# SOCIETY OF ACTUARIES/CASUALTY ACTUARIAL SOCIETY EXAM P PROBABILITY EXAM P SAMPLE QUESTIONS

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1 SOCIETY OF ACTUARIES/CASUALTY ACTUARIAL SOCIETY EXAM P PROBABILITY EXAM P SAMPLE QUESTIONS Copyright 5 by the Society of Actuaries and the Casualty Actuarial Society Some of the questions in this study note are taken from past SOA/CAS examinations. P-9-5 PRINTED IN U.S.A. Page of 8

2 . A survey of a group s viewing habits over the last year revealed the following information: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) 8% watched gymnastics 9% watched baseball 9% watched soccer 4% watched gymnastics and baseball % watched baseball and soccer % watched gymnastics and soccer 8% watched all three sports. Calculate the percentage of the group that watched none of the three sports during the last year. (A) 4 (B) 36 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 6 Page of 8

3 . The probability that a visit to a primary care physician s (PCP) office results in neither lab work nor referral to a specialist is 35%. Of those coming to a PCP s office, 3% are referred to specialists and 4% require lab work. Determine the probability that a visit to a PCP s office results in both lab work and referral to a specialist. (A).5 (B). (C).8 (D).5 (E) You are given P[A B] =.7 and P[A B ] =.9. Determine P[A]. (A). (B).3 (C).4 (D).6 (E).8 Page 3 of 8

4 4. An urn contains balls: 4 red and 6 blue. A second urn contains 6 red balls and an unknown number of blue balls. A single ball is drawn from each urn. The probability that both balls are the same color is.44. Calculate the number of blue balls in the second urn. (A) 4 (B) (C) 4 (D) 44 (E) An auto insurance company has, policyholders. Each policyholder is classified as (i) (ii) (iii) young or old; male or female; and married or single. Of these policyholders, 3 are young, 46 are male, and 7 are married. The policyholders can also be classified as 3 young males, 3 married males, and 4 young married persons. Finally, 6 of the policyholders are young married males. How many of the company s policyholders are young, female, and single? Page 4 of 8

5 (A) 8 (B) 43 (C) 486 (D) 88 (E) A public health researcher examines the medical records of a group of 937 men who died in 999 and discovers that of the men died from causes related to heart disease. Moreover, 3 of the 937 men had at least one parent who suffered from heart disease, and, of these 3 men, died from causes related to heart disease. Determine the probability that a man randomly selected from this group died of causes related to heart disease, given that neither of his parents suffered from heart disease. (A).5 (B).73 (C).4 (D).37 (E).54 Page 5 of 8

6 7. An insurance company estimates that 4% of policyholders who have only an auto policy will renew next year and 6% of policyholders who have only a homeowners policy will renew next year. The company estimates that 8% of policyholders who have both an auto and a homeowners policy will renew at least one of those policies next year. Company records show that 65% of policyholders have an auto policy, 5% of policyholders have a homeowners policy, and 5% of policyholders have both an auto and a homeowners policy. Using the company s estimates, calculate the percentage of policyholders that will renew at least one policy next year. (A) (B) 9 (C) 4 (D) 53 (E) 7 Page 6 of 8

7 8. Among a large group of patients recovering from shoulder injuries, it is found that % visit both a physical therapist and a chiropractor, whereas % visit neither of these. The probability that a patient visits a chiropractor exceeds by.4 the probability that a patient visits a physical therapist. Determine the probability that a randomly chosen member of this group visits a physical therapist. (A).6 (B).38 (C).4 (D).48 (E).6 9. An insurance company examines its pool of auto insurance customers and gathers the following information: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) All customers insure at least one car. 7% of the customers insure more than one car. % of the customers insure a sports car. Of those customers who insure more than one car, 5% insure a sports car. Calculate the probability that a randomly selected customer insures exactly one car and that car is not a sports car. Page 7 of 8

8 (A).3 (B). (C).4 (D).5 (E).3. An insurance company examines its pool of auto insurance customers and gathers the following information: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) All customers insure at least one car. 64% of the customers insure more than one car. % of the customers insure a sports car. Of those customers who insure more than one car, 5% insure a sports car. What is the probability that a randomly selected customer insures exactly one car, and that car is not a sports car? (A).6 (B).9 (C).6 (D).9 (E).3 Page 8 of 8

