1 Developments Conference Report The Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field Lauterpacht and Beyond: Jewish/German Authorship and the History of International Law By Felix Lange * A. Introduction Publications on the history of international law written during the Cold War can almost be counted on one hand. 1 A pragmatically-oriented generation studied practical areas like UN Charter law, international trade law, or international environmental law, while the theory and history of international law played only a secondary role. 2 An intellectual history of international law, asking which ideas and concepts inspired and formed international law writing, hardly received any attention. 3 Since the 1990s, researchers have more frequently turned to the historical roots of international law thinking. With the end of the Cold War, the European Journal of International Law started to publish articles on the life and work of influential European international lawyers from the 20th century like George Sc elle, Hersch Lauterpacht, Dionisio Anzilotti, Alfred Verdross, Hans Kelsen, and Alf Ross. 4 Furthermore, international * LL.M. (New York University); M.A., Modern and Contemporary History (University of Freiburg). 1 Ingo Hueck, The Discipline of the History of International Law - New Trends and Methods on the History of International Law, 3 J. HIST. INT L L. 194 (2001); Alexandra Kemmerer, The Turning Aside: On International Law and Its History, in PROGRESS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, 71, (Russell Miller & Rebecca Bratspies eds., 2008); for the few studies during this period, see ARTHUR NUSSBAUM, A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE LAW OF NATIONS (2d ed. 1954); WILHELM GREWE, EPOCHEN DER VÖLKERRECHTSGESCHICHTE (1984). 2 See Martti Koskenniemi, Why History of International Law Today?, 4 RECHTSGESCHICHTE 61 (2004). 3 But see ERNST REIBSTEIN, VÖLKERRECHT: EINE GESCHICHTE SEINER IDEEN IN LEHRE UND PRAXIS (1958). 4 See, e.g., Antonia Tanca, George Scelle ( ): Biographical Note with Bibliography, 1 EUR. J. INT L L. 240 (1990); Chaim Herzog, Sir Hersch Lauterpacht: An Appraisal, 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 299 (1997); Robert Jennings, Hersch Lauterpacht: A Personal Recollection, 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 304 (1997); Hans Kelsen, Tributes to Sir Hersch Lauterpacht, 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 309 (1997); Martti Koskenniemi, Lauterpacht: The Victorian Tradition in International Law, 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 215 (1997); Elihu Lauterpacht, Sir Hersch Lauterpacht: , 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 313 (1997); Stephen M. Schwebel, Hersch Lauterpacht: Fragments for a Portrait, 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 305 (1997); Iain G.M. Scobbie, The Theorist as Judge: Hersch Lauterpacht s Concept of the International Judicial Function, 8 EUR. J. INT L L. 264 (1997);
2 794 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06 legal scholars began to examine more intensively the role of international law during the National Socialist dictatorship in Germany, especially Carl Schmitt s concept of the Grossraumordnung. 5 In 2001, Martti Koskenniemi released his extensive study, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law , which has become the Standardwerk for the history of ideas of European international legal scholarship during the late 19th and 20th century. 6 In subsequent years, researchers engaged in discussions about the intellectual traditions of European integration 7 of the United Nations 8 or of American international law. 9 In Germany, the Max-Planck-Institute for Roberto Ago, The European Tradition in International Law: Dionisio Anzilotti, 3 EUR. J. INT L L. 92 (1992); Antonio Cassese, Realism v. Artificial Theoretical Constructs Remarks on Anzilotti s Theory of War, 3 EUR. J. INT L L. 149 (1992); Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Dionisio Anzilotti and the Law of International Responsibility of States, 3 EUR. J. INT L L. 139 (1992); Giorgio Gaja, Positivism and Dualism in Dionisio Anzilotti, 3 EUR. J. INT