VOICE OVER IP VIEWPOINT 01/2006

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "VOICE OVER IP VIEWPOINT 01/2006"

Transcription

1 VOICE OVER IP VIEWPOINT 01/ JANUARY 2006 This paper was previously published by the National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre (NISCC) a predecessor organisation to the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI). Hyperlinks in this document may refer to resources that no longer exist. Please see CPNI s website ( for up-to-date information. Disclaimer Reference to any specific commercial product, process or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by CPNI. The views and opinions of authors expressed within this document shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. To the fullest extent permitted by law, CPNI accepts no liability for any loss or damage (whether direct, indirect or consequential and including, but not limited to, loss of profits or anticipated profits, loss of data, business or goodwill) incurred by any person and howsoever caused arising from or connected with any error or omission in this document or from any person acting, omitting to act or refraining from acting upon, or otherwise using, the information contained in this document or its references. You should make your own judgement as regards use of this document and seek independent professional advice on your particular circumstances.

2 Introduction 1. This short guide to VoIP is broken down into several sections allowing the reader to gain an understanding of the different types of VoIP available, review a summary of high-level vulnerabilities and security concerns across the various types of VoIP, and read more regarding the technical detail of VoIP. 2. Mitigation is not considered in this document which instead presents issues that should be considered when contemplating a VoIP solution. 3. Voice is probably one of the most critical services within your organisation. There is a natural assumption that the telephone will never fail and a dial tone will be heard each time the handset is picked up. 4. VoIP brings numerous perceived benefits. Cost savings Network convergence Integration with other network services New functionality 5. Attention is drawn to the issue that deployment of a VoIP solution may introduce risks not previously considered. Security provisions may affect the ability to realise the benefits listed above. 6. When people discuss VoIP it is often very difficult to know to which type they refer. Terms such as core, derived-voice, voice-over-broadband and enterprise are all used, often interchangeably, by people who do not really understand the breadth of VoIP as a technology. This Viewpoint attempts to give readers the necessary understanding to discuss VoIP with some authority. What flavours of VoIP exist? 7. VoIP can be divided into three main categories: Internet Telephony usually straight forward computer-to-computer voice or video over the internet. The volumes of internet telephony are still relatively low compared to traditional telephony and tend to have geographical pockets eg UK, USA. Internet Telephony is experiencing tremendous growth but the quality is not always consistent. Vonage and Skype are two such examples. 2

3 The diagram below illustrates how users can typically connect and make calls using the Internet. Desktop Computer Smartphone PDA Internet Gateway Gateway Standard Telephone Standard Telephone Typically, Internet Telephony software requires the user to create an online account and sign-in each time they wish to use the service. This login also provides presence information to other users who are online and signed in. Enterprise Telephony the replacement of the office private telephone exchange with an IP solution. This type of VoIP is typically high quality and is feature rich but requires high system availability and is relatively expensive to implement. Internet Firewall Call Manager Server Call Manager Corporate LAN Legacy PBX Many of the vendors offer both softphone (software that works in association with VoIP technologies and emulates a telephone on screen) and IP-phone solutions. The call manager can support networks supporting 1,000s of VoIP phones with built-in one-click calling, diverts, voic , directory services and video conferencing. 3

4 PSTN Replacement Telephony the transformation of major telecommunication operators private networks to carry voice circuits as data. Customer Environment Multi Service Access Node (MSAN) Regional Aggregator Core Node VoIP Security: So how long can you go without a voice service? 8. The vulnerabilities to VoIP come in three broad areas. Generic Protocol Implementation Vendor Specific Generic Protocol Vulnerabilities Signalling 9. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is easy to spoof as there is no strong authentication built into the protocol. SIP operates across many different architectural components: IP phones, SIP proxies and call managers, exposing a large surface area of attack. Using SIP securely requires a VoIP compliant firewall in order to ensure SIP messages are monitored for malicious content, DoS attacks and irregular calling patterns. Signalling protocol H.323 has also been seen to suffer from DoS attacks as a result of memory management exploits such as buffer overflows. 4

5 A Typical VoIP Data Packet VoIP is squeezed into data packets usually using a structure similar to below: IP Header UDP Header Transport Header Voice Data VoIP Bandwidth? A sampling rate of 8khz using 8 bit samples provides normal 64kbps good voice quality. (8x 8000 bits for each second = bits per second). Traditional telephone networks are subsequently based around 64Kb/sec channels. Various compression codecs can be used to improve this including some that compress voice to a small 15Kb/sec. Transport 10. Bandwidth exhaustion attacks are possible by flooding VoIP hardware with too many media sessions. Implementation Vulnerabilities Internet Telephony Availability 11. Using Internet Telephony services expose standard Internet threats such as spyware, malware and trojans. VoIP software is often released as freeware but provides no particular guarantees as to the reliability or integrity of the software. This type of telephony is also completely dependent on the resilience of the Internet connection used. Hardware solutions are perhaps better than the soft-phone solutions, but only if the hardware can have its firmware updated. Some predictions suggest Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) may also become a problem by filling up voic systems. It is worth noting that Internet Telephony solutions generally do not allow calls to emergency services e.g. 999, as it is currently difficult for the network to derive the emergency caller s location. Confidentiality 12. Standard spoofing techniques can easily perform man-in-the-middle attacks if the voice data is not encrypted. If the voice call traverses to the standard PSTN it is likely that any encryption will be stripped off. Malicious software may intercept the conversations or route them elsewhere. 5

