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1 Positive Behavior Support: Addressing the Behavior of All Students Alina Rodriguez, Curriculum Support Specialist Division of Special Education Clinical Behavioral Services

2 Topics of Discussion Provide a comparison of RtI and PBS Review Elements of PBS PBS Team, Administrative Support Faculty Commitment, Participation Effective Discipline Data Entry & Analysis Expectations & Rules Reward/Recognition Program Lesson Plans for Teaching Behavior Provide additional resources

3 Multi-tiered What is RtI? Problem solving approach Committed leadership with well-defined roles Collaborative team processes Effective coaching and team facilitation Problem solving process approach consistently used Evidence-based instruction/intervention Behavioral and academic skills are learned and taught Written practices, policies, and implementation plans Use of evidence-based programs and practices Intensity and method of professional development aligned with expected responsibilities of trainees Coaching activities included in professional development in which implementation is the goal

4 What is RtI? Increasing levels of intensity Recognizes that behavioral and academic skills are learned and taught Decisions based on data Evaluation included effectiveness of interventions and fidelity of implementation Progress monitoring

5 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support? The application of evidence-based strategies and systems to assist schools to increase academic performance, increase safety, decrease problem behavior, and establish positive school cultures.

6 Positive Behavior Support Aims to build effective environments in which positive behavior is more effective than problem behavior Is a collaborative, assessment-based approach to developing effective interventions for problem behavior Emphasizes the use of preventative, teaching, and reinforcement-based strategies to achieve meaningful and durable behavior and lifestyle outcomes

7 Tiers of PBS Tier 1 (Universal) Procedures and processes intended for all students, staff, in specific settings and across campus Tier 1 & 2 (Classroom) Processes and procedures that reflect school-wide expectations for student behavior coupled with pre-planned strategies applied within classrooms Tier 2 (Supplemental) Processes and procedures designed to address behavioral issues of groups of students with similar behavior problems or behaviors that seem to occur for the same reasons (i.e. attention seeking, escape) Tier 3 (Intensive) Processes and procedures reflect schoolwide expectations for student behavior coupled with teambased strategies to address problematic behaviors of individual students

8 Tiered Model of School Supports & the Problem- Solving Process ACADEMIC and BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS Tier 3: Intensive, Individualized Interventions & Supports The most intense (increased time, narrowed focus, reduced group size) instruction and intervention based upon individual student need provided in addition to and aligned with Tier 1 & 2 academic and behavior instruction and supports. Tier 2: Targeted, Supplemental Interventions & Supports More targeted instruction/intervention and supplemental support in addition to and aligned with the core academic and behavior curriculum. For academics or behavior, RtI principles & characteristics are the same across tiers. Tier 1: Core, Universal Instruction & Supports General academic and behavior instruction and support provided to all students in all settings. Florida s State Transformation Team on RtI (Dec. 3, 2009)

9 Responding to Behavior: Traditionally Reactive/Consequence Strategies Office referral, detention, suspensions, etc. Used to try to teach the right way May actually reinforce the behavior of concern Individual counseling and therapy Restrictive and segregated settings Implement packaged programs

10 Traditional Discipline versus PBS Traditional Discipline: Goal is to stop undesirable behavior through the use of punishment Focuses on the student s problem behavior Positive Behavior Support: Goal is to stop undesirable behavior by: Replacing with a new behavior or skill Altering environments Teaching appropriate skills Rewarding appropriate behavior

11 What will PBS look like in our school? Data will be used to help track progress and identify areas to target for intervention Discipline referral Processes & Procedures will be Consistent throughout the school The school will develop and use school-wide Expectations & Rules in settings across campus to Teach students appropriate behavior A Reward System will be used to encourage and model appropriate behavior and Effective Consequences will be developed and used to discourage inappropriate behavior.

12 Elements of School-wide PBS PBS Team, Administrative Support Faculty Commitment, Participation Effective Discipline Data Entry & Analysis Expectations & Rules Reward/Recognition Program Lesson Plans for Teaching Behavior Implementation Planning Classroom PBS Systems Evaluation

13 PBS Team TEAM MEETS AT LEAST MONTHLY TO: Assess the current behavior management practices Examine patterns of behavior Obtain staff commitment Develop a school-wide plan Obtain parental participation and input Oversee, monitor, and evaluate all planned objectives and activities developed by team

14 School PBS Team Tasks Develop the School-Wide PBS action plan Monitor behavior data Hold regular team meetings (at least monthly) Maintain communication with staff and coach Evaluate progress Report outcomes to Coach/Facilitator & District Coordinator

15 Participation from Administration Administrators should actively communicate their commitment to the process Administrator should be familiar with school s current data and reporting system Efforts regarding change have potential to fade without administrative support If a principal is not committed to the change process, it is unwise to move forward in the process

