Solar Water Heating TS Friday 9:00am 12:00pm Chris Wisinski

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1 Solar Water Heating TS Friday 9:00am 12:00pm Chris Wisinski

2 Solar Thermal Heating Concepts & Design Presented by: Chris Wisinski Chicago Chapter

3 Solar Overview Why Should We Use Solar? Solar Technology Collector Information Design Considerations System Types System Design and Components Chicago/ Illinois Specific Considerations System Sizing i & Tools Solar Incentives and Organizations

4 Solar Heating Systems Benefits of Solar Heating

5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT What are we saving? Residential Solar DHW system in Chicago, IL Family of 4 - Hot water demand: Solar collector system: Energy supplied by solar: 60 usg/ day Expected minimum lifetime of system - 20 years 2 Collectors / 80 Gallon Storage Tank 11,010,000 Btu/year Energy supplied in 20 years: 220,200, Btu Emission reduction in 20 years: 16.5 tons of CO lbs of NO X 1950 lbs of CO

6 Designing for LEED LEED is about reducing energy & water usage Design building to require less energy Design building systems to be more efficient Use strategies to maximize efficiency and reduce upfront costs Use systems that help to meet requirements of multiple categories

7 Why Use Solar? LEED Credits: SS Credit 7.1 Heat Island non roof 1 credit E&A Credit 2 Renewable Resources: 1 7 credits Reduce reliance on natural gas or electricity for water heating Reduce pollution emissions

8 LEED v3 Sustainable Sites 26 points Water Efficiency 10 points Energy & Atmosphere 35 points Materials & Resources 14 points Indoor Environmental Quality 15 points Innovation & Design Process 6 points Regional Priority 4 points

9 LEED v3 (2009) 100 Base points, 6 ID & 4 RP points: Certified points: Silver points: Gold 80 + points: Platinum

10 Solar Heating Systems Principles of Solar Thermal Energy

11 THE SOLAR CONSTANT is the AMOUNT OF ENERGY that the SUN EMITS 440 BTUH/ft % is absorbed and scattered Btuh/ft 2 reaches surface

12 Radiation Types

13 Outer 440 Btuh/ft 2 32 Btuh/ft 2 space Atmosphere Losses by scattering Direct solar radiation Diffuse solar radiation Losses by absorption 95 Btuh/ft 2 Earth s surface Global radiation 315 Btuh/ft 2

14 GLOBAL RADIATION Mainly diffuse radiation Mainly direct radiation Irradiated power in Btu/ft 2

15 HOW SOLAR ENERGY IS COLLECTED

16 Collector Losses Global radiation 315 Btuh/ft 2 Collector losses 95 Btuh/ft 2 Max collector available power Btuh/ft 2 Losses are Optical & Thermal 15-20% (50-60 BTU/ft 2 ) represents Optical losses Thermal depends on difference between ambient temperatures and fluid temperature Run it Cool!

17 Outer space 440 Btuh/ft 2 32 Btuh/ft 2 Losses by scattering Atmosphere Earth s surface Direct solar radiation Diffuse solar radiation Losses by absorption 95 Btuh/ft 2 Global l radiation 315 Btuh/ft 2 Max collector available Collector losses power Btuh/ft Btuh/ft 2

18 Monthly Global Radiation Every location on earth has different radiation levels

19 Global Radiation in United States

20 Solar Heating Systems Solar Panel Comparisons

21 Solar Collector Types 1. Solar Thermal collectors 2. Solar Photovoltaic collectors

22 Photovoltaic Systems Charge Battery Negative electrode Boundary layer n-endowed silicon p-endowed silicon Positive electrode

23 Solar Thermal Systems Direct heating of a liquid heat transfer fluid for DHW, space or pool heating Tank is the Battery

24 Solar Panel Types WHY SOLAR THERMAL??? Solar Thermal collectors Solar Photovoltaic collectors Flat Plate Collector: 12 Sq Ft Panel 3 Hr Avg Peek Output around 2000 Watts PV Collector: 12 Sq Ft Panel 3 Hr Avg Peek Output around 300 Watts 7-8 times the energy out of a Solar Thermal Collector At around 1/2 to 1/3 the Cost

25 Thermal Solar Panel Types Parabolic collector / Concentrating Solar Collector High Cost & Capacity Used in Power Generation Construction: Adjusting Mirrors concentrate solar energy on a focal line Evacuated glass tube collector pipe with fluid heat transfer fluid Sends high temperature fluid to heat exchanger

