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1 Section 5 INTRODUCTION TO LAND NAVIGATION Key Points 1 Understanding Azimuths 2 Converting Azimuths 3 Determining Elevation 4 Calculating Distance on a Map Tactics and Techniques Track

5 202 SECTION 5 Figure 5.2 Measuring an Azimuth This is the same method you will use to determine the grid azimuth between any two points on the map. 1. Place your protractor on the map with the index mark at the center of the known point and the base line parallel to a vertical, north-south grid line. 2. Using your pencil, make a small tick mark on the map at the edge of the protractor at the desired azimuth. Remember that your protractor will have degrees on the inner scale and mils on the outer scale. Ensure the tick mark on the map is beside the desired azimuth in degrees and not mils. 3. Lift and reposition the protractor so you can use its side as a straightedge. Draw a line connecting the known point and the tick mark on the map. This is your grid direction line your azimuth.

10 Introduction to Land Navigation 207 Figure 5.6 Example of a Contour Interval Note Figure 5.7 Points on Contour Lines Critical Thinking e Why is it important for you to know how to determine elevation on a military map? Think about the azimuth you will plot on your map in order to travel from point A to point B. How will knowing elevation help you when navigating from point A to point B? Can knowing the elevation help you decide which azimuths or routes to take to your destination?

12 Introduction to Land Navigation 209 Figure 5.9 Transferring Map Distance to Paper Strip Figure 5.10 Measuring Straight-Line Map Distance

14 Introduction to Land Navigation 211 Figure 5.11 Measuring a Curved Line

16 Introduction to Land Navigation 213 Key Words azimuth grid azimuth back azimuth declination diagram References Field Manual , The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad. 28 March Field Manual , Map Reading and Land Navigation. 18 January Department of the Army, XVIII Airborne Corps and US Army Center of Military History. (10 June 1991). Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Oral History Interview DSIT AE 108. Fort Bragg, NC, and Washington, DC. Retrieved 8 July 2005 from

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