6 Enterprise telephony Authentication and authorisation 13. Authentication is of paramount importance within an enterprise solution. Handsets should authenticate onto the network in order to prevent un-trusted devices operating within the network. Authorisation should also be used to prevent fraud such as prohibited long distance calling. Availability 14. Any IP telephony equipment not connected to the legacy PBX telephone exchange will cease to function in a power cut. Separate power generation for VoIP systems should be considered if the voice network is critical. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems will provide some resilience but are not a solution for lengthy power outages. SPIT may be of concern unless measures are put in place to monitor voic services. Servers may become overloaded and prevent genuine messages from being left. Converged networks increase the dependency placed on existing infrastructure such as DNS and DHCP. This should be recognised and accounted for by hardening these components and reinforcing as necessary. Confidentiality 15. Current best practice recommends encryption or at least data separation at the datalink layer to secure signalling and voice data in order to prevent sniffing at any point around the network. The issue then will be to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) is not affected if encryption is used. A VoIP firewall, or to use its correct name, a Session Border Controller, will need to be correctly configured to provide the appropriate level of protection whilst still enabling the voice and signalling to negotiate the corporate firewall. PSTN Replacement Availability 16. End-to-end reliability for the traditional telephone network is required to meet high standards, usually quoted as % (about 5 mins in a year). Next Generation Networks (NGNs) will need to ensure this high standard is continued. Communication Service Providers should ensure their networks are protected against the exposure inherent in Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) where other providers can install and interconnect their equipment. 6

7 Confidentiality 17. When replacing large amounts of critical national infrastructure such as the communications backbone of a country, assurances will be required to ensure equipment is purchased from trusted sources in order to alleviate overt attacks from untrusted support engineers or covert attacks through hardware or software implants. installed. Vendor Specific Vulnerabilities Availability 18. Most patches and security updates released by vendors have been related to protecting against denial of service attacks due to malformed packets being sent to IP phones or VoIP network equipment. Many vendors who have built their reputation on data network hardware may have little or no experience with voice telephony and the issues surrounding quality of service or security. Conclusion 19. VoIP is a large topic due to the various different flavours of implementation. It is important when moving to a VoIP solution to correctly identify the threats that affect your solution. 20. In the past the PSTN has been a relatively private network. VoIP does not provide the same physical security model. 21. Protecting your VoIP network requires a layered security approach; identify ways to protect hardware such as gateways and IP phones and the data itself, both signalling and voice. Make sure existing elements of the network that VoIP is dependent on e.g. DNS, DHCP, are identified. Ensure the elements are hardened as appropriate or supplemented with additional hardware or backup facilities. 22. Considerations should be given to the implications of a power outage on any VoIP network. Technologies such as Power over-ethernet (PoE) are now available to help provide power to the IP handset. 23. IP handsets are destined to become more intelligent with embedded operating systems included as standard. Ensure the same security principles adopted for desktop computers and laptops are applied to IP handsets where possible. 24. Business benefits such as system integration and consolidation may drive VoIP being deployed within the organisation. Ensure both the voice and data teams within the organisation work together to protect the network. Make certain that risk analysis 7

8 processes are followed before corporate databases and systems are integrated into the voice network. 25. Various estimates suggest that denial of service attacks will rise against VoIP networks as the dependency on VoIP increases. Some observers speculate that next year will see convergence-specific viruses and worms beginning to attack VoIP equipment. 26. To date the VoIP software vendors have released very few specific warnings for internet telephony but the network equipment vendors have released updates and security patches for VoIP vulnerabilities for some years now. 8

9 Annex A Voice over IP: terminology, facts and figures What VoIP technologies exist? VoIP specifications have been standardised by several bodies, including the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Layer 7 - Application The technologies supporting VoIP can be broken down into three categories. SIP Signalling used for call management. MEGACO H.248 MGCP The two main signalling protocols widely used are H.323, specified by the ITU and SIP, specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Transport Protocols used to carry the signalling and voice data. VoIP media and signalling systems use different transport protocols. Media data is carried at the transport layer typically by Real Time Protocol (RTP) which normally uses TCP or UDP as its transport protocol (usually UDP). Signalling data is typically carried using TCP but SCTP is growing in popularity as the favoured option. Gateway Control used to interface signalling and media from IP networks to legacy voice networks. Media Gateways provide conversion between traditional telephone circuits and audio signals carried on VoIP networks. Gateway control protocols such as MGCP and H.248 are used to control set up of calls on Media Gateways in response to call management requests received in signalling messages. Layer 6 - Presentation Layer 5 - Session RTP Layer 4 - Transport SCTP TCP UDP Layer 3 - Network Layer 2 - Datalink Layer 1 - Physical Signalling gateways perform a similar function converting PSTN signalling (based on SS7) into a form suitable for an IP network (carried using protocols such SIGTRAN). VoIP Quality of Service For Voice over IP to be effective several properties need to be managed carefully. The terms are explained below. Latency also known as delay. VoIP requires good end-to-end latency otherwise voice quality will be unsuitable for users. It is typically measured in milliseconds (ms). 9