26 Thermal Solar Panel Types Concentrating Solar Coolector Collectors direct energy to single line or point Heat Exchangers produce steam for Turbines Extremely high temperatures 450 o F +

27 Pool Collector Thermal Solar Panel Types Unglazed / Uncovered Low Cost & Capacity Construction: Rubber or plastic tubing directly exposed to the sun Good at heating only slightly above outdoor temperature Do not work for year-round applications

28 Thermal Solar Panel Types Pool Collector Unglazed / Uncovered Use filter pump to pump water through panels

29 Thermal Solar Panel Types Example of unglazed flat plate collector Used commonly on outdoor swimming pools

30 Solar Panel Ratings rating.com rating

31 Selective Surface Coatings on Panels

32 Flat plate collector: Medium cost Construction: Glazed Solar Panels Aluminum frame c/w insulation Copper tube c/w absorber sheet Low iron tempered glass cover Vacuum tube collector: Highest cost Construction: Vacuum sealed glass tube Copper tube c/w absorber sheet Insulated heat transfer header

33 Flat Plate Collector Flat Plate Collectors Gross area ft 2 Length Width 48 Depth 3-4 Weight lb

34 Vacuum Tube Collector Evacuated tube collector: Glazed collector based on the heat pipe principle

35 Vacuum tube collector Collector components Rubber retaining bands Heat exchanger header (1) Vacuum tubes (20 or 30) Installation rails with tube mounts

36 Vacuum tube collector Pi Principal i of operation Cross Section Condenser Evacuated glass tube Absorber plate Flexible connector Vapor Double-pipe heat exchanger Liquid Heat pipe

37 Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

38 Vacuum Tube Collector Integrated temperature limiting thermal valve in condenser tip that prevents the system fluid from overheating during stagnation ti NOT BUILT TO BE A periods (periods of sunshine with TEMPERATURE no heat consumption) CONTROLLER!

39 Evacuated tube collector 30 Tubes 30 Tubes 49ft 2 20 Tubes 32ft 2

40 Solar Panel Comparison Flat Plate Panels Best suited for Medium temperature applications Sloped roof mounting DHW heating Indoor pool heating Evacuated Tube Panels Best suited for Hightemperature applications Heating & Cooling Process and space heating Roofs facing difficult angles

41 Solar Panel Comparison Flat plate collector: Advantages: 1/2 to 1/3 the cost of vacuum tube collector Multiple mounting options (mount at any angle) Vacuum tubes must be 25 degrees or higher Vacation Mode operation shed excess heat Does not allow snow / frost accumulation Comparable cloudy day performance Allowable for drainback application Disadvantages: Not suitable for higher temperature generation Support mechanism necessary for flat roof mounting (anchoring against wind load)

42 Solar Panel Comparison Vacuum tube collector: Advantages: Higher efficiency with large temp differences between air and absorber More effective for space heating and air-conditioning applications Easier replacement within a panel Absorbers can be turned towards sun direction Disadvantages: Higher cost than flat plate Must be at least 25 o inclination No N true Vacation Mode operation Cannot be used in drainback operation Difficulties when reaching excessive temperatures

43 Solar Panel Comparison Snow melts off and accumulates below collector Snow reflection actually helps performance Snow or frost accumulates Snow or frost accumulates on panel, panel does not contain enough heat to melt it, blocking sunlight

44 Collector Efficiency Summer Day Sunny Day Performance 1.4 Run it Cool! Outside Air Temperature 80 F Fluid Temperature in Panels 120 F Temperature Difference (40 F) Panel Ou utput - 1,00 00 BTU/ft 2 /day Temperature difference (F) between fluid and outside air CLEAR Flat plate CLEAR Vacuum tube

45 Collector Losses Global radiation 315 Btuh/ft 2 Collector losses 95 Btuh/ft 2 Max collector available power Btuh/ft 2 Losses are Optical & Thermal 15-20% (50-60 BTU/ft 2 ) represents Optical losses Thermal depends on difference between ambient temperatures and fluid temperature Run it Cool!

