1 Technological Innovation in Brazil - Data Report Maria Cecília Junqueira Lustosa Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil This data report is part of the project The PBR-5 Network for the Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Brazilian Economic Restructuring Process, coordinated by Dr. Nauro F. Campos (Professor of Economics, Brunel University) and financed by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) July, 2011
2 Technological Innovation in Brazil - Data Report 1. Introduction Brazil has a tradition in statistics generation for empirical studies in economics, geography, sociology, demography and related fields. The official statistical agency of these areas is Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), which provides data freely at its website 1 about population, economy, and geosciences, as well as indicators about labor and income, agriculture, industry, trade, indexes, prices, and costs for many products, and national accounts. Data periodicity varies with survey type. The main page of IBGE is available in English and Spanish with description of each indicator or survey. However, commentaries, tables, technical notes, methodological aspects, and other informations are mostly in Portuguese. Therefore, data access becomes difficult by researchers who are not proficient in Portuguese for studying and taking knowledge about Brazil on its various aspects. The database used in the paper Regional Inequality, Technology and Economic Restructuring in Brazil, as part of the project The PBR-5 Network for the Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Brazilian Economic Restructuring Process, is based on the Survey of Technological Innovation (Pintec - Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica), which is the most important database about technological innovation in industry and high technology services in Brazil. It was carried out by IBGE, with support from Research and Projects Financing (Finep - Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT - Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia). Its main purpose is to provide data for the construction of indicators that reflect the innovation activities of Brazilian enterprises in survey target sectors. This paper aims to describe the database used in the above-cited paper. Besides Pintec description and its variables, the main differences among the four versions of the published survey to date are reported. This paper is divided into six sections including this introduction. The second section provides general information about Pintec. The third section presents the unit of the 1
3 survey analysis and the description of how the results are presented. The fourth section describes the database and other Pintec indicators that are at IBGE website. The fifth section deals with the methodological aspects sample, capture method, and information processing. The last section informs where to find Pintec data. 2. General information Pintec is a triennial sample survey, except for By 2011, four editions were published for reference years of 2000, 2003, 2005, and Pintec and 2003 Pintec were called Survey of Industrial Technological Innovation, because they referred only to activities of mining and quarrying and manufacturing industries. From 2005, Pintec also incorporate selected services edition, telecommunication, and computer science and Research and Development (R&D) activities, thus the name changed. The first three Pintec editions are consistent with the conceptual and methodological guidelines of Oslo Manual of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) from Specifically, they followed the experience from the harmonized model proposed by European Community Statistical Office (Eurostat), the third version of the Community Innovation Survey - CIS III The reference for 2008 edition was the third edition of Oslo Manual, specifically the model of CIS Eurostat 2008 version. This methodological and conceptual basis allows comparisons among countries that adopt this manual for surveys about innovation. In each reference year, Pintec has two time frames, according to variable type. For most of the qualitative variables related to product and processes innovations, in which there is no monetary value, the time frame refers to a period of three years: the survey year and previous two. For quantitative variables, expressed in Brazilian currency Real (R$) and for some qualitative variables, the time frame is given by survey reference year (table 1).
4 Table 1 Time frames of Pintec surveys, according to reference years Survey Reference years Qualitative variables Quantitative variables 2000 Pintec 1998, 1999 e Pintec 2001, 2002 e Pintec 2003, 2004 e Pintec 2006, 2007 e Source: Own elaboration with IBGE (2002, 2005, 2007 e 2010) data. Pintec is part of the Economic Statistics System (Sistema de Estatísticas Econômicas) of IBGE. Therefore, it articulates with annual surveys of mining and quarrying and manufacturing industries, such as the Annual Industrial Survey (PIA - Pesquisa Industrial Anual), and telecommunications services and informatics the Annual Survey of Service (PAS - Pesquisa Anual de Serviços). This fact allows the intersection of these databases, increasing the analysis possibilities. Pintec surveys results are presented for the country and Brazilian Major Regions (figure 1). Figura 1- Pintec surveys results presentation Pintec Results Brazil Major Regions CNAE* Major Regions Enterprise Size North Northeast Southeast South Midwest Source: Own elaboration. * Note: National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE, in Portuguese) 3. Unit of analysis and description of results presentation The unit of analysis of Pintec survey is the enterprise established in Brazil with ten or more employees in December 31 of the reference year. It must be active on the Central Register of Enterprises (Cempre - Cadastro Central de Empresas) of IBGE, which contains the organizations registered in National Directory of Legal Entities (CNPJ - Cadastro Nacional da Pessoa Jurídica) in Department of the Treasury.