10 The ITU-T recommends, in the G.114 standard, that one-way delay should be kept lower than 150ms for acceptable conversation quality. Approx. VoIP Latency: Encoding 1-30ms Travel Time 100ms Security & Routing 20-50ms Total: 170ms Careful consideration is needed when applying security to VoIP in order to keep the latency within an acceptable range. Packet Loss the real time nature of VoIP connections results in packets not normally being retransmitted if lost en-route. A lost packet will result in a glitch in the received audio. If many packets are lost the call will become unintelligible - in a similar way to that in which a mobile phone call breaks up in an area of bad reception. Jitter the measure of variation between the arrival of consecutive packets of data. VoIP devices will include a buffer to accommodate a degree of jitter but if the jitter becomes too large then the call quality will be greatly reduced. Quality of Service typically abbreviated to QoS this term is used to describe techniques that minimise latency, jitter and packet loss. Glossary INTERNET TELEPHONY Buffer Overflow an error caused when a program stores too much data in a temporary storage area. This can be exploited by hackers to execute malicious code. CODEC Coder-Decoder. Converts the analogue speech into a digital representation. Compression is achieved by a codec which uses techniques such as suppressing higher frequency components completely and removing frequency components that do not affect the intelligibility of the conversation. DNS Domain Naming System. DNS provides a translation between domain names into IP addresses. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol that dynamically assigns an IP address to a computer or IP phone. LLU Local Loop Unbundling is a process by which the incumbent s local loop lines are disconnected and connected to another provider's network. QoS Quality of Service is the combination of various factors such as Throughput, Availability, Delay, Delay Variation and Loss. SIP Session Initiation Protocol. SIP is used for setting up communication sessions across an IP network. It can setup telephony, presence, events notification and instant messaging. Soft-phone a soft-phone is computer software that works in association with VoIP technologies and emulates a telephone on screen. TCP Transmission Control Protocol. A protocol used along with Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in packets between computers over a network. UDP User Datagram Protocol. Generally assumed to be unreliable and as such a connectionless protocol. UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply. Primarily used as a backup power source for computers and network equipment to ensure on-going operation in the event of a power failure. VoWiFi Voice over WiFi. VoWiFi extends the reach of VoIP to wireless devices. Wireless coverage still prevents VoWiFi challenging GSM networks and wireless Access Points (AP) are currently insufficiently coordinated to allow users to seamlessly hop from one AP to the next. 10

11 Resources VoIP Security Alliance -This website promotes the current state of VoIP security research, VoIP security education and awareness. VoIP Architecture - This website is a good starting point for learning more about VoIP. PSTN REPLAEMENT 11

CPNI VIEWPOINT 01/2007 INTERNET VOICE OVER IP

CPNI VIEWPOINT 01/2007 INTERNET VOICE OVER IP INTERNET VOICE OVER IP AUGUST 2007 Abstract Voice over IP (VoIP) is the term used for a set of technologies that enable real time voice or video conversations to take place across IP networks. VoIP devices

More information

CPNI VIEWPOINT 02/2007 ENTERPRISE VOICE OVER IP

CPNI VIEWPOINT 02/2007 ENTERPRISE VOICE OVER IP ENTERPRISE VOICE OVER IP AUGUST 2007 Abstract Voice over IP (VoIP) is the term used for a set of technologies that enable real time voice or video conversations to take place across IP networks. VoIP devices

More information

CPNI VIEWPOINT 03/2007 HOSTED VOICE OVER IP

CPNI VIEWPOINT 03/2007 HOSTED VOICE OVER IP HOSTED VOICE OVER IP AUGUST 2007 Abstract Voice over IP (VoIP) is the term used for a set of technologies that enable real time voice or video conversations to take place across IP networks. VoIP devices

More information

Voice over IP Basics for IT Technicians

Voice over IP Basics for IT Technicians Voice over IP Basics for IT Technicians White Paper Executive summary The IP phone is coming or has arrived on desk near you. The IP phone is not a PC, but does have a number of hardware and software elements

More information

TECHNICAL NOTE 01/2006 ENGRESS AND INGRESS FILTERING

TECHNICAL NOTE 01/2006 ENGRESS AND INGRESS FILTERING TECHNICAL NOTE 01/2006 ENGRESS AND INGRESS FILTERING 20 APRIL 2006 This paper was previously published by the National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre (NISCC) a predecessor organisation to

More information

VOICE OVER IP SECURITY

VOICE OVER IP SECURITY VOICE OVER IP SECURITY February 2008 The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region The contents of this document remain the property of, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without

More information

A Brief Overview of VoIP Security. By John McCarron. Voice of Internet Protocol is the next generation telecommunications method.

A Brief Overview of VoIP Security. By John McCarron. Voice of Internet Protocol is the next generation telecommunications method. A Brief Overview of VoIP Security By John McCarron Voice of Internet Protocol is the next generation telecommunications method. It allows to phone calls to be route over a data network thus saving money

More information

Voice over IP (VoIP) Basics for IT Technicians

Voice over IP (VoIP) Basics for IT Technicians Voice over IP (VoIP) Basics for IT Technicians VoIP brings a new environment to the network technician that requires expanded knowledge and tools to deploy and troubleshoot IP phones. This paper provides

More information

An Introduction to VoIP Protocols

An Introduction to VoIP Protocols An Introduction to VoIP Protocols www.netqos.com Voice over IP (VoIP) offers the vision of a converged network carrying multiple types of traffic (voice, video, and data, to name a few). To carry out this

More information

Security and Risk Analysis of VoIP Networks

Security and Risk Analysis of VoIP Networks Security and Risk Analysis of VoIP Networks S.Feroz and P.S.Dowland Network Research Group, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom e-mail: info@network-research-group.org Abstract This paper address all

More information

FIREWALLS VIEWPOINT 02/2006

FIREWALLS VIEWPOINT 02/2006 FIREWALLS VIEWPOINT 02/2006 31 MARCH 2006 This paper was previously published by the National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre (NISCC) a predecessor organisation to the Centre for the Protection

More information

VOIP Security Essentials. Jeff Waldron

VOIP Security Essentials. Jeff Waldron VOIP Security Essentials Jeff Waldron Traditional PSTN PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) has been maintained as a closed network, where access is limited to carriers and service providers. Entry

More information

Integrate VoIP with your existing network

Integrate VoIP with your existing network Integrate VoIP with your existing network As organisations increasingly recognise and require the benefits voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) offers, they stop asking "Why?" and start asking "How?". A

More information

White Paper. Solutions to VoIP (Voice over IP) Recording Deployment

White Paper. Solutions to VoIP (Voice over IP) Recording Deployment White Paper Solutions to VoIP (Voice over IP) Recording Deployment Revision 2.1 September 2008 Author: Robert Wright (robert.wright@ultra-audiosoft.com), BSc (Hons) Ultra Electronics AudioSoft, October

