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1 (19) (11) EP B1 (12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION (4) Date of publication and mention of the grant of the patent: Bulletin 07/36 (21) Application number: (22) Date of filing: (1) Int Cl.: G06F 1/00 (06.01) (86) International application number: PCT/US1998/ (87) International publication number: WO 1998/0444 ( Gazette 1998/) (4) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING SECURITY FOR SERVERS EXECUTING APPLICATION PROGRAMS RECEIVED VIA A NETWORK VERFAHREN UND GERÄT UM SICHERHEIT, FÜR SERVER DIE ANWENDERPROGRAMME AUSFÜHREN, DIE ÜBER S NETZWERK EMPFANGEN WURDEN, ZU GEWÄHRLEISTEN PROCEDE ET DISPOSITIF PERMETTANT DE SECURISER DES SERVEURS EXECUTANT DES PROGRAMMES D APPLICATION RE US VIA UN RESEAU (84) Designated Contracting States: DE FR GB IT () Priority: US (43) Date of publication of application: Bulletin 00/03 (73) Proprietor: SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC. Palo Alto, California 943 (US) (72) Inventors: LEE, John, Y. Mountain View, CA 941 (US) DHARMARAJ, Satish, K. Santa Clara, CA 901 (US) (74) Representative: W.P. Thompson & Co. Coopers Building Church Street Liverpool L1 3AB (GB) (6) References cited: EP-A EP-A EP-A EP B1 Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention). Printed by Jouve, 7001 PARIS (FR)

2 1 EP B1 2 Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION [0001] The present invention relates to network computing, and more specifically, to providing security for servers that receive applications programs via a network. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0002] Currently, the largest computer network in existence is the Internet, which is a worldwide interconnection of computer networks that communicate using a common protocol. The Internet grew out of work funded in the 1960s by the United States Department of Defense s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Millions of computers, from low end personal computers to high-end super computers are connected to the Internet. For many years, few outside of the academic/research community accessed the Internet. [0003] In 1989, a new type of information system known as the World-Wide Web (the Web) was introduced to the Internet. Early development of the Web took place at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory. The Web is a wide-area hypermedia information retrieval system. [0004] In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NSCA) released a Web browser called "Mosiac" that implemented a graphical user interface (GUI). Mosiac s GUI was simple to learn and allowed users to retrieve documents from the Web using simple point-and-click commands. The introduction of Mosaic simplified document and information retrieval over the Internet and more specifically on the Web. As a result, use of the Internet became more popular outside of the academic/research community. [000] At that time, architecture of the Web typically followed a conventional client-server model. The terms "client" and "server" are used to refer to a computer s general role as a requester of data (the client) or provider of data (the server). In the Web environment, Web browsers, such as Mosaic, reside in clients and Web documents reside in servers. Web clients and Web servers communicate using a protocol called "HyperText Transfer Protocol" (HTTP). A browser opens a connection to a server and initiates a request for a document. The server delivers the requested document, typically in the form of a text document coded in a standard HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format. [0006] In 1994, a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems released a Web browser based on a programming language developed at Sun called Java. Programs written in Java are architecture neutral such that the programs run on any platform that supports Java. The programs are architecture neutral because they are compiled into a series of byte-codes that are not hardware specific and thus can be downloaded and executed on many different computers. Byte-codes are transmitted over the Internet and then translated and executed by the receiving computer. [0007] One unique feature of Java not provided by typical Web browsers is an ability to provide applets as part of a Web page. Applets are part of a Web page, but they are downloaded and executed by the computer running a Web browser rather than the Web server. Thus, a user, with a browser that supports Java, accesses a Web page and downloads a small program that is executed locally. This, however, presents security issues not present in the traditional client-server model. [0008] To provide security, Java methods and variables are accessed by name and are executed in a restricted environment that includes a predetermined portion of memory. Furthermore, when byte-codes are received they are subjected to a verification process that determines whether the byte-codes have been modified. [0009] Security for applets may be provided in a straightforward all-or-nothing manner. For example, the applet is loaded and executed, or it is not loaded and executed. Because the applet is self-contained, it does not access local resources other than a designated, bounded region of memory. [00] Another unique feature of Java is the servlet, which is a program, like an applet, however, a servlet runs on the Web server rather than the Web browser. Servlets are typically larger than applets and/or