16 Buy-In: We re in it for the long haul Staff and administrator commitment is essential for success Work towards maintaining 80% buy-in Emphasize that PBS is a 3-5 year process: PBS is not a pre-packaged plan and is often a philosophical shift for staff, expect some initial resistance Rewards and incentives for staff often help maintain and boost staff participation

17 It Is an Ongoing Process Faculty buy-in is NOT a one shot deal, it needs to be ongoing and a continuous process Just like a good marriage, diet plan. Need to get faculty support for ALL critical elements prior to implementation Present everything to your faculty as a draft waiting for their input More likely to get faculty support and implement with fidelity Consider an election process

18 Office vs. Teacher-Managed A clear distinction must exist between problem behaviors that are teacher/staff managed versus problem behaviors that are office-managed or crisis

19 Office-Managed Incidents Defined: Discipline incidents that must be handled by the administration. These may include but are not limited to: physical fights, property damage, drugs, weapons, tobacco, etc.

20 Defined: Teacher-Managed Incidents Discipline incidents that can be handled by the classroom teacher and usually do not warrant a discipline referral to the office*. These may include but are not limited to: tardiness to class, lack of classroom material, incomplete classroom assignments, gum chewing, etc. * These incidences are still tracked but the consequence is delivered by the teacher in the classroom

21 Emergency or Crisis Incidents Defined: Discipline incidents that require immediate response from administration and/or crisis response team. These incidences may cause short-term change to a school s Positive Behavior Support Plan and may include: Bomb Threats, Weapons Alerts, Intruder, Fire Evacuations, etc. *These incidents do not necessarily result in an ODR Purpose: Maintain order and safety during emergency situations *Each school is urged to consult their district and school policies for emergency/crisis incidents

22 Office Discipline Referral (ODR) Forms In formatting the referral form, you must make sure to answer the following questions: Who What When Why Where Clarity on the referral form takes the guess work out of the data entry person s job Data will be more reliable and accurate as judgment calls are minimized

23 Characteristics of a Referral Form The following categories need to be included on the form: Student s Name Date Time of Incident Student s Teacher (optional) Student s Grade Level Referring Staff Location of Incident Problem Behavior Possible Motivation Others Involved Administrative Decision Other Comments (BRIEF Narrative)

24 The Discipline Referral Process Should Include: A System for Notifying: Staff involved with the discipline of a particular student Parents to avoid inconsistencies The system should not rely entirely on the student s ability and/or willingness to inform parents of problems Students to remind them of their responsibilities if the intervention will not be administered immediately

25 NO YES DISCIPLINE FLOW CHART Verbal Warning. Restate Expectation/rule Behavior ceases. No further action Write Referral (Attach teacher tracking forms if applicable.) 2 nd Step (Same behavior) Complete Tracking form Behavior ceases. Send the student with the referral to Room 1. Intervention No further action Administration determines course of action or consequences 3 rd Step (Same behavior) Complete Tracking form Intervention Contact Parent 4 th Step (Same behavior) Seek Assistance from PBS Team Behavior ceases. No further action a) Copy of referral and/or letter sent to the parent b) School retains copies c) Copy of referral to (how given to teacher?) teacher for files (when? time frame?) Data Entry procedures followed: Data Clerk enters daily into Terms

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27 Use the Existing Database Where behaviors are occurring (i.e., setting) What types of behaviors are occurring What types of consequences are delivered to discipline students When problem behaviors occur most frequently How many discipline referrals, suspensions, and/or expulsions occurred last school year How many faculty are absent daily Other (loss of instruction time, absences, ESE referrals, etc.)

28 Designing Solutions If many students are making the same mistake, it is typically the system that needs to change, NOT the students Teach, monitor and reward before relying on punishment

29 Why Haven t Traditional Punishments Been Effective? Not related to the function of the behavior! If a student tries to avoid a task by disrupting and the teacher sends him to the office or to time out, then: The behavior has served it s function The task has been avoided, and The student will see no need to change

30 Is Suspension Working? Suspension is a strong indicator a student will drop out of school (Achilles, et al, 2007; Cassidy & Jackson, 2005) Suspension does not appear to be a deterrent for future misconduct (Achilles, et al, 2007; Anderson & Kincaid, 2005; Costenbader & Markson, 1997; Bacon, 1990) OSS is often used to provide relief to teachers, and doesn t address the issues that led to misbehavior (Morrison & Skiba, 2001) Students removed by suspension are often those who need to be in school (academics) (Christle et al., 2004) Suspension is most frequently doled out to minority students, low SES and those served by special education (Achilles, et al, 2007)