L L. 123 (1992); Jose Maria Ruda, The Opinions of Jude Dionisio Anzilotti at the Permanent Court of International Justice, 3 EUR. J. INT L L. 100 (1992); Antonio Tanca, Dionisio Anzilotti ( ) Biographical Note with Bibliography, 3 EUR. J. INT L L. 156 (1992); Anthony Carty, Alfred Verdross and Othmar Spann: German Romantic Nationalism, Nation al Socialism and International Law, 6 EUR. J. INT L L. 97 (1995); Benedetto Conforti, The Theory of Competence in Verdross, 6 EUR. J. INT L L. 70 (1995); Ignaz Seidl-Hohenveldern, Recollections of Alfred Verdross, 6 EUR. J. INT L L. 102 (1995); Antonio Truyol y Serra, Verdross et la Theorie du droit, 6 EUR. J. INT L L. 55 (1995); Bruno Simma, The Contribution of Alfred Verdross to the Theory of International Law, 6 EUR. J. INT L L. 33 (1995); Geatano Arangio-Ruiz, Personal Recollections, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 386 (1998); Norberto Bobbio & Danilo Zolo, Hans Kelsen, the Theory of Law and the International Legal System: A Talk, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 355 (1998); Anthony Carty, The Continuing Influence of Kelsen on the General Perception of the Discipline of International Law, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 344 (1998); Clemens Jabloner, Kelsen and His Circle: The Viennese Years, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 368 (1998); Nicoletta Bersier Ladavac, Hans Kelsen ( ) Biographical Note and Bibliography, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 391 (1998); Charles Leben, Hans Kelsen and the Advancement of International Law, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 287 (1998); Franois Rigaux, Hans Kelsen on International Law, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 325 (1998); Danilo Zolo, Hans Kelsen: International Peace Through International Law, 9 EUR. J. INT L L. 306 (1998); Anthony Carty, Scandinavian Realism and Phenomenological Approaches to Statehood and General Custom in International Law, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 817 (2003); Alejandro Lorite Escorihuela, Alf Ross: Towards a Realist Critique and Reconstruction of International Law, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 703 (2003); Martti Koskenniemi, Introduction: Alf Ross and Life Beyond Realism, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 653 (2003); Carl Landauer, Antinomies of the United Nations: Hans Kelsen and Alf Ross on the Charter, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 767 (2003); Ole Spiermann, A National Lawyer Takes Stock: Professor Ross Textbook and Other Forays into International Law, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 675 (2003); Knud Waaben, Alf Ross : A Biographical Sketch, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 661 (2003); Henrik Zahle, Legal Doctrine Between Empirical and Rhetorical Truth. A Critical Analysis of Alf Ross Conception of Legal Doctrine, 14 EUR. J. INT L L. 801 (2003). 5 See Detlev F. Vagts, International Law in the Third Reich, 84 AM. J. INT L L. 661 (1990); Rüdiger Wolfrum, Nationalsozialismus und Völkerrecht, in RECHT UND RECHTSLEHRE IM NATIONALSOZIALISMUS (Franz-Jürgen Säcker ed., 1992); MATHIAS SCHMOECKEL, DIE GROßRAUMTHEORIE: EIN BEITRAG ZUR GESCHICHTE DER VÖLKERRECHTSWISSENSCHAFT IM DRITTEN REICH, INSBESONDERE DER KRIEGSZEIT (1994); see also MICHAEL STOLLEIS, GESCHICHTE DES ÖFFENTLICHEN RECHTS IN DEUTSCHLAND, BAND 3, 374 (1999). Before 1990, most research was done by historians. See, e.g., Manfred Messerschmidt, Revision, Neue Ordnung, Krieg. Akzente der Völkerrechtswissenschaft in Deutschland , in 1 MILITÄRWISSENSCHAFTLICHE MITTEILUNGEN 61, 65 (1971); Dan Diner, Rassistisches Völkerrecht. Elemente einer nationalsozialistischen Weltordnung, 37 VIERTELJAHRSHEFTE FÜR ZEITGESCHICHTE 23, 56 (1990). 6 MARTTI KOSKENNIEMI, THE GENTLE CIVILIZER OF NATIONS: THE RISE AND FALL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (2001). 7 See CHRISTIAN JOERGES & NAVRAJ SINGH GHALEIGH, DARKER LEGACIES OF LAW IN EUROPE: THE SHADOW OF NATIONAL SOCIALISM AND FASCISM OVER EUROPE AND ITS LEGAL TRADITIONS (2003). 8 See U.N. INTELL. HIST. PROJECT, (last visited May 5, 2012).