require more resources. For example, a servlet may be a search program offered by a particular server. A user accesses the servlet by supplying search parameters. The servlet then executes a search of resources available to the server. Thus, a user may have access to certain server resources and the server may have its search software updated by a third party without any effort by the server administrator. [0011] Because servlets may require access to server resources, the all-or-nothing approach is inefficient. In order to provide a secure all-or-nothing scheme in a server that loads servlets, a standard subset of resources would be offered to all servlets. However, different servlets require different resources and different servlet sources may be worthy of different levels of trust. Thus, prior security schemes do not provide a flexible, yet secure, environment for providing servlets on a server. Therefore, it would be desirable to provide security to Web servers from potentially hostile programs, wherein permissions to access the resources of the server are granted based on the source of the program. [0012] As the Web grows, it would be desirable to provide greater access to the resources and features of the Web. Thus, many controllers of Web servers may wish to provide access to servlets developed by third parties. Therefore, it would be desirable to provide security to Web servers from potentially hostile servlets, wherein access to the resources of the server are allocated based on the source of a particular servlet. [0013] According to EP-A a security mechanism is known for distributed data processing systems, 2

3 3 EP B1 4 in particular for federated computer systems. A federated computer system is a distributed data processing system in which there is no central controller or data store. Each server is capable of operating autonomously and there is no master unit for directing the operation of the system. According to EP 9397, within a federated system, one important consideration is that of security, i.e., that both initiator servers, as well as responder servers, are sufficiently secure to meet the needs of the initiator and whether there is a suitable route between the two servers that will preserve the security of their conversations in order to enable information exchange. In response to providing server access security within a federated system, this system includes a mechanism wherein each server separately maintains security information relating to security levels in the system, such that communication between initiators and requestors requires the exchange of security information to establish an overall security level for the connection based on a combination of security information maintained by both servers. Thus EP 9397 is not directed to protecting resources within servers but rather to maintaining secure connections between servers in order to securely exchange information therebetween. [0014] According to EP-A there is known a system monitor, which limits the ability of a program about to be executed to the use of pre-defined resources. In order to do so, the system monitor accesses a data structure, including program authorization information (PAI) assigned to the program. Accordingly, when the program is to program a function or access a resource, the associated PAI is monitored to confirm that the operation is within the defined program limits. The PAI associated with the particular program may be assigned by a computer system owner/user or by someone who the computer system owner/user implicitly trusts. [001] According to a first aspect of the present invention there is provided a method for providing security within a server for granting received programs access to server resources, the method comprising: receiving a program via a network; granting to the received program one or more access privileges to resources available from the server; and loading the received program into a predetermined, bounded location in memory of the server, the method being characterized in that: the received program is a servlet; the servlet has associated with it a source identifer that uniquely identifies a source of the servlet in a secure manner; and the access privileges are individually determined for each resource based, at least in part, on the source of the servlet. [0016] According to a second aspect of the present invention there is provided an apparatus for loading a program received via a network for execution on a server and ensuring authorised access by the received program to server resources, the apparatus comprising: means for receiving the program via the network; means for granting the received program one or more access privileges to resources available from the server; and means for loading the received program into a predetermined, bounded location in memory of the server, the apparatus being characterized in that: it is adapted to receive a program in the form of a servlet having associated with it a source identifer that uniquely identifies a source of the servlet in a secure manner; and it is adapted to determine access privileges individually for each resource based, at least in part, on the source of the servlet. [0017] According to a third aspect of the present invention there is provided a machine readable medium having stored thereon data representing sequences of instructions, which when executed by a computer system, cause said computer system to perform steps comprising: receiving