31 Guidelines for Identifying Expectations Identify behaviors expected of all students and staff in all settings Select 3 to 5 behaviors State expectations in positive terms Select expectations that are general enough to be applicable in multiple settings, but specific enough to be of assistance in generating rules for targeted settings

32 How Are Expectations and Rules Similar? Both should be limited in number (3-5) Both should be positively stated Both should be aligned with the school s mission statement & policies Both should clarify criteria for successful performance

33 How Rules are Different Rules describe specific behaviors: Observable Measurable Rules may apply to a limited number of settings Rules clarify the SW-Expectations for specific settings

34 Keeping it Out There Tickets/Tokens with the school-wide expectations typed on them Posters - written and graphic cues in the setting where the behaviors are expected Agendas/Planning Book Covers School Marquee

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40 Why Develop a School-Wide Reward System? Rewards are effective when: used to build new skills or sustain desired skills used with contingent delivery of rewards for specific behavior gradually faded over time Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, 2004

41 Why Develop a School-Wide Reward System? The immediate reward (ticket/token) acts as a teaching tool for desired behavior Focuses staff & student attention on desired behaviors The immediate reward is a bridge to long-term reward The immediate reward increases likelihood of repeating the desired behavior Fosters a positive school climate Reduces the need for engaging in time-consuming disciplinary measures Access to long-term reward increases the power of the immediate reinforcer

42 What is Behavior? ANYTHING we SAY or DO: Focus on what is observable rather than intentions HOW WE REACT to our environment Behaviors are LEARNED and continue because they serve a PURPOSE or FUNCTION We engage in behaviors because we have learned that a DESIRED OUTCOME occurs

43 Importance of Basic Behavior Principles Must know why behavior is occurring to develop an effective intervention plan When you understand what is happening at your school and why it is happening, your team will be able to change how things work (the system) to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior

44 Top Behavior Principles 1) Understand the function (WHY) of behavior 2) Understanding comes from observation of ABCs 3) Antecedents precede and increase the likelihood of behavior (PREVENTION STRATEGIES) 4) Behavior tends to be repeated or discontinued because of the consequences/outcomes 5) Consequences should be consistent and immediate 6) Modeling can strengthen or weaken behavior

45 If a child doesn t know how to read, we teach. If a child doesn t know how to swim, we teach. If a child doesn t know how to multiply, we teach. If a child doesn t know how to drive, we teach. If a child doesn t know how to behave, we teach? punish? Why can t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others? (Herner, 1998)

46 My School s Expectations 1. Be Safe 2. Be Responsible 3. Be Respectful Once you have developed expectations and rules, it is not enough to just post words on the walls of the school YOU MUST TEACH THEM CONSISTENTLY ACROSS CAMPUS!

47 Why Develop a System for Teaching Behavior? Behaviors are prerequisites for academics Procedures and routines create structure Repetition is key to learning new skills: For a child to learn something new, it needs to be repeated on average of 8 times For a child to unlearn an old behavior and replace with a new behavior, the new behavior must be repeated on average 28 times (Harry Wong)

48 Why Develop a System for Teaching Behavior? We must assume: Students will require different curricula, instructional modalities, etc to learn appropriate behavior We need to teach expectations/rules and appropriate behaviors as effectively as we teach academic skills

49 How Do We Teach Behavior? Introductory Events: Teaching school expectations and rules On-going Direct Instruction: Social skills programs (LEAPS, Character Ed., etc ) Embedding in Curricula Academics Refresher Trainings Keeping it Out There: School pledges, songs, cheers Daily announcements

50 LEAPS Behavior Curriculum

51 198 Social and Emotional Development Lesson Plans Multi-Modal Assessments Group Assessments Tiered Benchmarks Individual and Group Monitoring and Modalities Automated Reporting for Fidelity and Progress

52 For more information about Leaps or to schedule an online demonstration, please call (877) or visit Register now for additional webinars in the Changing Behaviors Educational Webinar Series: The 411 on Behavioral RTI What, When, Where and Why Behavioral Response to Intervention: Tier 1 Yes, Your Teachers Can! Behavioral Response to Intervention: Tiers 2 & 3 Making Interventions Matter

53 Additional Resources

54 Directors: Rob Horner & George Sugai USF: Don Kincaid, Heather George, & Glen Dunlap

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56 Click Here

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58 Click Here

59 Click Here

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61 Teacher I have come to a frightening conclusion. I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that created the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess tremendous power to make a child s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or dehumanized. Dr. Haim Ginott

62 QUESTIONS? 62

63 Contact Information Robin J. Morrison, Instructional Supervisor and District PBS Coordinator Division of Special Education Phone: Florida PBS Project Website: OSEP Center on PBIS Website:

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