9 . An actuary studying the insurance preferences of automobile owners makes the following conclusions: (i) (ii) (iii) An automobile owner is twice as likely to purchase collision coverage as disability coverage. The event that an automobile owner purchases collision coverage is independent of the event that he or she purchases disability coverage. The probability that an automobile owner purchases both collision and disability coverages is.5. What is the probability that an automobile owner purchases neither collision nor disability coverage? (A).8 (B).33 (C).48 (D).67 (E).8 Page 9 of 8

10 . A doctor is studying the relationship between blood pressure and heartbeat abnormalities in her patients. She tests a random sample of her patients and notes their blood pressures (high, low, or normal) and their heartbeats (regular or irregular). She finds that: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 4% have high blood pressure. % have low blood pressure. 5% have an irregular heartbeat. Of those with an irregular heartbeat, one-third have high blood pressure. Of those with normal blood pressure, one-eighth have an irregular heartbeat. What portion of the patients selected have a regular heartbeat and low blood pressure? (A) % (B) 5% (C) 8% (D) 9% (E) % 3. An actuary is studying the prevalence of three health risk factors, denoted by A, B, and C, within a population of women. For each of the three factors, the probability is. that a woman in the population has only this risk factor (and no others). For any two of the three factors, the probability is. that she has exactly these two risk factors (but not the other). The probability that a woman has all three risk factors, given that she has A and B, is 3. Page of 8

11 What is the probability that a woman has none of the three risk factors, given that she does not have risk factor A? (A).8 (B).3 (C).467 (D).484 (E).7 4. In modeling the number of claims filed by an individual under an automobile policy during a three-year period, an actuary makes the simplifying assumption that for all integers n, p n+ = 5 n claims during the period. p n, where p n represents the probability that the policyholder files Under this assumption, what is the probability that a policyholder files more than one claim during the period? (A).4 (B).6 (C). (D).8 (E).96 Page of 8

12 5. An insurer offers a health plan to the employees of a large company. As part of this plan, the individual employees may choose exactly two of the supplementary coverages A, B, and C, or they may choose no supplementary coverage. The proportions of the company s employees that choose coverages A, B, and C are 5,, and, 4 3 respectively. Determine the probability that a randomly chosen employee will choose no supplementary coverage. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Page of 8

13 6. An insurance company determines that N, the number of claims received in a week, is a random variable with P[N = n] =, where n n+. The company also determines that the number of claims received in a given week is independent of the number of claims received in any other week. Determine the probability that exactly seven claims will be received during a given two-week period. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Page 3 of 8

14 7. An insurance company pays hospital claims. The number of claims that include emergency room or operating room charges is 85% of the total number of claims. The number of claims that do not include emergency room charges is 5% of the total number of claims. The occurrence of emergency room charges is independent of the occurrence of operating room charges on hospital claims. Calculate the probability that a claim submitted to the insurance company includes operating room charges. (A). (B). (C).5 (D).4 (E).8 8. Two instruments are used to measure the height, h, of a tower. The error made by the less accurate instrument is normally distributed with mean and standard deviation.56h. The error made by the more accurate instrument is normally distributed with mean and standard deviation.44h. Assuming the two measurements are independent random variables, what is the probability that their average value is within.5h of the height of the tower? Page 4 of 8

15 (A).38 (B).47 (C).68 (D).84 (E).9 9. An auto insurance company insures drivers of all ages. An actuary compiled the following statistics on the company s insured drivers: Age of Driver Probability of Accident Portion of Company s Insured Drivers A randomly selected driver that the company insures has an accident. Calculate the probability that the driver was age 6-. (A).3 (B).6 (C).9 (D).3 (E).4 Page 5 of 8

16 . An insurance company issues life insurance policies in three separate categories: standard, preferred, and ultra-preferred. Of the company s policyholders, 5% are standard, 4% are preferred, and % are ultra-preferred. Each standard policyholder has probability. of dying in the next year, each preferred policyholder has probability.5 of dying in the next year, and each ultra-preferred policyholder has probability. of dying in the next year. A policyholder dies in the next year. What is the probability that the deceased policyholder was ultra-preferred? (A). (B). (C).7 (D).4 (E).87 Page 6 of 8

17 . Upon arrival at a hospital s emergency room, patients are categorized according to their condition as critical, serious, or stable. In the past year: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (vi) (vii) % of the emergency room patients were critical; 3% of the emergency room patients were serious; the rest of the emergency room patients were stable; 4% of the critical patients died; % of the serious patients died; and % of the stable patients died. Given that a patient survived, what is the probability that the patient was categorized as serious upon arrival? (A).6 (B).9 (C).3 (D).39 (E).64. A health study tracked a group of persons for five years. At the beginning of the study, % were classified as heavy smokers, 3% as light smokers, and 5% as nonsmokers. Results of the study showed that light smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to die during the five-year study, but only half as likely as heavy smokers. A randomly selected participant from the study died over the five-year period. Page 7 of 8