5 The enterprise is a legal unit and may have one or more industrial or service activities carried out by its units in different locations and with independent management, in other words, they operate at different addresses. In this case, performed activities are recorded in all its local units. The measured variable represents the enterprise as a whole in its federation unit or Brazilian Major Regions, irrespectively of geographical area of its units. In the case of more than one business unit developing R&D independently, the enterprise central administration is contacted to verify the impacts according to their strategies. For economic groups, with one parent company and other affiliates, the questionnaire is applied to each affiliated and informations are checked by the parent company, in order to obtain consistent informations. Enterprises are classified according to their main activity in National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE - Classificação Nacional de Atividades Econômicas) whose main revenue comes from industrial activities. From 2005, services related to innovative activities were included. CNAE is one of the most used classifications of activities in Brazil, which is in its second revision and has correspondence with international 2 trade classifications such as MERCOSUR Common Nomenclature (MCN) and the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Due to CNAE revision, the classification of activities differs in Pintec surveys, according to their reference year. This change does not alter the overall data, but requires caution when comparing specific sectors of the 2008 Pintec with earlier editions (table 2). Table 2 Scope of Pintec surveys, according to CNAE versions Survey Version of CNAE, sections, divisions and groups 2000 Pintec CNAE 1.0 / sections C e D 2003 Pintec CNAE 1.0 / sections C e D 2005 Pintec CNAE 1.0 / sections C e D / divisions 72 e 73 / group Pintec CNAE 2.0 / sections B e C / divisions 61, 62 e 72 / division and group / group 63.1 Source: Own elaboration with IBGE (2002, 2005, 2007 e 2010) data. Note: In 2005 Pintec, the group refers to Telecommunications services and the divisions refer to Data Processing and Related Services and Research and Development, respectively. For 2008 Pintec, the group 63.1 refers to services of Data Processing, Hosting on the Internet and Other Related Activities; the division and group correspond to the Editing and Sound Recording and Music Editing; and the divisions 61, 62, and 72 refer to Telecommunications, Activities of Technology Services of Information, and Research and Development, respectively. 2 Available at
6 The Pintec surveys are presented on CNAE classification at two digits and sometimes to three digits levels, as proposed by Oslo Manual. This disaggregation level can be seen on spreadsheets referring to national results. However, when separated by Major Regions and Federal Units, not all disaggregations appear due to both the sample stratification level (see item 5.1.) and the secrecy 3. Another way to disseminate national results is by Major Regions, spreading to some federation units, according to their importance in the region. The results are available for all states of Southeast and South; for Amazonas and Pará States at North; Bahia, Pernambuco, and Ceará States at Northeast 4 ; and Goiás at Midwest. The third form of results presentation for all parts of Brazil is made by enterprise size, according to the employed people, separating enterprises into six ranges of 10-29, 30-49, 50-99, , , and more than 500 employees. Thus, it is possible to analyze Pintec variables according to different enterprise sizes Database and other Pintec indicators For reference years of 2000 and 2003, Pintec surveys refer only to the industry. For 2005 and 2008, the high technology services are included. National results include all sectors, but the same is not true for Major Regions and Federal Units due to the methodology of sample stratification (see item 5.1) Database description The database is composed of two topics and three subtopics of Pintec surveys, as describe below: 3 Pintec secrecy and other IBGE surveys are guaranteed by law, establishing the use for statistical purposes only. Thus, in regions where there is just one enterprise operating in a particular group or CNAE division, it is easy to identify it and, therefore, IBGE does not disclose the research result. 4 Results for the state of Rio Grande do Norte are available only in Pintec Defining enterprises size in Brazil can have different classification forms, according to annual gross revenue, defined by Lei Complementar (Complementary Law) No. 123 of December 14, 2006, or according to the number of employees and sector. According to Brazilian Service of Support for Micro and Small Enterprises (Sebrae - Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequena Empresas), micro industrial enterprises have up to 19 employees, small ones, 20 to 99, medium ones, 100 to 499, and large ones, over 500 employees; micro service enterprises have up to nine employees, small ones, 10 to 49, medium ones, 50 to 99, and large ones, more than 100 employees (