a program via a network from a source computer; granting to the received program one or more access privileges to resources available from the server; and loading the received program into a predetermined, bounded location in memory of the server, characterized in that: the received program is a servlet; the servlet has associated with it a source identifer that uniquely identifies a source of the servlet in a secure manner; and the access privileges are individually determined for each resource based, at least in part, on the source of the servlet. [0018] The present invention is described further hereinafter, by way of example only, in the figures of the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals refer to similar elements and in which: Figure 1 shows one embodiment of a network that may be used to practice the present invention; Figure 2 is a block diagram for practicing the present invention; and Figure 3 is a flow diagram of one embodiment of verifying a servlet and allocating resources to the 3

4 EP B1 6 servlet based on the source of the servlet according to the present invention. [0019] A method and apparatus for providing security to servers running applications programs based on the source of the application program is described. In the following description, for the purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the present invention. [00] An application program in the form of a servlet that is to be provided by a Web server along with a source identifier is received by the Web server via a network, such as, the Internet. Before loading the servlet, the server performs a verification procedure including granting access privileges based on the source identifier. Access privileges are granted or withheld for resources available to the server. If a servlet is received from a known hostile source, or if no access privileges are granted, the servlet program may be rejected. Thus, the resources defining the application program s universe, or sandbox, are determined individually based on source identifiers. [0021] Figure 1 is one embodiment of a network that may be used to practice the present invention. Internet 0 connects a plurality of hosts, such as hosts 1, 122, 124 and 126 to Web server 10. The hosts may also act as Web servers to provide files or resources to other hosts. Alternatively, Internet 0 may be a local area network (LAN) or other network that connects a plurality of computers together. [0022] In the illustrated system, a host may send a program, in particular a servlet, to Web server 10. When Web server 10 receives a servlet and a source identifier from a source computer, the source of the servlet is checked to determine the access privileges available to the servlet. Thus, Web server 10 may reject a servlet from an unknown or known hostile source, or Web server 10 may accept and load a servlet and grant access to server resources based on the source of the servlet. Once the servlet is loaded by web server 10, it may be accessed by a web browser running on a host connected to web server 10. [0023] Figure 2 is an example of a source computer coupled to a Web server via the Internet according to one embodiment of the present invention. The steps that are taken for providing security in the server according to one embodiment are show as blocks in the computer that performs that step. [0024] The servlet may be developed on a computer other than the one on which it is to be offered over a network. A servlet is written in servlet code, shown by 2. According to one embodiment, the servlet is developed in a Java environment, however, a servlet or other program may be developed in a non-java environment The servlet code is compiled, at 4, into a plurality of byte codes, shown by 6. Byte-codes are similar to machine instructions, however, they are not machine specific. Byte-length codes are used in one embodiment of the present invention, however, other code sizes may also be used. It is important to note that all of the codes are the same size. [002] A digital certificate, which includes a digital signature, represented by 8, is then appended to bytecodes 6. According to one embodiment, the digital certificate is an X.09 certificate. However, other source identifiers may also be used. The source identifier must provide a secure and unique identification of the signer such that the administrator of the receiving web server may trust the source identifier to authenticate the source of the servlet. [0026] The byte-codes are sent to a designated server via the Internet 0, or other network. The receiving computer, such as Web server 10 that receives the bytecodes executes a verification process 22. Verification comprises examining the source identifier, such as digital certificate 8, to a local list of known trusted sources and granting resource privileges based on that source identifier. Additionally, the verification process includes other verification techniques to determine whether the byte-codes have been modified or if the source identifier has been modified. According to one embodiment, an access control list (ACL) is maintained on Web server 10 that stores trusted sources and the privileges extended to servlets received from those sources. Resource privileges include load privileges, permission to read or to write files on the server s disk(s), network read and write privileges, execution privileges, system property access, and socket listen or connect privileges. Other privileges may