More information

Overview of Voice Over Internet Protocol

Overview of Voice Over Internet Protocol Overview of Voice Over Internet Protocol Purva R. Rajkotia, Samsung Electronics November 4,2004 Overview of Voice Over Internet Protocol Presentation Outline History of VoIP What is VoIP? Components of

More information

Voice over IP (VoIP) for Telephony. Advantages of VoIP Migration for SMBs BLACK BOX. 724-746-5500 blackbox.com

Voice over IP (VoIP) for Telephony. Advantages of VoIP Migration for SMBs BLACK BOX. 724-746-5500 blackbox.com Voice over IP (VoIP) for Telephony Advantages of VoIP Migration for SMBs BLACK BOX Hybrid PBX VoIP Gateways SIP Phones Headsets 724-746-5500 blackbox.com Table of Contents Introduction...3 About Voice

More information

ICTTEN5168A Design and implement an enterprise voice over internet protocol and a unified communications network

ICTTEN5168A Design and implement an enterprise voice over internet protocol and a unified communications network ICTTEN5168A Design and implement an enterprise voice over internet protocol and a unified communications network Release: 1 ICTTEN5168A Design and implement an enterprise voice over internet protocol and

More information

The Fax on IP Networks. White Paper February 2011

The Fax on IP Networks. White Paper February 2011 The Fax on IP Networks White Paper February 2011 2 The Fax on IP Networks Contents Overview... 3 Group 3 Fax Technology... 4 G.711 Fax Pass-Through... 5 T.38 IP Fax Relay... 6 Network Design Considerations...

More information

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Real-Time Voice in a Best-Effort IP Internetwork This topic lists problems associated with implementation of real-time voice traffic in a best-effort IP internetwork.

More information

Need for Signaling and Call Control

Need for Signaling and Call Control Need for Signaling and Call Control VoIP Signaling In a traditional voice network, call establishment, progress, and termination are managed by interpreting and propagating signals. Transporting voice

More information

Receiving the IP packets Decoding of the packets Digital-to-analog conversion which reproduces the original voice stream

Receiving the IP packets Decoding of the packets Digital-to-analog conversion which reproduces the original voice stream Article VoIP Introduction Internet telephony refers to communications services voice, fax, SMS, and/or voice-messaging applications that are transported via the internet, rather than the public switched

More information

How to make free phone calls and influence people by the grugq

How to make free phone calls and influence people by the grugq VoIPhreaking How to make free phone calls and influence people by the grugq Agenda Introduction VoIP Overview Security Conclusion Voice over IP (VoIP) Good News Other News Cheap phone calls Explosive growth

More information

Voice Over IP. Priscilla Oppenheimer www.priscilla.com

Voice Over IP. Priscilla Oppenheimer www.priscilla.com Voice Over IP Priscilla Oppenheimer www.priscilla.com Objectives A technical overview of the devices and protocols that enable Voice over IP (VoIP) Demo Packet8 and Skype Discuss network administrator

More information

TECHNICAL NOTE 10/03 DEPLOYMENT GUIDANCE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

TECHNICAL NOTE 10/03 DEPLOYMENT GUIDANCE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS TECHNICAL NOTE 10/03 DEPLOYMENT GUIDANCE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS 19 NOVEMBER 2003 This paper was previously published by the National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre (NISCC) a predecessor

More information

VOIP TELEPHONY: CURRENT SECURITY ISSUES

VOIP TELEPHONY: CURRENT SECURITY ISSUES VOIP TELEPHONY: CURRENT SECURITY ISSUES Authors: Valeriu IONESCU 1, Florin SMARANDA 2, Emil SOFRON 3 Keywords: VoIP, SIP, security University of Pitesti Abstract: Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is the

More information

Threat Mitigation for VoIP

Threat Mitigation for VoIP Threat Mitigation for VoIP Bogdan Materna, VP Engineering and CTO VoIPshield Systems Third Annual VoIP Security Workshop June 2, 2006 Overview Basics VoIP Security Impact Examples of real vulnerabilities

More information

Voice over IP: Forensic Computing Implications

Voice over IP: Forensic Computing Implications Voice over IP: Forensic Computing Implications Matthew Simon and Jill Slay Enterprise Security Management Lab, Advanced Computing Research Centre University of South Australia, MAWSON LAKES, SA 5095 SIMMP002@students.unisa.edu.au

More information

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl.

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl. Introduction to Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) White Paper D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. Introduction Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) is a technology involving the use

More information

Basic Vulnerability Issues for SIP Security

Basic Vulnerability Issues for SIP Security Introduction Basic Vulnerability Issues for SIP Security By Mark Collier Chief Technology Officer SecureLogix Corporation mark.collier@securelogix.com The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is the future

More information

TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF VoIP BYPASS

TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF VoIP BYPASS TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF VoIP BYPASS Presented by Monica Cultrera VP Software Development Bitek International Inc 23 rd TELELCOMMUNICATION CONFERENCE Agenda 1. Defining VoIP What is VoIP? How to establish

More information

Recommended IP Telephony Architecture

Recommended IP Telephony Architecture Report Number: I332-009R-2006 Recommended IP Telephony Architecture Systems and Network Attack Center (SNAC) Updated: 1 May 2006 Version 1.0 SNAC.Guides@nsa.gov This Page Intentionally Left Blank ii Warnings

More information

Indepth Voice over IP and SIP Networking Course

Indepth Voice over IP and SIP Networking Course Introduction SIP is fast becoming the Voice over IP protocol of choice. During this 3-day course delegates will examine SIP technology and architecture and learn how a functioning VoIP service can be established.