7 Efforts made to innovate. These efforts refer to qualitative and quantitative indicators expressed in R$ 1.000,00 (a thousand reais the Brazilian currency) of the survey reference year, only for innovative enterprises. The subtopics that compose the database are: => Enterprises that developed innovative activities, according to the degree of importance of innovative activity: The enterprises were asked to identify the degree of importance (High or Medium or Low and not done) for the following innovative activities: Internal R&D activities: those are the systematic creative work developed by the enterprise. Their objective is to increase knowledge and its applications to develop technologically new or significantly improved products and process. They also include software development, as much as it represents a technological or scientific improvement. External R&D acquisition: includes the activities above described that are developed by other organization (enterprises or technological institutions) and are acquired by the enterprise. Acquisition of other external knowledge: refers to technology transfer agreements related to the acquisition of patents, rights and use of trademarks, know-how acquisition, and other kinds of external techno-scientific knowledge necessary for the enterprise to develop or implement innovations. Software acquisition: includes the acquisition of software (in design, engineering, data processing and transmission, voice, videos, graphics, process automation, etc.) that was specifically required for implementation of technologically new or significantly improved products and process. It does not include internal software development. Machinery acquisition: includes the acquisition of machinery, equipment and hardware that where bought specifically for the implementation of new or technologically improved products and process. Training: includes the training oriented to the development of technologically new or significantly improved products and process, related to the enterprise innovative activities, and may include the acquisition of external specialized technical services.
8 Introduction of technological innovations in the market: includes the commercialization activities, directly linked to the launch of technologically new or improved products, and may include: market research, market test and publicity for launch. It excludes the construction of market network distribution. Industrial project and other technical preparations: refers to the procedures and technical preparation for implementing a product or process innovation. They include design and modeling of process plants to set procedures, technical specification and operational characteristics necessary to implement product or process innovation. They include changes in production procedures and quality control, methods and patterns of work, and software required to implement technologically new or improved products or processes, as well as basic industrial technology activities (metrology, standardization and compliance assessment), trials and tests (which are not included in R&D) to register the final product and for the effective beginning of production. => Spending on innovative activities: Values of Net sales of all firms and values of spending in the following innovative activities as above described: Internal R&D activities, External R&D acquisition, Acquisition of other external knowledge, Software acquisition, Machinery and equipment acquisition, Training, Introduction of technological innovations in the market, Industrial project and other technical preparations. => Cooperative relationships with other organizations: cooperation for innovation is defined as the enterprise active participation in joint R&D projects with other organization (enterprise or institution), which does not necessarily imply that the parties have immediate commercial benefits. Hiring services from another organization without the enterprise active collaboration is not considered cooperation. The cooperation for innovation search to identify the relationship between a wide range of actors that are interconnected through exchange of knowledge or articulated in networks, forming what is called the National System of Innovation. In Pintec surveys, the enterprises were asked to identify the degree of importance (High or Medium or Low and not done) to the following partnership: Customers or
9 consumers; Suppliers; Competitors; Other groups enterprises; Consulting firms; Universities and research institutes; Professional training and technical assistance centers; Institutions of tests, essays and certifications Other Pintec indicators Besides the database above described, Pintec is divided in topics and its associated subtopics and indicators, which are listed below. Each subtopic is marked with the symbol => and the indicators are in italics. There are small variations in indicators layout in spreadsheets for each reference year, which will not hinder the comparability among them, they just are not in the same order. Results of the innovative process. Following Oslo Manual, technological innovation refers to new or substantially improved products and/or processes from the enterprise standpoint that does not need to be new to the market or industry sector, and can be developed by another organization. The subtopics and its associated indicators of this topic are: => Enterprises that carried out innovations or with some projects: Number of enterprises that have implemented: Product innovation and/or process, Only incomplete and/or abandoned projects, Only strategic and organizational changes for reference years of 2000, 2003, and 2005, and Only organizational innovations or marketing innovations for => Degree of product or process novelty: Number of enterprises that attribute a degree for product novelty, with three possibilities: If New for the enterprise, but existing in domestic market, if New for domestic market, but existing in the world market, if New for domestic market. Each one of these options is divided into Enhancement of existing one and Completely new for the enterprise. The degree of process novelty is also divided into three levels for innovative enterprises: New for the enterprise, but existing in its sector in Brazil, New to the sector, but existing in the world, New to its sector in the world. Each one of these options is divided into Enhancement of an existing one and Completely new for the enterprise.