also be granted. Any combination of one or more of these access privileges may be granted to a servlet. [0027] Once the byte-codes have been verified, they are translated into servlets configured to run on the architecture of Web server 10. The servlet is then loaded into the servlet s sandbox (i.e., a known, bounded area in memory and granted access only to those specific resources listed in the ACL). Once the servlet is loaded in Web server 10, Web browser 170 may access the servlet and any resources available to the servlet. Thus, resource privileges are granted on a servlet-by-servlet basis, which increases the flexibility of a Web server s security. This improved flexibility allows administrators to grant more privileges to known and trusted sources, while granting fewer privileges to new or unknown sources. By eliminating an all-or-nothing security approach, the web may offer more resources in a more convenient manner. [0028] Figure 3 is a flow diagram of one embodiment of verifying a servlet and allocating resources to the servlet based on the source of the servlet according to the present invention. In step 0, a Web server receives a servlet or other application program via a network, such as the Internet. 4

5 7 EP B1 8 [0029] In step 3 the local ACL is checked to determine what, if any, privileges are to be granted to the servlet based on the source identifier received with the servlet. The ACL may contain an entry for unsigned servlets to grant a specified level of access to all unsigned servlets. The Web server may also reject all unsigned servlets along with servlets received from a source known to be hostile. [00] If no access privileges are granted in step 3, the servlet is rejected or not loaded in step 3. If the servlet is granted access privileges in step 3, a sandbox is defined for the servlet in step 3. A sandbox defines the set of access privileges granted to the servlet. [0031] In step, the servlet is loaded by Web server 10. In addition to limitations imposed on a servlet by the sandbox to which it is assigned, other checks may be performed. For example, accesses to certain resources may be monitored by the server to guard against hostile behavior. [0032] Thus, by providing identity-based access controls, a Web server can control which servlets have access to which data. This arrangement provides protection against theft or alteration of data. In addition, by restricting a servlet to a sandbox, the Web server can control the damage that malicious code can cause. [0033] In the foregoing specification, the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments thereof. It will, however, be evident that various modifications and changes may be made thereto without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. The specification and drawings are, accordingly, to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense. Claims 1. A method for providing security within a server (10) for granting received programs (2) access to server resources (6), the method comprising: receiving a program (2) via a network (0); granting to the received program (2) one or more access privileges to resources available from the server (10); and loading the received program (2) into a predetermined, bounded location in memory of the server (10), the method being characterized in that: the received program is a servlet (2); the servlet (2) has associated with it a source identifer (8) that uniquely identifies a source of the servlet in a secure manner; and the access privileges are individually determined for each resource based, at least in part, on the source of the servlet (2) A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the source identifier is a digital signature. 3. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein granting the one or more access privileges further comprises: checking an access control list (ACL) to determine the server resources available to the received servlet (2) based on the source identifier (8). 4. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the access privileges comprise: server disk read privileges; server disk write privileges; server network read privileges; and server network write privileges.. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the access privileges comprise: execution privileges; system property access privileges; socket connect privileges; and socket listen privileges. 6. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the network (0) comprises the Internet. 7. A method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the source of the servlet (2) is a source computer (0) that generated and transmitted the servlet (2) via the network (0). 8. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the source of the servlet (2) is a signer of a digital certificate provided as the source identifier. 9. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein prior to receipt of the servlet (2), the method further comprises: generating the servlet (2); compiling the servlet (2) into a plurality of predetermined length codes (6); generating a source identifier (8) according to a source of the servlet (2); associating the source identifier (8) with the codes (6); and sending the codes (6) to the server (10) via the network (0), wherein the server (10) verifies the codes (6) and allocates access to local resources (260) based on the source identifier (8), further wherein the server (10) generates the servlet (2) based on the codes (6) received.