More information

Voice over IP (VoIP) Overview. Introduction. David Feiner ACN 2004. Introduction VoIP & QoS H.323 SIP Comparison of H.323 and SIP Examples

Voice over IP (VoIP) Overview. Introduction. David Feiner ACN 2004. Introduction VoIP & QoS H.323 SIP Comparison of H.323 and SIP Examples Voice over IP (VoIP) David Feiner ACN 2004 Overview Introduction VoIP & QoS H.323 SIP Comparison of H.323 and SIP Examples Introduction Voice Calls are transmitted over Packet Switched Network instead

More information

VoIP Bandwidth Considerations - design decisions

VoIP Bandwidth Considerations - design decisions VoIP Bandwidth Considerations - design decisions When calculating the bandwidth requirements for a VoIP implementation the two main protocols are: a signalling protocol such as SIP, H.323, SCCP, IAX or

More information

VoIP QoS. Version 1.0. September 4, 2006. AdvancedVoIP.com. sales@advancedvoip.com support@advancedvoip.com. Phone: +1 213 341 1431

VoIP QoS. Version 1.0. September 4, 2006. AdvancedVoIP.com. sales@advancedvoip.com support@advancedvoip.com. Phone: +1 213 341 1431 VoIP QoS Version 1.0 September 4, 2006 AdvancedVoIP.com sales@advancedvoip.com support@advancedvoip.com Phone: +1 213 341 1431 Copyright AdvancedVoIP.com, 1999-2006. All Rights Reserved. No part of this

More information

VoIP Survivor s s Guide

VoIP Survivor s s Guide VoIP Survivor s s Guide Can you really save $, improve operations, AND achieve greater security and availability? Presented by Peggy Gritt, Founder and CEO of the VoIP A non-biased organization for the

More information

Comparison of Voice over IP with circuit switching techniques

Comparison of Voice over IP with circuit switching techniques Comparison of Voice over IP with circuit switching techniques Author Richard Sinden Richard Sinden 1 of 9 Abstract Voice-over-IP is a growing technology. Companies are beginning to consider commercial

More information

SIP Trunking and Voice over IP

SIP Trunking and Voice over IP SIP Trunking and Voice over IP Agenda What is SIP Trunking? SIP Signaling How is Voice encoded and transported? What are the Voice over IP Impairments? How is Voice Quality measured? VoIP Technology Confidential

More information

Application Notes. Introduction. Contents. Managing IP Centrex & Hosted PBX Services. Series. VoIP Performance Management. Overview.

Application Notes. Introduction. Contents. Managing IP Centrex & Hosted PBX Services. Series. VoIP Performance Management. Overview. Title Series Managing IP Centrex & Hosted PBX Services Date July 2004 VoIP Performance Management Contents Introduction... 1 Quality Management & IP Centrex Service... 2 The New VoIP Performance Management

More information

CPNI VIEWPOINT CONFIGURING AND MANAGING REMOTE ACCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

CPNI VIEWPOINT CONFIGURING AND MANAGING REMOTE ACCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS CPNI VIEWPOINT CONFIGURING AND MANAGING REMOTE ACCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS MARCH 2011 Acknowledgements This Viewpoint is based upon the Recommended Practice: Configuring and Managing Remote Access

More information

159.334 Computer Networks. Voice over IP (VoIP) Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology (SEAT)

159.334 Computer Networks. Voice over IP (VoIP) Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology (SEAT) Voice over IP (VoIP) Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology (SEAT) Presentation Outline Basic IP phone set up The SIP protocol Computer Networks - 1/2 Learning Objectives

More information

Voice over IP. Presentation Outline. Objectives

Voice over IP. Presentation Outline. Objectives Voice over IP Professor Richard Harris Presentation Outline Brief overview of VoIP and applications Challenges of VoIP IP Support for Voice Protocols used for VoIP (current views) RTP RTCP RSVP H.323 Semester

More information

Frequently Asked Questions about Integrated Access

Frequently Asked Questions about Integrated Access Frequently Asked Questions about Integrated Access Phone Service How are local, long distance, and international calls defined? Local access transport areas (LATAs) are geographical boundaries set by the

More information

VoIP Conferencing. The latest in IP technologies deliver the next level of service innovation for better meetings. Global Collaboration Services

VoIP Conferencing. The latest in IP technologies deliver the next level of service innovation for better meetings. Global Collaboration Services Global Collaboration Services VoIP Conferencing The latest in IP technologies deliver the next level of service innovation for better meetings. ENERGIZE YOUR CONNECTIONS Table of Contents > > Contents...

More information

Network Connection Considerations for Microsoft Response Point 1.0 Service Pack 2

Network Connection Considerations for Microsoft Response Point 1.0 Service Pack 2 Network Connection Considerations for Microsoft Response Point 1.0 Service Pack 2 Updated: February 2009 Microsoft Response Point is a small-business phone solution that is designed to be easy to use and

More information

ATA: An Analogue Telephone Adapter is used to connect a standard telephone to a high-speed modem to facilitate VoIP and/or calls over the Internet.