10 => Main responsible for product and/or process development: Number of enterprises that responded: The enterprise, Another enterprise of the group, The enterprise in cooperation with other enterprises, Other enterprises or institutes. => Used protection methods: Number of enterprises that used: Legal Patents; Trademarks - or Strategic - Design complexity, Industrial secrets, Lead-time advantage over competitors or Others. => Patents: Number of enterprise that implemented innovations: With patent deposit or With patent in force. Efforts made to innovate. These efforts refer to qualitative and quantitative indicators expressed in R$ 1.000,00 (a thousand reais the Brazilian currency) of the survey reference year, only for innovative enterprises. Variables investigated in this topic are: => Degree of importance of innovative activities developed: detailed above. => Spending on innovative activities: detailed above. => Funding sources for R&D and other innovative activities: The percentage of funding sources For R&D activities (if Own or From third party Private or Public) and For other activities (if Own or From third party (Private or Public). => Spending on R&D internal activities: Total spending and spending on Internal activities (if Continuous or Occasional). => Number of employees in R&D activities: Number of employees in December 31 in all enterprises, Number of employees in R & D (With full-time or With part-time). => Number of employees in internal R&D activities, by level of qualification: Number of employees with Higher level (Total - Post-graduate or Graduate) or Middle level or Others. Impact of innovations. It refers to impacts associated with: product; market; process; environment, health and safety aspects; and the framing of rules and regulations. The variables in this topic are: => Degree of importance of the impact of innovation: Number of enterprises that responded High or Medium or Low and not relevant importance to the following indicators: Improving products quality, Broadening the range of offered products, Maintenance of market share, Increase market share, New markets, Increase production capacity, Increase production flexibility, Reduction of production costs,
11 Reduction in labor costs, Reduction of raw materials consumption, Reduction of energy consumption, Reduction of water consumption, Reduction of environmental impacts and health and safety aspects, Compliance with domestic market regulation, Compliance with export market regulation. => Technologically new or substantially improved products sales as a percentage of total domestic sales: Percentage of these products in total domestic sales, according to Less than 10 or From 10 to 40 or More than 40. Sources of information and cooperation relations. They refer to sources of information and cooperations relations established between innovative enterprises and other organizations. The indicators are presented below: => Degree of importance of information sources: Number of enterprises that responded High or Medium or Low and not relevant importance to the following indicators: Internal sources (R&D Department, Other areas) or External sources (Other groups enterprises; Suppliers; Customers or consumers; Competitors; Consulting firms and independent consultant; Universities and research institutes; Professional training and technical assistance centers; Institutions of tests, essays and certifications; Licenses, patents and know-how; Conferences, meetings and specialized publications; Fairs and exhibitions; Computerized information networks). => Localization of information sources: Number of enterprises that indicated the localization of information sources: Brazil or Abroad. For each one of these options, the enterprises responded the following information sources: Other groups enterprises; Suppliers; Customers or consumers; Competitors; Consulting firms and independent consultant; Universities and research institutes; Professional training and technical assistance centers; Institutions of tests, essays and certifications; Licenses, patents and know-how; Conferences, meetings and specialized publications; Fairs and exhibitions; Computerized information networks. => Cooperative relationships with other organizations: detailed above. => Cooperative relationships with other organizations by location of the main partner: Number of enterprises that indicated the location of the main partner: Brazil or abroad, for the following partnerships: Customers or consumers; Suppliers; Competitors; Other groups enterprises; Consulting firms; Universities and research institutes; Professional training and technical assistance centers.