3 2012] Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field 795 European Legal History published a number of mostly biographical historical studies on German-speaking international lawyers. 10 Besides this rising number of studies, the inauguration of the German-based Journal of the History of International Law in demonstrates that international lawyers are increasingly inclined to study the history of their profession. 12 The conference Lauterpacht and Beyond: Jewish/German Authorship and the History of International Law, 13 which was held on 12 September 2011 at Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, fits well into the picture of growing interest for the intellectual history of international law. The Berlin Research Network Recht im Kontext (Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin) 14 invited experts on international law and legal history to discuss the ideas of nine well-known German-speaking legal scholars of Jewish decent and their scholarly impact on international law in the 20th century. The first panel presented the philosophers Lassa Oppenheim, Hans Kelsen, Georg Jellinek and Erich Kaufmann; the second panel, the practitioners Isaak Breuer, Fritz Bauer, Eric Stein and Marie Munk. Furthermore, the participants debated Hersch Zvi Lauterpacht s prominent 1933 oeuvre The Function of Law in the International Community. 15 As main themes, the symposium featured the influence of the Jewish descent on the scholars writing, the conception of 9 See MARK WESTON JANIS, THE AMERICAN TRADITION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW: GREAT EXPECTATIONS (2004); MARK WESTON JANIS, AMERICA AND THE LAW OF NATIONS (2010). 10 See JOCHEN VON BERNSTORFF, DER GLAUBE AN DAS UNIVERSALE RECHT: ZUR VÖLKERRECHTSTHEORIE HANS KELSENS UND SEINER SCHÜLER (2001); FRANK DEGENHARDT, ZWISCHEN MACHTSTAAT UND VÖLKERBUND: ERICH KAUFMANN ( ) (2008); CLAUDIA DENFELD, HANS WEHBERG ( ): DIE ORGANISATION DER STAATENGEMEINSCHAFT (2008); FLORIAN HERRMANN, DAS STANDARDWERK: FRANZ VON LISZT UND DAS VÖLKERRECHT (2001); FLORIAN HOFMANN, HELMUT STREBEL ( ): GEORGEANER UND ÖLKERRECHTLER (2010); SANDRA LINK, EIN REALIST MIT IDEALEN DER VÖLKERRECHTLER KARL STRUPP ( ) (2003); BETSY RÖBEN, JOHANN CASPAR BLUNTSCHLI, FRANCIS LIEBER UND DAS MODERNE VÖLKERRECHT (2003); STEPHANIE STEINLE, VÖLKERRECHT UND MACHTPOLITIK GEORG SCHWARZENBERGER ( ) (2002); see also the synthesis MICHAEL STOLLEIS, GESCHICHTE DES ÖFFENTLICHEN RECHTS IN DEUTSCHLAND, VIERTER BAND, STAATS- UND VERWALTUNGSRECHTSWISSENSCHAFT IN WEST UND OST , (2012). 11 Issues of the Journal of the History of International Law are available at (last visited May 5, 2012). 12 Matthew Craven argues that the rising interest in history was triggered by the newly found optimism after the Cold War on the one hand and the concerns about the hegemonic character of international law on the other. Matthew Craven, Introduction to TIME, HISTORY AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 4, 4-6 (Matthew Craven, Malgosia Fitzmaurice & Maria Vogiatzi eds., 2007). 13 The conference program is available at Workshop/Workshop_III.pdf (last visited May 5, 2012). 14 The conference was part of its Rechtskulturen program. Rechtskulturen: Confrontations Beyond Comparison, FORUM TRANSREGIONALE STUDIEN 21fdd3c5413d (last visited May 2, 2012). 15 See HERSCH LAUTERPACHT, THE FUNCTION OF LAW IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY (2000).
