Towards sustainable and strategic management of water resources

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1 European Union Regional Policy ntrum fur -^t- 111/ Towards sustainable and strategic management of water resources European Commission Bibliothek Wasser und Umwelt (TU Darm stadt)

2 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 19 AUTHOR'S NOTE 37 INTRODUCTION 41 CHAPTER I Institutional and economic framework for water resources management and planning Legal framework for water resources management and planning Economic and financial framework for water resources management and planning Public/private interface 65 CHAPTER II Overview of water resources availability and sectoral water use Overview of water resources availability Profile of sectoral water use Exploitation and consumption indices Analysis of the main trends for water availability and use International river basin water resources Analysis of hydrological planning: The White Paper on water and the draft national irrigation plan 101 CHAPTER III Analysis of influencing factors on water resources management and planning Climate change Use of non-conventional resources Water transfers Technological development: Development of clean and water-saving technologies Research and development programmes 110 CHAPTER IV Future trends in water management and planning Economic and financial framework Licensing system for water abstraction control Implementation into national law of the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Rivers and International Lakes, approved on 24 July Evaluation of present policies and orientations for the future in the Mediterranean basin

3 CHAPTER V Assessment of setting up cooperation networks between regions (case studies: Ecowat and HYDRE) 119 ACTION PLAN 121 I. Priorities for sustainable water resources management in the Mediterranean basin 122 II. Medium- and long-term proposed actions to achieve sustainable water resources management 124 III. Measures to be taken at a national, transnational and Community level 129 GLOSSARY 133 REFERENCES 137 ANNEX Data comparability and compatibility at the European level 143 FRANCE I. Legal framework for water resources management and planning Legislation Organisations Licensing and permits 153 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Investments Public/private interface 156 III. Water quality Compliance with the directive on urban wastewater (91/271/EEC) Industrial pollution Agricultural pollution 163 References 165 Foreword 173 Introduction 173 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in France Improving data on and knowledge of the environment, ecosystems and uses Improving resource management Reducing demand Improving water quality 180 l.5.crisis management 181 Contents

4 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within a Community context Proposed recommendations within the context of transnational cooperation Proposed recommendations within a national context Proposed recommendations at river basin level 183 GREECE I. Legal framework for water resources management and planning Legislation Organisations Licensing and permits 189 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Full cost recovery Investments Public/private interface 191 III. Water quality Wastewater and sewage treatment Agricultural pollution Industrial pollution 193 References 193 Foreword 195 Introduction 195 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in Greece Improving knowledge of water resources and ecosystems Improving water resources management Improving water supply and sewage infrastructure Reducing water demand Improving and restoring water quality Preventing soil erosion Managing floods 201 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within a Community framework Proposed recommendations within a transboundary framework Proposed recommendations within a regional framework 201 Evaluation of present policies and orientations for the future in the Mediterranean basin

5 ITALY I. Legal framework of water resources management and planning Legislation Organisations Licensing and permits 210 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Full cost recovery Investment Public/private interface 217 III. Water quality 218 Compliance with the directive on urban wastewater (91/271/EEC) 218 References 219 Foreword 221 Introduction 221 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in Italy Improving monitoring of water resources and systems for water data collection Improving demand management Improving and restoring water quality Improving drought management Improving flood management 230 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within the Community framework Proposed recommendations within a transboundary framework Proposed recommendations within the national framework Proposed recommendations within the regional framework 233 PORTUGAL I. Legal framework for water resources management and planning Legislation ' Organisations Licensing and permits Towards a sustainable/strategic management of water resources

6 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Public/private interface 242 III. Water quality 242 Compliance with the directive on urban wastewater (91/271/EEC) 243 References 244 Foreword 245 Introduction Recent institutional developments Internal complexities 246 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in Portugal Improving wastewater and sewage treatment networks in medium-sized cities Improving water resources management Reducing water demand Improving and restoring water quality Conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems and wetlands Managing extreme events 252 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within the Community framework Proposed recommendations within the transboundary framework Proposed recommendations within the river basin framework Proposed recommendations within the national framework 253 Annex Water management and planning in the Algarve 254 SPAIN I. Legal framework for water resources management and planning Legislation Organisations Licensing and permits...:: 262 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Full cost recovery 268 Evaluation of present policies and orientations for the future in the Mediterranean basin 11

7 4. Investments Public/private interface 269 III. Water quality Saline intrusion Compliance with the directive on urban wastewater (91/271 /EEC) Domestic pollution Industrial pollution Agricultural pollution 273 References 274 Foreword 277 Introduction 277 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in Spain Improving ecosystems management Conserving and restoring land cover, fighting erosion and desertification Improving water resources monitoring systems and knowledge on water resources and ecosystems Reducing agricultural demand Improving and restoring water quality Improving extreme events management 284 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within the Community framework Proposed recommendations within the national framework Proposed recommendations within the transboundary framework 285 MALTA I. Legal framework for water resources management and planning Legislation Organisations Licensing and permits 290 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Full cost recovery Investments Public/private interface Towards a sustainable/strategic management of water resources

8 III. Water quality Wastewater and sewage treatment Groundwater and seawater pollution Policy measures 298 IV. Quality management policy 299 References 299 Introduction 301 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in Malta Assessing the sustainable use of existing available resources Reducing the demand Strengthening efforts for prevention and reduction of pollution Protecting and enhancing groundwater resources 304 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within the Community framework Proposed recommendations within the national framework 304 CYPRUS I. Legal framework for water resources management and planning Legislation, Organisations Licensing and permits 310 II. Economic and financial framework for water management Pricing structure and level Subsidising Full cost recovery Investment Public/private interface 314 III. Water quality Saline intrusion...::: Wastewater and sewage treatment Urban pollution Industrial pollution : Agricultural pollution 315 References 315 Evaluation of present policies and orientations for the future in the Mediterranean basin 13

9 Introduction 319 I. Medium-term and long-term priorities for sustainable water management in Cyprus Assessing the sustainable use of existing available resources Reducing the demand Improving and restoring water quality Protecting and enhancing groundwater resources Conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems and wetlands Drought management 322 II. Measures to be undertaken at the different territorial levels Proposed recommendations within the Community framework Proposed recommendations within the national framework Proposed recommendations within the watershed framework Towards a sustainable/strategic management of water resources

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