6 9 EP B1. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the source identifier comprises a digital signature. 11. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the plurality of predetermined length codes comprises a plurality of byte-length codes. 12. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the resources allocated comprise: server disk read privileges; server disk write privileges; server network read privileges; and server network write privileges. 13. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the resources allocated comprise: execution privileges; system property access privileges; socket connect privileges; and socket listen privileges. 14. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the network (0) comprises the Internet. 1. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the source of the servlet (2) comprises either a source computer (0) that generated the servlet (2) or a signer (1-126) of the source identifier. 16. An apparatus for loading a program (2) received via a network (0) for execution on a server (10) and ensuring authorised access by the received program to server resources, the apparatus comprising: means for receiving the program (2) via the network (0); means for granting the received program (2) one or more access privileges to resources (260) available from the server (10); and means for loading the received program (2) into a predetermined, bounded location in memory of the server (10), the apparatus being characterized in that: it is adapted to receive a program in the form of a servlet (2) having associated with it a source identifer (8) that uniquely identifies a source of the servlet (2) in a secure manner; and it is adapted to determine access privileges individually for each resource (260) based, at least in part, on the source of the servlet (2) An apparatus as claimed in claim 17, wherein the means for determining resources accessible by the server comprises an access control list (ACL) maintained on the server. 19. A machine readable medium having stored thereon data representing sequences of instructions, which when executed by a computer system, cause said computer system to perform steps comprising: receiving a program (2) via a network (0) from a source computer; granting to the received program (2) one or more access privileges to resources available from the server (10); and loading the received program (2) into a predetermined, bounded location in memory of the server (10), characterized in that: the received program is a servlet (2); the servlet (2) has associated with it a source identifer (8) that uniquely identifies a source of the servlet in a secure manner; and the access privileges are individually determined for each resource based, at least in part, on the source of the servlet (2).. A machine readable medium as claimed in claim 19, wherein the source identifier comprises a digital signature. 21. A machine readable medium as claimed in claim 19, wherein determining is further characterized by checking an access control list (ACL) to determine the server resources (260) accessible to the servlet (2) based on the source identifier (8). 22. A machine readable medium as claimed in claim 19, wherein the access privileges comprise: server disk read privileges; server disk write privileges; server network read privileges; and server network write privileges. 23. A machine readable medium as claimed in claim 19, wherein the access privileges comprise: execution privileges; system property access privileges; socket connect privileges; and socket listen privileges. 17. An apparatus as claimed in claim 16, wherein the source identifier comprises a digital signature. 6

7 11 EP B1 12 Patentansprüche Socket-Listen-Privilegien. 1. Verfahren zum Schaffen von Sicherheit in einem Server (10), um empfangenen Programmen (2) Zugang zu Serverbetriebsmitteln (6) zu gewähren, wobei das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte beinhaltet: Empfangen eines Programms (2) über ein Netzwerk (0); Gewähren, dem empfangenen Programm (2), eines oder mehrerer Zugriffsprivilegs/-ien auf vom Server (10) zur Verfügung gestellte Betriebsmittel; und Laden des empfangenen Programms (2) in eine vorbestimmte, begrenzte Position im Speicher des Servers (10), wobei das Verfahren dadurch gekennzeichnet ist, dass: das empfangene Programm ein Servlet (2) ist; mit dem Servlet (2) eine Ursprungskennung (8) assoziiert ist, die einen Ursprung des Servlets auf sichere Weise eindeutig identifiziert; und die Zugriffsprivilegien individuell für jedes Betriebsmittel wenigstens teilweise auf der Basis des Ursprungs des Servlets (2) bestimmt werden. 