12 => Cooperative relationships with other organizations by cooperation subject: Number of enterprises whose cooperation object refers to R&D and essays for product testing or Other cooperation activities for the following partnerships: Customers or consumers; Suppliers; Competitors; Other groups enterprises; Consulting firms; Universities and research institutes; Professional training and technical assistance centers. Government support. This topic presents quantitative variables about the type of instrument of government support for innovative activities. The indicator is: => Government support for innovative activities: Number of enterprises that used at least one instrument of governmental support by type of instrument: Tax incentive (For R&D and technological innovation or Informatics law) or Financing (To research projects in partnership with universities and research institutes or To R&D and machinery and equipment acquisition) or Other instruments. Problems and obstacles. This topic identifies the reasons that led the enterprise not to develop innovative activities or not getting the expected results. Some innovative enterprises have also found difficulties and obstacles that hamper innovation. The variables in this topic are: => Reasons why innovations were neither developed nor implemented: Number of enterprises that did not implement innovations and did not have a project, according to the Reasons for not implementing (Previous innovations or Market conditions or Other hindering factors). => Degree of importance of problems and obstacles for non-innovative enterprises. Number of enterprises that did not innovate nor developed projects that responded High or Medium or Low and not relevant importance to the following indicators: High economic risks; High innovation costs; Scarcity of appropriate funding sources; Organizational rigidity; Lack of qualified personnel; Lack of information about technology; Lack of market information; Scarce possibilities for cooperation with other enterprises/institutions; Difficulty in demonstrating compliance with standards, rules, and regulations; Weak consumer response to new products; Scarcity of appropriate external technical services; Centralization of innovative activity in another company of the group.
13 => Degree of importance of problems and obstacles for innovative enterprises: Number of innovative enterprises that responded High or Medium or Low and not relevant importance to the following indicators: High economic risks; High innovation costs; Scarcity of appropriate funding sources; Organizational rigidity; Lack of qualified personnel; Lack of information about technology; Lack of market information; Scarce possibilities for cooperation with other enterprises/institutions; Difficulty in demonstrating compliance with standards, rules, and regulations; Weak consumer response to new products; Scarcity of appropriate external technical services; Centralization of innovative activity in another company of the group. Organizational and marketing innovation. This topic shows the strategic and organizational changes undertaken in making the enterprise management more efficient. The variables in this topic are: => Strategic and organizational changes implemented by non-innovative enterprises without projects: Number of enterprises that neither innovate nor developed projects that made strategic and organizational changes by type of change: In corporate strategy; Implementation of advanced management techniques (Production or Information or Environmental ); In organizational structure; Significant changes in marketing concepts/strategies; In product esthetic or design and other subjective changes; Implementation of new methods in order to meet certification standards. => Strategic and organizational changes implemented by innovative enterprises: Number of innovative enterprises that made strategic and organizational changes by type of change: In corporate strategy; Implementation of advanced management techniques (Production or Information or Environmental ); In organizational structure; Significant changes in marketing concepts/strategies; In product esthetic or design and other subjective changes; Implementation of new methods in order to meet certification standards. => Indication of strategic and organizational changes implemented by noninnovative enterprises with projects: Number of non-innovative enterprises with projects that made strategic and organizational changes by type of change: In corporate strategy; Implementation of advanced management techniques (Production or
14 Information or Environmental ); In organizational structure; Significant changes in marketing concepts/strategies; In product esthetic or design and other subjective changes; Implementation of new methods in order to meet certification standards. 5. Methodology 5.1. Sample Pintec is a sample survey, which uses the Central Register of Enterprises (Cempre - Cadastro Central de Empresas) to select enterprises according to survey scope of each year (see table 2). The sample size varies at each reference year. For 2005 Pintec and 2008 Pintec, which included enterprises of high technology services, a census survey was carried out for R&D activities (CNAE 73) due to the small number of enterprises registered in Cempre (table 3). Table 3 Pintec surveys sample size and rate of loss, according to the scope of the reference year. Survey Sample size (number of enterprises) Rate of loss 2000 Pintec Mining and quarrying, and Manufacturing 10% industries (sample) 2003 Pintec Mining and quarrying, and Manufacturing 12% industries (sample) 2005 Pintec Mining and quarrying, and Manufacturing industries (sample) 700 Telecommunications, and Data Processing and Related Services (sample) 12% (industries) 15% (telecommunications and data processing) 42 Research and Development (universe) 2008 Pintec Mining and quarrying, and Manufacturing Not informed industries (sample) 2016 Telecommunications, and Data Processing and Related Services (sample) 41 Research and Development (universe) Source: Own elaboration with IBGE (2002, 2005, 2007 e 2010) data. Sample is stratified disproportionately, because innovation does not occur in all the selected units. Enterprises that are more likely to undertake innovations are identified using other sources 6, in order to increase the sample fraction of this set. With these informations, 6 These sources are registry entries and surveys carried out by IBGE and other public and private organizations. Some of them are common to all Pintec surveys and others were incorporated at each reference year. For details of these other sources, see IBGE (2005, 2007, and 2010).