18 Calculate the probability that the participant was a heavy smoker. (A). (B).5 (C).35 (D).4 (E) An actuary studied the likelihood that different types of drivers would be involved in at least one collision during any one-year period. The results of the study are presented below. Type of driver Percentage of all drivers Teen 8% Young adult 6% Midlife 45% Senior 3% Total % Probability of at least one collision Given that a driver has been involved in at least one collision in the past year, what is the probability that the driver is a young adult driver? (A).6 (B).6 (C).9 (D). (E).5 Page 8 of 8

19 4. The number of injury claims per month is modeled by a random variable N with P[N = n] = ( n + )( n + ), where n. Determine the probability of at least one claim during a particular month, given that there have been at most four claims during that month. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A blood test indicates the presence of a particular disease 95% of the time when the disease is actually present. The same test indicates the presence of the disease.5% of the time when the disease is not present. One percent of the population actually has the disease. Calculate the probability that a person has the disease given that the test indicates the presence of the disease. Page 9 of 8

20 (A).34 (B).657 (C).945 (D).95 (E) The probability that a randomly chosen male has a circulation problem is.5. Males who have a circulation problem are twice as likely to be smokers as those who do not have a circulation problem. What is the conditional probability that a male has a circulation problem, given that he is a smoker? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Page of 8

21 7. A study of automobile accidents produced the following data: Model year Proportion of all vehicles Probability of involvement in an accident Other.46.4 An automobile from one of the model years 997, 998, and 999 was involved in an accident. Determine the probability that the model year of this automobile is 997. (A). (B).3 (C).33 (D).45 (E).5 8. A hospital receives /5 of its flu vaccine shipments from Company X and the remainder of its shipments from other companies. Each shipment contains a very large number of vaccine vials. Page of 8

22 For Company X s shipments, % of the vials are ineffective. For every other company, % of the vials are ineffective. The hospital tests 3 randomly selected vials from a shipment and finds that one vial is ineffective. What is the probability that this shipment came from Company X? (A). (B).4 (C).37 (D).63 (E) The number of days that elapse between the beginning of a calendar year and the moment a high-risk driver is involved in an accident is exponentially distributed. An insurance company expects that 3% of high-risk drivers will be involved in an accident during the first 5 days of a calendar year. What portion of high-risk drivers are expected to be involved in an accident during the first 8 days of a calendar year? (A).5 (B).34 (C).43 (D).57 (E).66 Page of 8

23 3. An actuary has discovered that policyholders are three times as likely to file two claims as to file four claims. If the number of claims filed has a Poisson distribution, what is the variance of the number of claims filed? (A) 3 (B) (C) (D) (E) 4 3. A company establishes a fund of from which it wants to pay an amount, C, to any of its employees who achieve a high performance level during the coming year. Each employee has a % chance of achieving a high performance level during the coming year, independent of any other employee. Determine the maximum value of C for which the probability is less than % that the fund will be inadequate to cover all payments for high performance. (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 6 (E) Page 3 of 8

24 3. A large pool of adults earning their first driver s license includes 5% low-risk drivers, 3% moderate-risk drivers, and % high-risk drivers. Because these drivers have no prior driving record, an insurance company considers each driver to be randomly selected from the pool. This month, the insurance company writes 4 new policies for adults earning their first driver s license. What is the probability that these 4 will contain at least two more high-risk drivers than low-risk drivers? (A).6 (B). (C).8 (D).49 (E).73 Page 4 of 8

25 33. The loss due to a fire in a commercial building is modeled by a random variable X with density function f( x) =.5( x) for < x< otherwise. Given that a fire loss exceeds 8, what is the probability that it exceeds 6? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The lifetime of a machine part has a continuous distribution on the interval (, 4) with probability density function f, where f (x) is proportional to ( + x). Calculate the probability that the lifetime of the machine part is less than 6. (A).4 (B).5 (C).47 (D).53 (E).94 Page 5 of 8