46 Collector OUTPUT Run it Cool! 1.4 Panel Ou utput - 1,00 00 BTU/ft 2 /day Temperature difference (F) between fluid and outside air Vacuum tube CLEAR MILD CLOUDY CLEAR MILD CLOUDY Flat plate

47 Flat Plate Solar Panel Comparison Evacuated Tube

48

49 Solar Heating Systems Design Considerations

50 Collector Angle of Inclination Collector performance best Collector performance best when suns rays 90 o to surface

51 Collector Angle of Inclination Optimum angle of inclination: Solar DHW heating only Latitude of location Solar DHW & Space heating Latitude of location +15 o Chicago - 42 North Latitude

52 United States Latitudes

53 Collector Azimuth Angle N W E S Direct south facing is best 45 o west or east of south acceptable

54 Notes on Azimuth Remember 45 degrees within South is acceptable within 10% system performance If the panels must face East or West, significant shading will occur for portions on the day Lay the panels flatter if this is required If the panels must face North Please move the building to the southern hemisphere

55 Heating Demand Vs. Solar Yield

56 Solar Fraction Chicago, IL DHW l d 60 l/d t 130 o F DHW load 60 gal/day at 130 o F Collectors 2 x 30 ft 2, 45 o slope

57 Solar System Types & Components Open System Use collector fluid directly in process - Thermosiphon - Active Closed System Collector fluid in a dedicated loop Drainback system Modification to closed systems

58 Open Loop Solar System Thermosiphon System Storage tank is placed above the panel Hot water rises through the collector and goes into the tank, displacing cold water into the panel Uses system water No true method of ffreeze protection ti without draining the system No moving parts Simple, most basic system

59 Open Loop Solar System Active System Same as a thermosiphon system but uses a pump and controller to move heated fluid out of the panel into the tank Tank can be below the solar panel Use system water No true method of freeze protection without t draining i the system

60 Closed Loop Solar System A closed loop solar system cycles an antifreeze (propylene glycol solution) through the collectors and uses a heat exchanger to transfer heat to a storage tank Freeze protection is provided by the glycol mixture Needs secondary protection from over-heating Can be: A heat dump loop Water heat dump Secondary tank Does not introduce oxygen into the panels Less likely to cause scaling and panel corrosion

61 Closed Loop Solar System Components 1. Solar Panel 2. Manual Air Vent 3. Storage Tank 4. Solenoid Valve 5. Relief Valve 6. Expansion Tank 7. Pump with Checktrol 8. Heat Exchanger 9. Thermometer 10. Glycol Fill Pump 11. Shutoff Valve 12. Pressure Gauge 13. Automatic Air Vent 14. Controller 15. Circuit Setter 16. Air Separator

62 Drainback Solar System A drainback system is a closed loop system that cycles collector fluid through a storage tank If the pump shuts off, the fluid from the solar loop dumps into this tank Helps with freeze protection and also over-heating Can use water in the panels instead of glycol mixture Does introduce oxygen into the panels More likely to cause scaling or corrosion in the panels Degrade panel life

63 Simple Drainback System

64 Drainback Solar System Integrated

65 Large Drainback Solar System

66 Large Drainback Solar System

67 Solar Heating Systems System Components

68 Solar System Controllers Differential setpoint controllers View panel temperature and tank temperature Provide signal to relay to run pump Options for freeze protection, overheat protection, and vacation modes

69 Non ASME Tank Solar & Boiler or Electric Backup Under 120 gallons Optional Top-Coil: Electric or Boiler back-up Bottom coil: Solar collectors

70 Commercial Double Wall Tank Options ASME Storage Tank w/ Double Wall Brazed Plate or U Tube HX 10 Year Non-Pro-Rated Warranty ASME Coded Unit G8 Cement Lining / Stainless Fittings Double Wall Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger Double Wall U-tube Heat Exchangers 3 Insulation 20 Gauge Steel Jacket w/ enamel paint Packaged Operating Controls

71 Plate & Frame Heat Exchanger True counter flow can deliver a Temperature Cross of the heating liquids

72 Heat Transfer to Storage Tank 160 o F o F 160 o F 120 o F 40 o F 120 o F Hot Water storage tank with internal solar coil High solar water return temperature Lower collector efficiency Hot twt Water storage tank with Plate & Frame solar heat exchanger Lower solar water return temperature (temperature cross) Higher collector efficiency 45 o F 40 o F 40 o F