2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Ursprungskennung eine digitale Signatur ist. 3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Gewähren der ein oder mehreren Zugriffsprivilegien ferner Folgendes beinhaltet: Prüfen einer Zugriffskontrollliste (ACL), um die Serverbetriebsmittel, die dem empfangenen Servlet (2) zur Verfügung stehen, auf der Basis der Ursprungskennung (8) zu bestimmen. 4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Zugriffsprivilegien Folgendes umfassen: Serverplatten-Leseprivilegien; Serverplatten-Schreibprivilegien; Servernetzwerk-Leseprivilegien; und Servernetzwerk-Schreibprivilegien Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Netzwerk (0) das Internet umfasst. 7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, wobei der Ursprung des Servlets (2) ein Quellcomputer (0) ist, der das Servlet (2) über das Netzwerk (0) erzeugt und übertragen hat. 8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Ursprung des Servlets (2) ein Unterzeichner eines als Ursprungskennung bereitgestellten digitalen Zertifikats ist. 9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Verfahren vor dem Empfang des Servlets (2) ferner die folgenden Schritte beinhaltet: Erzeugen des Servlets (2); Kompilieren des Servlets (2) zu einer Mehrzahl von Codes (6) vorbestimmter Länge; Erzeugen einer Ursprungskennung (8) gemäß einem Ursprung des Servlets (2); Assoziieren der Ursprungskennung (8) mit den Codes (6); und Senden der Codes (6) zum Server (10) über das Netzwerk (0), wobei der Server (10) die Codes (6) prüft und den Zugang zu lokalen Betriebsmitteln (260) auf der Basis der Ursprungskennung (8) zuweist, und wobei der Server (10) ferner das Servlet (2) auf der Basis der empfangenen Codes (6) erzeugt.. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Ursprungskennung eine digitale Signatur umfasst. 11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Mehrzahl von Codes vorbestimmter Länge eine Mehrzahl von Byte-Längen-Codes umfasst. 12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei die zugewiesenen Betriebsmittel Folgendes umfassen: Serverplatten-Leseprivilegien; Serverplatten-Schreibprivilegien; Servernetzwerk-Leseprivilegien; und Servernetzwerk-Schreibprivilegien. 13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei die zugewiesenen Betriebsmittel Folgendes umfassen:. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Zugriffsprivilegien Folgendes umfassen: Ausführungsprivilegien; System-Property-Zugriffsprivilegien; Socket-Connect-Privilegien; und Ausführungsprivilegien; System-Property-Zugriffsprivilegien; Socket-Connect-Privilegien; und Socket-Listen-Privilegien. 14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei das Netzwerk 7

8 13 EP B1 14 (0) das Internet umfasst. 1. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei der Ursprung des Servlets (2) entweder einen Quellcomputer (0) umfasst, der das Servlet (2) erzeugt hat, oder einen Unterzeichner (1-126) der Ursprungskennung. 16. Vorrichtung zum Laden eines über ein Netzwerk (0) empfangenen Programms (2) zur Ausführung auf einem Server (10) und Gewährleisten eines autorisierten Zugriffs durch das empfangene Programm auf Serverbetriebsmittel, wobei die Vorrichtung Folgendes umfasst: Mittel zum Empfangen des Programms (2) über das Netzwerk (0); Mittel, um dem empfangenen Programm (2) ein oder mehrere Zugriffsprivileg(ien) auf vom Server (10) zur Verfügung gestellte Betriebsmittel (260) zu gewähren; und Mittel zum Laden des empfangenen Programms (2) in eine vorbestimmte, begrenzte Position im Speicher des Servers (10), wobei die Vorrichtung dadurch gekennzeichnet ist, dass: 1 2 Laden des empfangenen Programms (2) in eine vorbestimmte, begrenzte Position im Speicher des Servers (10), dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass: das empfangene Programm ein Servlet (2) ist; mit dem Servlet (2) eine Ursprungskennung (8) assoziiert ist, die einen Ursprung des Servlets auf sichere Weise eindeutig identifiziert; und die Zugriffsprivilegien individuell für jedes Betriebsmittel wenigstens teilweise auf der Basis des Ursprungs des Servlets (2) festgelegt werden.. Rechnerlesbares Medium nach Anspruch 19, wobei die Ursprungskennung eine digitale Signatur umfasst. 