ATA: An Analogue Telephone Adapter is used to connect a standard telephone to a high-speed modem to facilitate VoIP and/or calls over the Internet. KEY VOIP TERMS 1 ACD: Automatic Call Distribution is a system used to determine how incoming calls are routed. When the ACD system receives an incoming call it follows user-defined specifications as to

More information

Course 4: IP Telephony and VoIP

Course 4: IP Telephony and VoIP Course 4: IP Telephony and VoIP Telecommunications Technical Curriculum Program 3: Voice Knowledge 6/9/2009 1 Telecommunications Technical Curriculum Program 1: General Industry Knowledge Course 1: General

More information

UK Interconnect White Paper

UK Interconnect White Paper UK Interconnect White Paper 460 Management Management Management Management 460 Management Management Management Management AI073 AI067 UK Interconnect White Paper Introduction The UK will probably have

More information

BYOD Guidance: Architectural Approaches

BYOD Guidance: Architectural Approaches GOV.UK Guidance BYOD Guidance: Architectural Approaches Published Contents 1. Service separation 2. Scenario 1: Exposing internal web applications 3. Scenario 2: Exposing email, calendar and contacts This

More information

An outline of the security threats that face SIP based VoIP and other real-time applications

An outline of the security threats that face SIP based VoIP and other real-time applications A Taxonomy of VoIP Security Threats An outline of the security threats that face SIP based VoIP and other real-time applications Peter Cox CTO Borderware Technologies Inc VoIP Security Threats VoIP Applications

More information

WHITE PAPER. Testing Voice over IP (VolP) Networks

WHITE PAPER. Testing Voice over IP (VolP) Networks WHITE PAPER Testing Voice over IP (VolP) Networks www.ixiacom.com P/N 915-1767-01 Rev B January 2014 2 Table of Contents VoIP Voice over IP... 4 VoIP Benefits... 4 VoIP Challenges... 4 Network requirements

More information

Voice Over IP and Firewalls

Voice Over IP and Firewalls Introduction Voice Over IP and Firewalls By Mark Collier Chief Technology Officer SecureLogix Corporation mark.collier@securelogix.com Use of Voice Over IP (VoIP) in enterprises is becoming more and more

More information

APTA TransiTech Conference Communications: Vendor Perspective (TT) Phoenix, Arizona, Tuesday, 3.19.13. VoIP Solution (101)

APTA TransiTech Conference Communications: Vendor Perspective (TT) Phoenix, Arizona, Tuesday, 3.19.13. VoIP Solution (101) APTA TransiTech Conference Communications: Vendor Perspective (TT) Phoenix, Arizona, Tuesday, 3.19.13 VoIP Solution (101) Agenda Items Introduction What is VoIP? Codecs Mean opinion score (MOS) Bandwidth

More information

Ron Shuck, CISSP, CISM, CISA, GCIA Infrastructure Security Architect Spirit AeroSystems

Ron Shuck, CISSP, CISM, CISA, GCIA Infrastructure Security Architect Spirit AeroSystems Ron Shuck, CISSP, CISM, CISA, GCIA Infrastructure Security Architect Spirit AeroSystems VOIP Components Common Threats How Threats are Used Future Trends Provides basic network connectivity and transport

More information

Securing SIP Trunks APPLICATION NOTE. www.sipera.com

Securing SIP Trunks APPLICATION NOTE. www.sipera.com APPLICATION NOTE Securing SIP Trunks SIP Trunks are offered by Internet Telephony Service Providers (ITSPs) to connect an enterprise s IP PBX to the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

More information

Combining Voice over IP with Policy-Based Quality of Service

Combining Voice over IP with Policy-Based Quality of Service TechBrief Extreme Networks Introduction Combining Voice over IP with Policy-Based Quality of Service Businesses have traditionally maintained separate voice and data networks. A key reason for this is

More information

IP Ports and Protocols used by H.323 Devices

IP Ports and Protocols used by H.323 Devices IP Ports and Protocols used by H.323 Devices Overview: The purpose of this paper is to explain in greater detail the IP Ports and Protocols used by H.323 devices during Video Conferences. This is essential

More information

How Small Businesses Can Use Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Internet Technology for Voice Communications

How Small Businesses Can Use Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Internet Technology for Voice Communications How Small Businesses Can Use Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Internet Technology for Voice Communications Small businesses will find this booklet useful for learning how VoIP works and for clarifying

More information

Application Note. Pre-Deployment and Network Readiness Assessment Is Essential. Types of VoIP Performance Problems. Contents

Application Note. Pre-Deployment and Network Readiness Assessment Is Essential. Types of VoIP Performance Problems. Contents Title Six Steps To Getting Your Network Ready For Voice Over IP Date January 2005 Overview This provides enterprise network managers with a six step methodology, including predeployment testing and network

More information

Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) SECURITY. Rick Kuhn Computer Security Division National Institute of Standards and Technology

Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) SECURITY. Rick Kuhn Computer Security Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) SECURITY Rick Kuhn Computer Security Division National Institute of Standards and Technology What is VOIP? Voice Over Internet Protocol Voice Communications over data-style

More information

Whitepaper: Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Integration Options

Whitepaper: Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Integration Options Whitepaper: Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Integration Options Document Summary This document provides information on several integration scenarios

More information

Implementing VoIP monitoring solutions. Deployment note

Implementing VoIP monitoring solutions. Deployment note Implementing VoIP monitoring solutions Deployment note Introduction With VoIP being an integral part of modern day business communications, enterprises are placing greater emphasis on the monitoring and

More information

TECHNICAL NOTE 01/02 PROTECTING YOUR COMPUTER NETWORK

TECHNICAL NOTE 01/02 PROTECTING YOUR COMPUTER NETWORK TECHNICAL NOTE 01/02 PROTECTING YOUR COMPUTER NETWORK 2002 This paper was previously published by the National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre (NISCC) a predecessor organisation to the Centre

More information

Security Guidance for Deploying IP Telephony Systems

Security Guidance for Deploying IP Telephony Systems Report Number: I332-016R-2005 Security Guidance for Deploying IP Telephony Systems Systems and Network Attack Center (SNAC) Released: 14 February 2006 Version 1.01 SNAC.Guides@nsa.gov ii This Page Intentionally

More information

VOICE OVER IP AND NETWORK CONVERGENCE

VOICE OVER IP AND NETWORK CONVERGENCE POZNAN UNIVE RSITY OF TE CHNOLOGY ACADE MIC JOURNALS No 80 Electrical Engineering 2014 Assaid O. SHAROUN* VOICE OVER IP AND NETWORK CONVERGENCE As the IP network was primarily designed to carry data, it

More information

Is Your Network Ready For IP Telephony?