26 35. The lifetime of a machine part has a continuous distribution on the interval (, 4) with probability density function f, where f (x) is proportional to ( + x). What is the probability that the lifetime of the machine part is less than 5? (A).3 (B).3 (C).4 (D).58 (E) A group insurance policy covers the medical claims of the employees of a small company. The value, V, of the claims made in one year is described by V =,Y where Y is a random variable with density function k y < y< f( y) = otherwise, 4 ( ) for where k is a constant. What is the conditional probability that V exceeds 4,, given that V exceeds,? (A).8 (B).3 (C).7 (D). (E).5 Page 6 of 8

27 37. The lifetime of a printer costing is exponentially distributed with mean years. The manufacturer agrees to pay a full refund to a buyer if the printer fails during the first year following its purchase, and a one-half refund if it fails during the second year. If the manufacturer sells printers, how much should it expect to pay in refunds? (A) 6,3 (B) 7,358 (C) 7,869 (D),56 (E), An insurance company insures a large number of homes. The insured value, X, of a randomly selected home is assumed to follow a distribution with density function 4 3x for x> f( x) = otherwise. Given that a randomly selected home is insured for at least.5, what is the probability that it is insured for less than? (A).578 (B).684 (C).74 (D).89 (E).875 Page 7 of 8

28 39. A company prices its hurricane insurance using the following assumptions: (i) In any calendar year, there can be at most one hurricane. (ii) In any calendar year, the probability of a hurricane is.5. (iii) The number of hurricanes in any calendar year is independent of the number of hurricanes in any other calendar year. Using the company s assumptions, calculate the probability that there are fewer than 3 hurricanes in a -year period. (A).6 (B).9 (C).38 (D).6 (E).9 4. An insurance policy pays for a random loss X subject to a deductible of C, where < C <. The loss amount is modeled as a continuous random variable with density function f ( x) x for < x < = otherwise. Given a random loss X, the probability that the insurance payment is less than.5 is equal to.64. Page 8 of 8

29 Calculate C. (A). (B).3 (C).4 (D).6 (E).8 4. A study is being conducted in which the health of two independent groups of ten policyholders is being monitored over a one-year period of time. Individual participants in the study drop out before the end of the study with probability. (independently of the other participants). What is the probability that at least 9 participants complete the study in one of the two groups, but not in both groups? (A).96 (B).9 (C).35 (D).376 (E).469 Page 9 of 8

30 4. For Company A there is a 6% chance that no claim is made during the coming year. If one or more claims are made, the total claim amount is normally distributed with mean, and standard deviation,. For Company B there is a 7% chance that no claim is made during the coming year. If one or more claims are made, the total claim amount is normally distributed with mean 9, and standard deviation,. Assume that the total claim amounts of the two companies are independent. What is the probability that, in the coming year, Company B s total claim amount will exceed Company A s total claim amount? (A).8 (B).85 (C).7 (D).3 (E).4 Page 3 of 8

31 43. A company takes out an insurance policy to cover accidents that occur at its manufacturing plant. The probability that one or more accidents will occur during any given month is 3 5. The number of accidents that occur in any given month is independent of the number of accidents that occur in all other months. Calculate the probability that there will be at least four months in which no accidents occur before the fourth month in which at least one accident occurs. (A). (B). (C).3 (D).9 (E) An insurance policy pays per day for up to 3 days of hospitalization and 5 per day for each day of hospitalization thereafter. The number of days of hospitalization, X, is a discrete random variable with probability function 6 k for k =,,3, 4,5 PX ( = k) = 5 otherwise. Determine the expected payment for hospitalization under this policy. Page 3 of 8

32 (A) 3 (B) (C) (D) 7 (E) Let X be a continuous random variable with density function f ( x) x for x 4 = otherwise. Calculate the expected value of X. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Page 3 of 8

33 46. A device that continuously measures and records seismic activity is placed in a remote region. The time, T, to failure of this device is exponentially distributed with mean 3 years. Since the device will not be monitored during its first two years of service, the time to discovery of its failure is X = max(t, ). Determine E[X]. (A) + e 3 6 (B) /3 4/3 e + 5e (C) 3 (D) + 3e /3 (E) A piece of equipment is being insured against early failure. The time from purchase until failure of the equipment is exponentially distributed with mean years. The insurance will pay an amount x if the equipment fails during the first year, and it will pay.5x if failure occurs during the second or third year. If failure occurs after the first three years, no payment will be made. At what level must x be set if the expected payment made under this insurance is to be? (A) 3858 (B) 4449 (C) 538 (D) 5644 (E) 735 Page 33 of 8