21. Rechnerlesbares Medium nach Anspruch 19, wobei das Bestimmen ferner durch Prüfen einer Zugriffskontrollliste (ACL) gekennzeichnet ist, um die Serverbetriebsmittel (260), auf die das Servlet (2) zugreifen kann, auf der Basis der Ursprungskennung (8) zu bestimmen. sie so gestaltet ist, dass sie ein Programm in Form eines Servlets (2) empfängt, mit dem eine Ursprungskennung (8) assoziiert ist, die einen Ursprung des Servlets (2) auf sichere Weise eindeutig identifiziert; und sie so gestaltet ist, dass sie Zugriffsprivilegien individuell für jedes Betriebsmittel (260) wenigstens teilweise auf der Basis des Ursprungs des Servlets (2) festlegt. 17. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 16, wobei die Ursprungskennung eine digitale Signatur umfasst. 18. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 17, wobei das Mittel zum Ermitteln von Betriebsmitteln, auf die der Server zugreifen kann, eine auf dem Server geführte Zugriffskontrollliste (ACL) umfasst. 19. Rechnerlesbares Medium, auf dem Daten gespeichert sind, die Folgen von Befehlen repräsentieren, die bei Ausführung durch ein Computersystem bewirken, dass das Computersystem die folgenden Schritte ausführt: Rechnerlesbares Medium nach Anspruch 19, wobei die Zugriffsprivilegien Folgendes umfassen: Serverplatten-Leseprivilegien; Serverplatten-Schreibprivilegien; Servernetzwerk-Leseprivilegien; und Servernetzwerk-Schreibprivilegien. 23. Rechnerlesbares Medium nach Anspruch 19, wobei die Zugriffsprivilegien Folgendes umfassen: Ausführungsprivilegien; System-Property-Zugriffsprivilegien; Socket-Connect-Privilegien; und Socket-Listen-Privilegien. Revendications 1. Un procédé destiné à sécuriser un serveur (10) afin d accorder à des programmes reçus (2) un accès à des ressources de serveur (6), le procédé comprenant : Empfangen eines Programms (2) über ein Netzwerk (0) von einem Quellcomputer; Gewähren, dem empfangenen Programm (2), eines oder mehrerer Zugriffsprivilegs/-ien auf vom Server (10) zur Verfügung gestellte Betriebsmittel; und la réception d un programme (2) par l intermédiaire d un réseau (0), l attribution au programme reçu (2) d un ou plusieurs droits d accès à des ressources disponibles auprès du serveur (10), et le chargement du programme reçu (2) dans 8

9 1 EP B1 16 une zone prédéterminée et délimitée de la mémoire du serveur (10), le procédé étant caractérisé en ce que : le programme reçu est un miniserveur (2), le miniserveur (2) possède associé à ce dernier un identifiant source (8) qui identifie de manière unique une source du miniserveur d une manière sécurisée, et les droits d accès sont déterminés individuellement pour chaque ressource en fonction, au moins en partie, de la source du miniserveur (2). 2. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où l identifiant source est une signature numérique. 3. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où l attribution des un ou plusieurs droits d accès comprend en outre : la consultation d une liste de contrôle d accès (ACL) afin de déterminer les ressources de serveur disponibles pour le miniserveur reçu (2) en fonction de l identifiant source (8). 4. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où les droits d accès comprennent : des droits de lecture sur le disque du serveur, des droits d écriture sur le disque du serveur, des droits de lecture sur le réseau du serveur et des droits d écriture sur le réseau du serveur.. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où les droits d accès comprennent : des droits d exécution, des droits d accès aux propriétés du système, des droits de connexion au port et des droits d écoute du port. 6. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où le réseau (0) comprend l Internet. 7. Un procédé selon la Revendication 6, où la source du miniserveur (2) est un ordinateur source (0) qui a généré et transmis le miniserveur (2) par l intermédiaire du réseau (0). 8. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où la source du miniserveur (2) est un signataire d un certificat numérique fourni en tant qu identifiant source. 9. Un procédé selon la Revendication 1, où avant de recevoir le miniserveur (2), le procédé comprend en outre : la génération du miniserveur (2), la compilation du miniserveur (2) en une pluralité de codes d une longueur prédéterminée (6), la génération d un identifiant source (8) selon une source du miniserveur (2), l association de l identifiant source (8) avec les codes (6) et l envoi des codes (6) au serveur (10) via le réseau (0) où le serveur (10) vérifie les codes (6) et attribue un accès à des ressources locales (260) en fonction de l identifiant source (8), et où en outre le serveur (10) génère le miniserveur (2) en fonction des codes (6) reçus.. Un procédé selon la Revendication 9, où l identifiant source comprend une signature numérique. 