15 two indicators types are created, primary and secondary. Thus, the population is divided into three strata, according to these indicators: 1) Right stratum. It is composed by the sum of enterprises with 500 or more employees with strong indication of being innovative (those having at least one primary indicator of technological activity) and with a number of secondary indicators greater than or equal to eight. 2) Eligible sampled stratum. It is a group of enterprises with a number of secondary indicators greater than zero and less than eight. 3) Non-eligible sampled stratum. It is composed by enterprises that did not have any secondary indicators. In the sample distribution, 80% of enterprises are from eligible strata and 20% are from non-eligible strata. As in all survey there are losses from the original sample, a rate of loss is estimated and it varies with the reference year (table 3). Enterprises distribution by rate of loss is made in proportion to samples size from eligible and non-eligible strata. A second stratification level is performed according to geographical localization and economic activity, in order to provide estimates on Brazilian activities and industries of Federal Units that have 1% or more of the national Value of Industrial Transformation (VIT). This explains why not all industrial sectors are available in breakdown by Federal Units. In each Major Region and in selected Federal Units, the main activities were selected based on three criteria: regional (activities that account for a 70% of regional VIT); Federal Units, excluding São Paulo State (activities that account for a 50% of their VIT); and São Paulo State (activities that account for 80% of its VIT). The final stratum was carried out independently and is the crossing result of strata and economic activities with selection probability proportional to the number of occupied people Capture of informations Structured interviews are used to obtain information. First, the key informant to be interviewed is identified, who is a professional from the R&D or industrial production areas, because he/she should be able to understand the survey concepts and give
16 appropriate responses. The interviews are performed face-to-face in large industrial enterprises (more than 500 employees) 7, and by telephone to the others. The data collection period varies according to Pintec reference year (table 4). Table 4 Pintec surveys data collection period, according to reference years Survey Data collection period 2000 Pintec November 2001 to September Pintec March to December Pintec July 2006 to February Pintec August to December 2009 Source: Own elaboration with IBGE (2002, 2005 and 2007) data. The questionnaire is divided into blocks corresponding to survey topics. According to the response obtained, the questionnaire follows a flow with variables described above (figure 2). Figure 2 - Flowchart of the questionnaire 7 In Pintec-2008, interviews were carried out face-to-face in enterprises in Federal District and States of Amazonas, Pará, Ceará, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Goiás. For other Federal Units, the survey was made by telephone, because of the small number of enterprises.
17 Source: Adapted from IBGE (2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010). Note: Organizational and marketing innovation only for 2008 Pintec Informations treatment After data collection, the informations pass through three stages of data critical analysis: First stage: Data review is carried out in the phase of questionnaire filling, in order to identify conflicting or inconsistent informations. This procedure allows the interviewer to correct possible mistakes or justify their responses. Second stage: some questionnaires are selected by a critical review. If the informations are not consistent, the enterprises are re-interviewed to clarify any questions or to correct mistakes. Third stage: Review of aggregate data. 6. Where to find Pintec data
18 Complete publications of all years of Pintec are at IBGE website and also on CD- ROM, which must be purchased at IBGE offices or from virtual store 8. Most of the informations from CD are also available at IBGE website. The crossing of Pintec data with other IBGE databases is not available at IBGE website and should, therefore, be requested directly from the institute, but there are limitations on the informations confidentiality and methodology of sample stratification. 8
19 References IBGE (2002). Pesquisa Industrial Inovação Tecnológica IBGE, Rio de Janeiro. IBGE (2005). Pesquisa Industrial de Inovação Tecnológica IBGE, Rio de Janeiro. IBGE (2007). Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica IBGE, Rio de Janeiro. IBGE (2010). Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica IBGE, Rio de Janeiro.