34 48. An insurance policy on an electrical device pays a benefit of 4 if the device fails during the first year. The amount of the benefit decreases by each successive year until it reaches. If the device has not failed by the beginning of any given year, the probability of failure during that year is.4. What is the expected benefit under this policy? (A) 34 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 667 (E) An insurance policy pays an individual per day for up to 3 days of hospitalization and 5 per day for each day of hospitalization thereafter. The number of days of hospitalization, X, is a discrete random variable with probability function 6 k for k =,,3, 4,5 PX ( = k) = 5 otherwise. Calculate the expected payment for hospitalization under this policy. Page 34 of 8

35 (A) 85 (B) 63 (C) 68 (D) 3 (E) A company buys a policy to insure its revenue in the event of major snowstorms that shut down business. The policy pays nothing for the first such snowstorm of the year and, for each one thereafter, until the end of the year. The number of major snowstorms per year that shut down business is assumed to have a Poisson distribution with mean.5. What is the expected amount paid to the company under this policy during a one-year period? (A),769 (B) 5, (C) 7,3 (D) 8,347 (E),578 Page 35 of 8

36 5. A manufacturer s annual losses follow a distribution with density function.5.5(.6) for x > f( x) = x otherwise. To cover its losses, the manufacturer purchases an insurance policy with an annual deductible of. What is the mean of the manufacturer s annual losses not paid by the insurance policy? (A).84 (B).88 (C).93 (D).95 (E). 5. An insurance company sells a one-year automobile policy with a deductible of. The probability that the insured will incur a loss is.5. If there is a loss, the probability of a loss of amount N is K N, for N =,..., 5 and K a constant. These are the only possible loss amounts and no more than one loss can occur. Determine the net premium for this policy. Page 36 of 8

37 (A).3 (B).66 (C).7 (D). (E) An insurance policy reimburses a loss up to a benefit limit of. The policyholder s loss, Y, follows a distribution with density function: for y > 3 f( y) = y, otherwise. What is the expected value of the benefit paid under the insurance policy? (A). (B).3 (C).8 (D).9 (E). Page 37 of 8

38 54. An auto insurance company insures an automobile worth 5, for one year under a policy with a, deductible. During the policy year there is a.4 chance of partial damage to the car and a. chance of a total loss of the car. If there is partial damage to the car, the amount X of damage (in thousands) follows a distribution with density function < < f( x) = otherwise. x /.53 e for x 5 What is the expected claim payment? (A) 3 (B) 38 (C) 35 (D) 38 (E) An insurance company s monthly claims are modeled by a continuous, positive random variable X, whose probability density function is proportional to ( + x) 4, where < x <. Determine the company s expected monthly claims. (A) (B) (C) 6 3 (D) (E) 3 Page 38 of 8

39 56. An insurance policy is written to cover a loss, X, where X has a uniform distribution on [, ]. At what level must a deductible be set in order for the expected payment to be 5% of what it would be with no deductible? (A) 5 (B) 375 (C) 5 (D) 65 (E) An actuary determines that the claim size for a certain class of accidents is a random variable, X, with moment generating function M X (t) = ( 5t) 4. Determine the standard deviation of the claim size for this class of accidents. (A),34 (B) 5, (C) 8,66 (D), (E),8 Page 39 of 8

40 58. A company insures homes in three cities, J, K, and L. Since sufficient distance separates the cities, it is reasonable to assume that the losses occurring in these cities are independent. The moment generating functions for the loss distributions of the cities are: M J (t) = ( t) 3 M K (t) = ( t).5 M L (t) = ( t) 4.5 Let X represent the combined losses from the three cities. Calculate E(X 3 ). (A),3 (B),8 (C) 5,76 (D) 8, (E),56 Page 4 of 8

41 59. An insurer's annual weather-related loss, X, is a random variable with density function ( ).5.5 for x > f( x) = 3.5 x otherwise. Calculate the difference between the 3 th and 7 th percentiles of X. (A) 35 (B) 93 (C) 4 (D) 3 (E) A recent study indicates that the annual cost of maintaining and repairing a car in a town in Ontario averages with a variance of 6. If a tax of % is introduced on all items associated with the maintenance and repair of cars (i.e., everything is made % more expensive), what will be the variance of the annual cost of maintaining and repairing a car? (A) 8 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 3 (E) 374 Page 4 of 8