11. Un procédé selon la Revendication 9, où la pluralité de codes d une longueur prédéterminée comprend une pluralité de codes d une longueur d octet. 12. Un procédé selon la Revendication 9, où les ressources attribuées comprennent : des droits de lecture sur le disque du serveur, des droits d écriture sur le disque du serveur, des droits de lecture sur le réseau du serveur, et des droits d écriture sur le réseau du serveur. 13. Un procédé selon la Revendication 9, où les ressources attribuées comprennent : des droits d exécution, des droits d accès aux propriétés du système, des droits de connexion au port, et des droits d écoute du port. 14. Un procédé selon la Revendication 9, où le réseau (0) comprend l Internet. 1. Un procédé selon la Revendication 9, où la source du miniserveur (2) comprend soit un ordinateur source (0) qui a généré le miniserveur (2) ou un signataire (1 à 126) de l identifiant source. 16. Un appareil destiné à charger un programme (2) reçu par l intermédiaire d un réseau (0) pour exécution sur un serveur (10) et destiné à garantir un accès autorisé par le programme reçu aux ressources du serveur, l appareil comprenant : un moyen de réception du programme (2) par l intermédiaire du réseau (0), un moyen d attribution au programme reçu (2) d un ou plusieurs droits d accès à des ressources (260) disponibles auprès du serveur (10), 9

10 17 EP B1 18 et un moyen de chargement du programme reçu (2) dans une zone prédéterminée et délimitée de la mémoire du serveur (10), l appareil étant caractérisé en ce que : il est adapté à recevoir un programme sous la forme d un miniserveur (2) possédant associé à ce dernier un identifiant source (8) qui identifie de manière unique une source du miniserveur (2) d une manière sécurisée, et il est adapté à déterminer individuellement des droits d accès pour chaque ressource (260) en fonction, au moins en partie, de la source du miniserveur (2). 17. Un appareil selon la Revendication 16 où l identifiant source comprend une signature numérique. 18. Un appareil selon la Revendication 17 où le moyen de déterminer les ressources accessibles par le serveur comprend une liste de contrôle d accès (ACL) entretenue sur le serveur. 19. Un support lisible par ordinateur sur lequel se trouve en mémoire des données représentant des séquences d instructions, qui, lorsqu elles sont exécutées par un système informatique, amènent ledit système informatique à exécuter des opérations comprenant : Un support lisible par ordinateur selon la Revendication 19, où la détermination est caractérisée en outre par la consultation d une liste de contrôle d accès (ACL) afin de déterminer les ressources de serveur (260) accessibles au miniserveur (2) en fonction de l identifiant source (8). 22. Un support lisible par ordinateur selon la Revendication 19, où les droits d accès comprennent : des droits de lecture sur le disque du serveur, des droits d écriture sur le disque du serveur, des droits de lecture sur le réseau du serveur, et des droits d écriture sur le réseau du serveur. 23. Un support lisible par ordinateur selon la Revendication 19, où les droits d accès comprennent : des droits d exécution, des droits d accès aux propriétés du système, des droits de connexion au port, et des droits d écoute du port. la réception d un programme (2) par l intermédiaire d un réseau (0) à partir d un ordinateur source, l attribution au programme reçu (2) d un ou plusieurs droits d accès à des ressources disponibles auprès du serveur (10), et le chargement du programme reçu (2) dans une zone prédéterminée et délimitée de la mémoire du serveur (10), 3 caractérisé en ce que : le programme reçu est un miniserveur (2), le miniserveur (2) possède associé à ce dernier un identifiant source (8) qui identifie de manière unique une source du miniserveur d une manière sécurisée, et les droits d accès sont déterminés individuellement pour chaque ressource en fonction, au moins en partie, de la source du miniserveur (2) Un support lisible par ordinateur selon la Revendication 19, où l identifiant source comprend une signature numérique.

11 EP B1 11

12 EP B1 12

13 EP B1 13

14 EP B1 REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader s convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard. Patent documents cited in the description EP A [0013] EP 9397 A [0013] [0013] EP A [0014] 14

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