Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) VoiceCon Fall 2008

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1 Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) VoiceCon Fall 2008 John Bartlett NetForecast, Inc.

2 VoIP Deployment Realities VoIP is not just another application Real-time traffic is different Expectation of reliability and quality is high VoIP is difficult to scale Need to understand network impact Need careful and complete QoS deployment Need new monitoring methods VoIP needs new monitoring tools End to end testing is necessary to validate real-time traffic support Legacy data monitoring tools are insufficient Legacy tools average too much information Legacy tools don t test end-to-end Quality of Experience QoE Measuring above the network layer Understanding and measuring the experience of the user 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 2

3 Real-Time Traffic is Different! Data applications focus on moving blocks of info from one computer to another Bandwidth use is bursty Packet loss is expected, packets are recovered, loss is a part of the bandwidth management strategy (TCP) Utilization (Mbps) Data Traffic Seconds Voice / Video move a continuous stream of data to recreate an analog event Bandwidth use is constant Real-time traffic does not recover lost packets, and degrades quickly when packets are not delivered Bandwidth (Kbps) Thousands Real-Time Traffic Seconds 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 3

4 Data and Voice Interference Add QoS QoS gives priority to the real-time traffic This holds down the peaks of the data packets, and prevents packet loss and jitter in the real-time streams This is a critical first step to delivering high quality voice and video streams 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 4

5 Five Steps of QoS Clean up the network Implementation problems may be causing packet loss that TCP is covering up Bad cables, terminations, poor switches, duplex-mismatch, etc. Classification Determine the best scheme for marking packets that need priority Class of service mechanism Enable DiffServ and/or IEEE 802.1p in your networks Bandwidth Management Determine the right bandwidth for high priority traffic on each link Manage the application so these bandwidths are not exceeded Testing and Monitoring New testing methodologies are needed to watch the network and ensure that it continues to provide high quality transport over time 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 5

6 Measure End to End We have to test the network and monitor the call quality to know what is going on Are we delivering the quality voice service we want to? Is the problem with the voice equipment, or the transport? Where and when is the network causing problems? Must test from end-to-end Voice is subject to very local problems (echo, local connection, poor equipment) as well as network problems Must isolate problems in the network So this call had poor quality, which part of this complex network caused the problem? Must find problems in time domain Micro-outages cause momentary burst packet loss Testing or sniffing after the fact has little value 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 6

7 VoIP Quality of Experience VoIP QoS tied to network performance Performance alerts and call quality reports Real-time Call Watch down to the handset, MOS and other key metrics Passive appliance architecture requires no agents or probes Pg. 7 NetQoS, Inc All Rights Reserved.

8 Class Based QoS Monitoring Tips Queue drops Queue depth Queue drops in voice class causes packet loss on calls Queue depth in the voice queues leads to jitter problems Pg. 8 NetQoS, Inc All Rights Reserved.

9 Unified Performance Data QoE by locations (MOS rated) Network QoS for VoIP (IPSLA) Network Usage by protocol (Netflow) Pg. 9 NetQoS, Inc All Rights Reserved.

10 Unified Communications Dashboard Pg. 10 NetQoS, Inc All Rights Reserved.

11 Measuring Service Delivery Implementing QoS correctly will ensure packets are delivered in a timely manner But does delivering all the packets ensure that the voice or video quality is what we expected? How can we more closely measure the actual user experience? User Experience = QoE 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 11

12 What is QoE? User QoE is here Root Cause Analysis Typical QoS tools stop here Quality of Experience Device Type Buffering Loss Concealment Voice Speech distortion Echo, Noise Speech Levels CODEC Type QoS Video Mis-sequenced Packets Packet Loss and Jitter Frame Type Frame Rate Compression CODEC Type Application Network 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide courtesy of Psytechnics Slide 12

13 Header and Payload Monitoring Header Payload Monitoring the HEADER provides a view of the IP transport impairments introduced. However, measurements must reflect user experience not just network performance: IP Metrics Jitter Packet Loss Latency Monitoring the PAYLOAD and WAVEFORM provides an additional and essential insight into the quality of the VoIP service as experienced by the end users: IP Header Impact + + Listening Quality Conversational Quality Impact of IP Transport But Not End User Experience = Customer Experience 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide courtesy of Psytechnics Slide 13

14 How is QoE Measured? You can measure it by asking the users who call and complain about voice or video quality -- OR -- You can look for vendors who are able to measure the quality of voice and video being transported on your network and be proactive about fixing it QoE Standards Standards have been defined by the ITU to provide a consistent way of measuring the expected quality of a voice or video call Useful for comparing measurements between vendors, service providers and across different implementations 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 14

15 Different information needed for voice and video performance management Psytechnics 2008 Service Assurance; NMS IP QoS Information for Data Applications Real-time Voice and Video Communications Applications Additional IP Information for Real-Time Applications Video: frame- type, frame- rate, image- size, codec-type Voice: noise, echo, speech/ sound levels, distortion, delay, codec-type IP Network

16 A new generation of tools provide real-time voice and video performance management Psytechnics 2008 Service Assurance; NMS Voice and Video Performance Management Monitoring Alarming - And Alerting Troubleshooting Reporting IP QoS Information for Data Applications Real-time Voice and Video Communications Applications Additional IP Information for Real-Time Applications Video: frame- type, frame- rate, image- size, codec-type Voice: noise, echo, speech/ sound levels, distortion, delay, codec-type IP Network

17 Field Experience Currently addressing a gap for Cisco, Nortel, and Microsoft deployments Large scale deployments in several verticals Case study Initially deployed IP Telephony at head offices Planned expansion across the national network When the IPT system was only part deployed, we became very aware of the difference between quality of experience (QoE) and quality of service (QoS). A small proportion of our call centre staff were not satisfied with the call quality when using the IP telephony service, due to a number of factors including varying volume levels, or an echo or hiss on the line......we purchased numerous quality of service tools, all of which indicated that our IP telephony system was working. None of the tools could explain the mystery behind the small number of call quality issues that we were experiencing. We needed a tool to identify phone call experiences of customers as well as check the network infrastructure was working.

18 Measurement locations in the enterprise PSTN Voice Gateway Call Centre Manage the PSTN Gateway Media Gateway IP Core Call Centre Access #1 Access #2 Call Centre Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Offices Manage to the Branch Sites Manage to the Call Centres

19 Connection Scenarios Internal Communications Poor Enterprise User Experience OSS API Analytics Adaptors GUI DB Enterprise Office A Enterprise Office B LAN WAN LAN Payload IP Transport Payload IP Transport IP Measures Reflect QoE and locate problem

20 Connection Scenarios Internal Communications Poor Enterprise User Experience OSS API Analytics Adaptors GUI DB Enterprise Office A Enterprise Office B LAN WAN LAN Payload IP Transport Payload IP Transport IP Measures reflect QoE and locate problem

21 Connection Scenarios Internal Communications Poor Enterprise User Experience OSS API Analytics Adaptors GUI DB Enterprise Office A Enterprise Office B LAN WAN LAN Payload IP Transport Payload IP Transport Application (Payload) Measures allow previously undiagnosed issues to be resolved

22 Network and application performance Psytechnics 2008

23 How do I fix it? Improve Network Transport Clean networks (!) (congestion, misconfig, bad switches, CAT 3) QoS implementation (get it right!) Packet loss concealment Forward Error Correction (FEC) WAN Optimization / Acceleration Improve Application Minimize recoding Wideband codecs Headsets / speaker phones Better Codecs Improve the Environment Acoustics Sound absorption Ambient noise Lighting (video) Paint colors 2008, NetForecast, all rights reserved. Slide 23

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