42 6. An insurer's annual weather-related loss, X, is a random variable with density function ( ).5.5 for x > f( x) = 3.5 x otherwise. Calculate the difference between the 5 th and 75 th percentiles of X. (A) 4 (B) 48 (C) 67 (D) 4 (E) A random variable X has the cumulative distribution function ( ) F x Calculate the variance of X. for x < x x+ = for x< for x. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Page 4 of 8

43 63. The warranty on a machine specifies that it will be replaced at failure or age 4, whichever occurs first. The machine s age at failure, X, has density function for < x < 5 f( x) = 5 otherwise. Let Y be the age of the machine at the time of replacement. Determine the variance of Y. (A).3 (B).4 (C).7 (D). (E) A probability distribution of the claim sizes for an auto insurance policy is given in the table below: Claim Size Probability What percentage of the claims are within one standard deviation of the mean claim size? Page 43 of 8

44 (A) 45% (B) 55% (C) 68% (D) 85% (E) % 65. The owner of an automobile insures it against damage by purchasing an insurance policy with a deductible of 5. In the event that the automobile is damaged, repair costs can be modeled by a uniform random variable on the interval (, 5). Determine the standard deviation of the insurance payment in the event that the automobile is damaged. (A) 36 (B) 43 (C) 433 (D) 464 (E) 5 Page 44 of 8

45 66. A company agrees to accept the highest of four sealed bids on a property. The four bids are regarded as four independent random variables with common cumulative distribution function 3 5 F( x) = ( + sin π x) for x. Which of the following represents the expected value of the accepted bid? (A) π 5/ 3/ x cos πxdx 6 5/ (B) ( + sin ) 6 3/ 5/ 4 π x dx (C) ( + sinπ ) 4 3/ 5/ x x dx (D) π cosπ ( + sinπ ) 4 3/ 5/ 4 x x dx (E) π cosπ ( + sinπ ) 3/ x x x dx 3 3 Page 45 of 8

46 67. A baseball team has scheduled its opening game for April. If it rains on April, the game is postponed and will be played on the next day that it does not rain. The team purchases insurance against rain. The policy will pay for each day, up to days, that the opening game is postponed. The insurance company determines that the number of consecutive days of rain beginning on April is a Poisson random variable with mean.6. What is the standard deviation of the amount the insurance company will have to pay? (A) 668 (B) 699 (C) 775 (D) 87 (E) An insurance policy reimburses dental expense, X, up to a maximum benefit of 5. The probability density function for X is: where c is a constant..4x c e for x f( x) = otherwise, Calculate the median benefit for this policy. Page 46 of 8

47 (A) 6 (B) 65 (C) 73 (D) 8 (E) The time to failure of a component in an electronic device has an exponential distribution with a median of four hours. Calculate the probability that the component will work without failing for at least five hours. (A).7 (B).9 (C).38 (D).4 (E).57 Page 47 of 8

48 7. An insurance company sells an auto insurance policy that covers losses incurred by a policyholder, subject to a deductible of. Losses incurred follow an exponential distribution with mean 3. What is the 95 th percentile of actual losses that exceed the deductible? (A) 6 (B) 7 (C) 8 (D) 9 (E) 7. The time, T, that a manufacturing system is out of operation has cumulative distribution function for t > Ft () = t otherwise. The resulting cost to the company is Y = T. Determine the density function of Y, for y > 4. Page 48 of 8

49 4 (A) y 8 (B) 3/ y 8 (C) 3 y (D) 6 y 4 (E) 5 y 7. An investment account earns an annual interest rate R that follows a uniform distribution on the interval (.4,.8 ). The value of a, initial investment in this account after one year is given by V =,e R. Determine the cumulative distribution function, F( v ), of V for values of v that satisfy ( ) < F v <. (A) (B) (C) (D) v/,,e,48 45 v/, 5e.4 v, 48,833, 48 5 v v (E) 5 ln.4, Page 49 of 8

50 73. An actuary models the lifetime of a device using the random variable Y = X.8, where X is an exponential random variable with mean year. Determine the probability density function f (y), for y >, of the random variable Y. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) y 8y 8y.8 8 y. e. y.8 e. (. y) e.5 (. y).5.5(. y) e.5.5(. y).5 (. y) e Let T denote the time in minutes for a customer service representative to respond to telephone inquiries. T is uniformly distributed on the interval with endpoints 8 minutes and minutes. Let R denote the average rate, in customers per minute, at which the representative responds to inquiries. Which of the following is the density function of the random variable R on the interval F H I K r? 8 (A) 5 (B) 5 3 r (C) 5 r 3r ln( ) Page 5 of 8

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