Is Your Network Ready For IP Telephony? WHITE PAPER Is Your Network Ready For IP Telephony? Straight facts about IP telephony planning and deployment 1. Introduction Enterprises are rapidly adopting IP telephony for cost savings, productivity

More information

White Paper. avaya.com 1. Table of Contents. Starting Points

White Paper. avaya.com 1. Table of Contents. Starting Points White Paper Session Initiation Protocol Trunking - enabling new collaboration and helping keep the network safe with an Enterprise Session Border Controller Table of Contents Executive Summary...1 Starting

More information

Security issues in Voice over IP: A Review

Security issues in Voice over IP: A Review www.ijecs.in International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242 Volume 3 Issue 2 February, 2014 Page No. 3879-3883 Security issues in Voice over IP: A Review Rajni a, Preeti a, Ritu

More information

Hands on VoIP. Content. Tel +44 (0) 845 057 0176 enquiries@protelsolutions.co.uk. Introduction

Hands on VoIP. Content. Tel +44 (0) 845 057 0176 enquiries@protelsolutions.co.uk. Introduction Introduction This 4-day course offers a practical introduction to 'hands on' VoIP engineering. Voice over IP promises to reduce your telephony costs and provides unique opportunities for integrating voice

More information

SIP Trunking with Microsoft Office Communication Server 2007 R2

SIP Trunking with Microsoft Office Communication Server 2007 R2 SIP Trunking with Microsoft Office Communication Server 2007 R2 A Dell Technical White Paper By Farrukh Noman Dell Product Group - Enterprise THIS WHITE PAPER IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY, AND MAY

More information

Voice Over Internet Protocol(VoIP)

Voice Over Internet Protocol(VoIP) Voice Over Internet Protocol(VoIP) By Asad Niazi Last Revised on: March 29 th, 2004 SFWR 4C03 Major Project Instructor: Dr. Kartik Krishnan 1. Introduction The telecommunications companies around the world

More information

Performance of Various Codecs Related to Jitter Buffer Variation in VoIP Using SIP

Performance of Various Codecs Related to Jitter Buffer Variation in VoIP Using SIP Performance of Various Related to Jitter Buffer Variation in VoIP Using SIP Iwan Handoyo Putro Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology Petra Christian University Siwalankerto

More information

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) An Alcatel Executive Briefing August, 2002 www.alcatel.com/enterprise Table of contents 1. What is SIP?...3 2. SIP Services...4 2.1 Splitting / forking a call...4 2.2

More information

VoIP for Radio Networks

VoIP for Radio Networks White Paper VoIP for Radio Networks Revision 1.0 www.omnitronicsworld.com In the early eighties, a communications protocol was created that allowed the research community to send data anywhere in the world

More information

SIP Trunking: Deployment Considerations at the Network Edge

SIP Trunking: Deployment Considerations at the Network Edge Small Logo SIP Trunking: Deployment Considerations at the Network Edge at the Network Edge Executive Summary The move to Voice over IP (VoIP) and Fax over IP (FoIP) in the enterprise has, until relatively

More information

Goal We want to know. Introduction. What is VoIP? Carrier Grade VoIP. What is Meant by Carrier-Grade? What is Meant by VoIP? Why VoIP?

Goal We want to know. Introduction. What is VoIP? Carrier Grade VoIP. What is Meant by Carrier-Grade? What is Meant by VoIP? Why VoIP? Goal We want to know Introduction What is Meant by Carrier-Grade? What is Meant by VoIP? Why VoIP? VoIP Challenges 2 Carrier Grade VoIP Carrier grade Extremely high availability 99.999% reliability (high

More information

QoS issues in Voice over IP

QoS issues in Voice over IP COMP9333 Advance Computer Networks Mini Conference QoS issues in Voice over IP Student ID: 3058224 Student ID: 3043237 Student ID: 3036281 Student ID: 3025715 QoS issues in Voice over IP Abstract: This

More information

EarthLink Business SIP Trunking. NEC SV8300 IP PBX Customer Configuration Guide

EarthLink Business SIP Trunking. NEC SV8300 IP PBX Customer Configuration Guide EarthLink Business SIP Trunking NEC SV8300 IP PBX Customer Configuration Guide Publication History First Release: Version 1.0 May 18, 2012 CHANGE HISTORY Version Date Change Details Changed By 1.0 5/18/2012

More information

Online course syllabus. MAB: Voice over IP

Online course syllabus. MAB: Voice over IP Illuminating Technology Course aim: Online course syllabus MAB: Voice over IP This course introduces the principles and operation of telephony services that operate over Internet Protocol (IP) networks

More information

VoIP Security regarding the Open Source Software Asterisk

VoIP Security regarding the Open Source Software Asterisk Cybernetics and Information Technologies, Systems and Applications (CITSA) 2008 VoIP Security regarding the Open Source Software Asterisk Prof. Dr.-Ing. Kai-Oliver Detken Company: DECOIT GmbH URL: http://www.decoit.de

More information

Troubleshooting Voice Over IP with WireShark

Troubleshooting Voice Over IP with WireShark Hands-On Course Description Voice over IP is being widely implemented both within companies and across the Internet. The key problems with IP voice services are maintaining the quality of the voice service

More information

Integrating Voice over IP services in IPv4 and IPv6 networks

Integrating Voice over IP services in IPv4 and IPv6 networks ARTICLE Integrating Voice over IP services in IPv4 and IPv6 networks Lambros Lambrinos Dept.of Communication and Internet studies Cyprus University of Technology Limassol 3603, Cyprus lambros.lambrinos@cut.ac.cy