73 Closed Loop Solar System Components 1. Solar Panel 2. Manual Air Vent 3. Storage Tank 4. Solenoid Valve 5. Relief Valve 6. Expansion Tank 7. Pump with Checktrol 8. Heat Exchanger 9. Thermometer 10. Glycol Fill Pump 11. Shutoff Valve 12. Pressure Gauge 13. Automatic Air Vent 14. Controller 15. Circuit Setter 16. Air Separator

74 Solar Heating Systems Safety Precautions & Codes

75 Solar System Design Consideration Stagnation temperatures & Overheating Systems can be protected against overheating in one (or more) of the following ways: Continuing to operate the pump at night when the stored water is too hot (Vacation Mode) By draining an amount of hot water from the tank By running fluid through a fan-coil or other heat dissipating medium By removing fluid from the solar panels (drainback) By covering the solar panels Install collectors on steeper angle to avoid summer stagnation and increase winter solar yield. Stopping the pump and letting the collector fluid boil in the collector IS NOT a suitable means for controlling overheating. The heat transfer fluid will break down and form caustic solution, damaging the piping, panel header, and panels

76 Heat Exchangers ASME Coded Unit Double Wall U tube Heat Exchangers Diamond back pattern allows for numerous failure paths to vent Copper (outer) / Copper (inner) Positive open air gap ILLINOIS CODE A solar heated system shall use a double walled heat exchanger which is exposed or vented to the atmosphere between the walls. May not be the case in all states

77 DHW Mixing Valves (ASSE 1017 Listed) To maximize functionality we want to get the tanks as hot as possible. This can create tank temperatures well above 120F. An ASSE 1017 rated mixing device needs to be used due to code.

78 Solar DHW Installation Example Additional Input Connect One Single Coil Solar Tank & Water Heater Tank Additional Solar Storage

79 Solar Heat Transfer Fluid / Boiling Point 400 Bo oiling tem mperature in o F Recommended concentration Propylene glycol concentration in %

80 Solar Heat Transfer Fluid/Freezing Point Freezing te emperatu ure in o F Propylene glycol l concentration ti in %

81 Closed Loop Solar System Components 1. Solar Panel 2. Manual Air Vent 3. Storage Tank 4. Solenoid Valve 5. Relief Valve 6. Expansion Tank 7. Pump with Checktrol 8. Heat Exchanger 9. Thermometer 10. Glycol Fill Pump 11. Shutoff Valve 12. Pressure Gauge 13. Automatic Air Vent 14. Controller 15. Circuit Setter 16. Air Separator

82 Storage Tanks ASME Tanks ASME Stamp required on any pressure vessel 120 gallons and larger ASME Stamp required on any heater with a BTUH input greater than 200,000 BTUH ASME Categories Section IV, Direct fired vessels Gas & Electric Water Heaters No inspection 12 x 16 manway required Section VIII, Indirect fired vessels Solar Water Heaters and Steam/Boiler Water Heaters Inspection 12 x 16 manway required

83 Hydraulic Cement Tank Linings Suitable for immersion service to 335 o F Expands & contracts at same coefficient as steel Does not require an anode Phenolic Epoxy Suitable for immersion service to 140 o F Becomes brittle and shrinks at higher temperatures Requires an anode * Glass There are holidays in the lining due to manufacturing processes Requires an anode * Anode life is greatly reduced dat higher h water temperatures, And requires periodic inspections

84 Panel Layout Keys to Performance What is the flowrate through a panel? How do off peak loads affect temperature/control? What temperature does the sensor see? How big is the piping? Heat Loss Installation cost How efficient is the system?

85 Panels in parallel / arrays in parallel 32 panels = 8 arrays GPM/panel = GPM total 2 2 1/2 pipe Vents on cold water Sensor low at end 10 o F band in summer 2 o F 4 o F in lower months

86 Panels in parallel / arrays in parallel 32 panels = 8 arrays GPM/panel = GPM total 2 2 1/2 pipe Vents on cold water Sensor low at end 10 o F band in summer 2 o F 4 o F in lower months

87 Panels in parallel / arrays in parallel 32 panels = 8 arrays GPM/panel = GPM total 2 2 1/2 pipe 1 vent on hot water Sensor high at end 10 o F band in summer 2 o F 4 o F in lower months

88 Panels in series / arrays in parallel 32 panels = 8 arrays GPM/panel = 8 12 GPM total 1 1 1/4 pipe Vents at high points Sensor high at end 40 o F band in summer 10 o F 20 o F in lower months