More information

PETER CUTLER SCOTT PAGE. November 15, 2011

PETER CUTLER SCOTT PAGE. November 15, 2011 Future of Fax: SIP Trunking PETER CUTLER SCOTT PAGE November 15, 2011 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS TODAY S SPEAKERS Peter Cutler Vice President of Sales Instant InfoSystems Scott Page Subject Matter Expert Dialogic

More information

TECHNICAL NOTE 06/02 RESPONSE TO DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE (DDOS) ATTACKS

TECHNICAL NOTE 06/02 RESPONSE TO DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE (DDOS) ATTACKS TECHNICAL NOTE 06/02 RESPONSE TO DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE (DDOS) ATTACKS 2002 This paper was previously published by the National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre (NISCC) a predecessor

More information

Voice over IP. VoIP (In) Security. Presented by Darren Bilby NZISF 14 July 2005

Voice over IP. VoIP (In) Security. Presented by Darren Bilby NZISF 14 July 2005 Voice over IP VoIP (In) Security Presented by Darren Bilby NZISF 14 July 2005 Security-Assessment.com Who We Are NZ s only pure-play security firm Largest team of security professionals in NZ Offices in

More information

TAXONOMY OF TELECOM TERMS

TAXONOMY OF TELECOM TERMS TAXONOMY OF TELECOM TERMS Prepared by TUFF Ltd This short taxonomy is designed to describe the various terms used in today s telecommunications industry. It is not intended to be all embracing but to describe

More information

SIP : Session Initiation Protocol

SIP : Session Initiation Protocol : Session Initiation Protocol EFORT http://www.efort.com (Session Initiation Protocol) as defined in IETF RFC 3261 is a multimedia signaling protocol used for multimedia session establishment, modification

More information

ITSPA. Recommendations for secure deployment of an IP-PBX. Public. Node4 Limited Richard Buxton 31/05/2011

ITSPA. Recommendations for secure deployment of an IP-PBX. Public. Node4 Limited Richard Buxton 31/05/2011 ITSPA Recommendations for secure deployment of an IP-PBX Public Node4 Limited Richard Buxton 31/05/2011 Recommendations for secure deployment of an IP-PBX Node4 are members of the Internet Telephony Service

More information

Introducing Cisco Unified Communications Express

Introducing Cisco Unified Communications Express CHAPTER 1 Introducing Cisco Unified Communications Express Cisco Unified Communications Express is an award-winning communications solution that is provided with the Cisco Integrated Services Router portfolio.

More information

TOPIC understanding VoIP vulnerabilities

TOPIC understanding VoIP vulnerabilities How Fragile is your VoIP Implementation? For a long time, telecommunications networks and telephony services have been a part of the critical information infrastructure. They have always had high requirements

More information

ETSI TS 101 329-2 V1.1.1 (2000-07)

ETSI TS 101 329-2 V1.1.1 (2000-07) TS 101 329-2 V1.1.1 (2000-07) Technical Specification Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON); End to End Quality of Service in TIPHON Systems; Part 2: Definition

More information

SIP Trunking Configuration with

SIP Trunking Configuration with SIP Trunking Configuration with Microsoft Office Communication Server 2007 R2 A Dell Technical White Paper End-to-End Solutions Team Dell Product Group - Enterprise THIS WHITE PAPER IS FOR INFORMATIONAL

More information

Internet Technology Voice over IP

Internet Technology Voice over IP Internet Technology Voice over IP Peter Gradwell BT Advert from 1980s Page 2 http://www.youtube.com/v/o0h65_pag04 Welcome to Gradwell Gradwell provides technology for every line on your business card Every

More information

5. DEPLOYMENT ISSUES Having described the fundamentals of VoIP and underlying IP infrastructure, let s address deployment issues.

5. DEPLOYMENT ISSUES Having described the fundamentals of VoIP and underlying IP infrastructure, let s address deployment issues. 5. DEPLOYMENT ISSUES Having described the fundamentals of VoIP and underlying IP infrastructure, let s address deployment issues. 5.1 LEGACY INTEGRATION In most cases, enterprises own legacy PBX systems,

More information

Encapsulating Voice in IP Packets

Encapsulating Voice in IP Packets Encapsulating Voice in IP Packets Major VoIP Protocols This topic defines the major VoIP protocols and matches them with the seven layers of the OSI model. Major VoIP Protocols 15 The major VoIP protocols

More information

SIP A Technology Deep Dive

SIP A Technology Deep Dive SIP A Technology Deep Dive Anshu Prasad Product Line Manager, Mitel June 2010 Laith Zalzalah Director, Mitel NetSolutions What is SIP? Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol for establishing

More information

Why E.T. Can t Phone Home? Security Risk Factors with IP Telephony based Networks

Why E.T. Can t Phone Home? Security Risk Factors with IP Telephony based Networks Why E.T. Can t Phone Home? Security Risk Factors with IP Telephony based Networks Ofir Arkin Founder The Sys-Security Group ofir@sys-security.com http://www.sys-security.com November 2002 Abstract IP Telephony

More information

Voice Over IP (VoIP) Denial of Service (DoS)

Voice Over IP (VoIP) Denial of Service (DoS) Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Denial of Service (DoS) By Mark Collier Chief Technology Officer SecureLogix Corporation mark.collier@securelogix.com Denial of Service (DoS) is an issue for any IP network-based

More information

TraceSim 3.0: Advanced Measurement Functionality. of Video over IP Traffic

TraceSim 3.0: Advanced Measurement Functionality. of Video over IP Traffic TraceSim 3.0: Advanced Measurement Functionality for Secure VoIP Networks and Simulation of Video over IP No part of this brochure may be copied or published by means of printing, photocopying, microfilm

More information