89 System Sizing Solar Heating Systems

90 System Sizing Parameters Examples of Rules of thumb Chicago Solar Collection Capabilities 30,000 BTU/Panel/Day Pool Heating Applications Pool area *.5 = Solar Collector Area Space Heating Applications Install 3 times the square footage of DHW collector area Chicago is at 42 Latitude DHW Application - Solar Arrays should be installed at a slope Maximum BTU for the entire year Comfort Heating Application- Solar Arrays should be installed at a slope ( or Latitude plus 15 ) FALL, WINTER, SPRING Pool Heating Application- Solar Arrays should be installed at a slope (or Latitude less ) SPRING, SUMMER, FALL IF THE SYSTEM IS UNDERSIZED, IT WILL STILL OPERATE FULL BACKUP IS REQUIRED IN ALL CASES

91 System Sizing Parameters How many collectors do I need? What size storage tank do I need?????????????

92 System Sizing Parameters Questions??? How big is the DHW load?? How much DHW is used per day # of people living in house # of apartments t

93 System Sizing Parameters Collector array sizing for Residential DHW Flat Plate Chicago Area: Small Residential For 60% ft 2 / person Solar 1 panel per 2 people Fraction Small Apartments 8-12 ft 2 / person 1 panel per 3 people Larger Apartments Larger Apartments 6 8 ft 2 / person 1 panel per 4-6 people

94 Flowrate Requirement for Collectors Flat plat collector: 0.5 to 1.25 GPM per collector 30 Sq. Ft to 1.5 GPM per collector 40 Sq. Ft. Vacuum tube collector: 0.7 to 1 GPM per collector 20 Tubes 1.0 to 1.25 GPM per collector 30 Tubes

95 Sizing Parameters Storage tank sizing Storage tank size recommended: gal / ft 2 collector

96 Sizing Parameters Commercial / Large Residential Estimate DHW usage on a per day basis Size solar panels to output daily usage during the summer 30,000 BTU/panel/day = o F / panel / day = o F / panel / day

97 Sizing Parameters Commercial / Large Residential Minimum Storage tank should be sized for the ability to absorb the entire days energy input x 1.00 (or another factor of your choice). V Tank Min = 1.00 * (1000 BTU/Day Ft 2 )* Panel Area Sq. Ft. (Tank Temp. City Water Temp) * 8.34 lb/gal V Tank Min = 1.00 * (30,000) 000) * # of panels (140 F 40 F) * 8.34 lb/gal V Tank Min = 36 x # of panels or 1.2 gallons/ sq. ft of panel (140 F 40 F) V Tank Min = 45 x # of panels or 1.5 gallons/ sq. ft of panel (120 F 40 F)

98 Solar System Sizing There are several available programs You can size a system by hand This helps best with overheating / oversizing concerns This has more difficulties with weather & sunlight patterns as well as panel orientation through the year It also makes calculating a yearly solar fraction very difficult

99 Keys To Sizing Building load Get a daily water demand Building occupancy 5 or 7 days a week Off periods (holidays, breaks, etc) Location Method of safety

100 Example: How Many Panels? 7 day a week 64 unit apartment building 64 units / o F each = 1,920 GPD (1)30 sq ft panel 30, BTU/day in summer PANELS 1,920 (120 o F 60 o F) = 960,000 BTU/day 960,000 BTU/day 30,000 BTU/panel/day = 32 panels

101 Example: How Much Storage? 7 day a week 64 unit apartment building 64 units / o F each = 1,920 GPD (1)30 sq ftpanel 30, BTU/day in summer STORAGE 960,000 BTU/day (150 o F 60 o F) 8.34lb/gal = 1,280 Gallons 960,000 BTU/day (120 o F 60 o F) 8.34lb/gal = 1,920 Gallons

102 Let s try an Example Apartment Complex 50 Units Base our sizing ii off summer performance Size Panels Size Tanks Explore Overheat Options

103 Example Demand Per Day 50 units x 18 GPD / unit = 900 Total GPD 1.5 x 8 x 1.5 GPM shower min people per unit Themost difficult part in all solar sizing Hints: Get water meter data Survey the tenants Use a design program Take an educated guess

104 Example Energy Per Day 900 Total GPD x 834x o F rise = BTU/D 375, Let s calculate the usage into an equivalent energy 1LB x 1 o F rise = 1 BTU 1 Gal x 1 o F rise = 8.34 BTU What is the desired temperature and what is the incoming temperature (remember this is for summer)

105 Example Solar Panel Count 375,300 BTU/D 31,800 panel BTU/D = 12 # of panels 24,900 How much energy can each panel produce? Base off SRCC ratings for warm weather conditions panels = 350 sq ft 15 panels = p 525 sq ft

106 Example Storage Tank Volume 375,300 BTU/D storage temp difference = # of gallons What Temperature are we storing the tank at? Do we have a mixing valve? Are the panels pressurized?

107 How to take care of excess heat Circulate into thedomestic system Use somewhere else Run through ha heat dump loop Store more water Solenoid valve to drain Drainback System Momentarily stall panels Cover the panels

108 How to take care of excess heat Circulate into thedomestic system Add energy input to the system Lowest cost Dissipated by the recirculation system Wt Water heaters shut off and stay off Use somewhere else Condenser water reheat Could be simple

109 How to take care of excess heat Run through a heat dump loop Shed heat outside Isthe heat useful? Store more water Does the building run cycles? Is the usage 5 days a week? Solenoid valve to drain Dump excessively heated domestic water to Drain Cooling Tower / Evaporative Roof Cooling

110 How to take care of excess heat Drainback System Summer only operations / extended off times Lose system efficiency (start/stop and cycle) Momentarily stall panels Stop/start system draw heat away Cover the panels Seasonal off time

111 Solar Heating Systems Incentives Available

112 Cost Estimates Equipment Solar Panels $1,000 $2,500 / panel StorageTanks $1,500 $3,000 $3 000 / 100 gallons Heat Exchangers $300 $500 / panel Pumps $500 $2,000 $2 000 / system Controls & Electrical $1,000 $10,000 / system Misc Equipment $500 $5,000 / system Piping & Insulation $500 $15,000 / system Total appx $3,000 $5,000 / panel

113 Cost Estimates Equipment 24 panels Solar Panels = $45,000 Storage Tanks = $30, Heat Exchangers = $14,000 Pumps = $1,000 Controls & Electrical = $3,000 MiscEquipment i = $2,000 Piping & Insulation = $5,000 Total Equipment Cost = $100,000

114 Cost Estimates Installation Usually similar to equipment costs (x 1 1.5) For 24 panel $100, equipment Additional $125, Panels Installed cost appx $225,000.

115 Cost Estimates What else has impact on cost Roof Mounting Piping Distances Packaged equipment not as much influence on total cost Crane / Roof coordination Can we reduce the cost?

116 Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy Federal Tax Credit - Commercial 30% Tax Credit for commercial buildings Solar. The grant is equal to 30% of the basis of the property for solar energy. Eligible solar-energy property includes equipment that uses solar energy to generate electricity, to heat or cool (or provide hot water for use in) a structure, t or to provide solar process heat. Passive solar systems and solar pool-heating systems are not eligible. Hybrid solar- lighting systems, which use solar energy to illuminate the inside of a structure using fiber-optic distributed sunlight, are eligible.

117 Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy Federal Tax Credit - Residential 30% Tax Credit for residential buildings $2,000 Cap Limit

118 Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy Examples of Local Opportunities Beyond Grants & Rebates Tax Assessment Recognition Building Permitting Assistance Solar Energy Equipment is valued at no more than a conventional energy system / no addition to property value for taxes Possible partial waiver of consultant code review fees and expedited permitting process

119 Government Support gov

120 Additional Support National trade association for the solar industry Solar Industry employs about y p y 100,000 Americans

121 Government Support How long will it last? The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Tax credits are available for 30% of the cost, with NO CAP through 2016 for: Geothermal lheat tpumps Solar Hot Water Systems Small Residential Wind Systems Solar Photovoltaics The cap has been removed for residential applications. Equipment must be SRCC Rated Total Cost = Install + Equip State Subsidies

122 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT What are we saving? Residential Solar DHW system in Chicago, IL Family of 4 - Hot water demand: Solar collector system: Energy supplied by solar: 60 usg/ day 2 Collectors / 80 Gallon Storage Tank 11,010,000 Btu/year Expected minimum lifetime e of system - 20 years Energy supplied in 20 years: 220,200,000 Btu Emission reduction in 20 years: 16.5 tons of CO lbs of NO X 1950 lbs of CO

123 Solar Water Heating Chris Wisinski Chicago Chapter

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