4 796 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06 international lawyers as theorists or practitioners, and the significance of Lauterpacht s The Function of Law in the International Community for contemporary international law. B. The Role of Jewish Identity Jewish identity and its impact on international legal scholarship had been a leitmotiv for the symposium s organizers. Reut Paz, the initiator of the conference, introduced the meeting with a reference to the infamous conference, Judaism in the German legal science (Das Judentum in der Rechtswissenschaft) of October 1936, which had been coordinated by Carl Schmitt. While the participants of the 1936 conference tried to demonstrate how der jüdische Geist (the Jewish spirit) had contaminated German and international law, 16 Paz suggested that the 2011 conference should follow in the footsteps of Hugo Sinzheimer, the father of German labor law. In Jewish Classical Thinkers in German Legal Scholarship (Jüdische Klassiker der deutschen Rechtswissenschaft), Sinzheimer writing in exile in 1938, pointed to the manifold and complex individual contributions of scholars with Jewish backgrounds on German legal thinking. Paz explained that the question of why so many of the leading international lawyers of the 19th and 20th century had a Jewish background had motivated her research on Jewish-German speaking international lawyers. 17 For Paz, the special attraction between German speaking Jews and international law was at the core of the conference. The question about the Jewish identity of international lawyers triggered a lively debate among the conference participants. The first panel on the phil osophers, consisting of Monica Garcia Salmones, Jochen von Bernstdorff, Florian Hofmann, and Michael Stolleis, seemed to be rather skeptical of a strong correlation between Jewish heritage and international legal scholarship. Garcia Salmones argued that Lassa Oppenheim ( ), the inaugurator of the famous reference book Oppenheim s International Law, 18 regarded himself as an agnostic liberal cosmopolitan who had substituted the faith of his forefathers with science and knowledge. The key to understanding his scholarship was not his religious background but his acquaintance with civil law as well as with the common law tradition. Garcia Salmones stressed that with Oppenheim s move to England in 1895, he left behind much of his German philosophical background and became a British pragmatist and positivist. However, despite his secular approach to law, Judaism still might have played a role in 16 Carl Schmitt concluded that, the Jew is only unproductive and sterile with respect to the German Geist. Carl Schmitt, Die deutsche Rechtswissenschaft im Kampf gegen den jüdischen Geist, DEUTSCHE JURISTEN-ZEITUNG, Oct. 1936, at REUT PAZ, A GATEWAY BETWEEN A DISTANT GOD AND A CRUEL WORLD: THE CONTRIBUTION OF JEWISH GERMAN-SPEAKING SCHOLARS TO INTERNATIONAL LAW (forthcoming 2012). 18 LASSA FRANCIS LAWRENCE OPPENHEIM, INTERNATIONAL LAW: A TREATISE (1905).
5 2012] Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field 797 Oppenheim s life. activities. Garcia Salmones indicated that Oppenheim was engaged in Zionist Jochen von Bernstorff presented Hans Kelsen ( ), the famous author of Pure Theory of Law. Bernstorff pointed to socio-political conditions rather than religious heritage in order to explain the motivation for Kelsen s scholarship. Bernstorff put forward that Kelsen s central beliefs in the pacifying force of law and in science as an engine for social progress were often shared by the liberal, Central European, German-speaking bourgeoisie who not necessarily, but often were of Jewish origin. However, accordi ng to Bernstorff it was the experience with the Austro-Hungarian empire that formed the convictions, since it had been the force of the law that had been perceived as holding together the multi-ethnic Austro-Hungarian empire, bound to replace the missing homogenous society, in the absence of common cultural foundations. In his autobiography, Kelsen acknowledged that his Pure Theory of Law had been shaped by the Pre-World War I Austrian context. Nonetheless, von Bernstorff conceded that from the outside Kelsen was perceived as a Jew. Even though Kelsen converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1905 and from Catholicism to Protestantism in 1912, nearly all of Kelsen s moves from Vienna to Cologne, to Geneva, Harvard and Berkeley had an anti -Semitic background. Florian Hofmann similarly emphasized the socialization of Georg Jellinek ( ) in the complex, multi-ethnic Austria-Hungarian governance system as a key influence on his writing. Jellinek, the integrator and moderator, not only came to be the predominant theoretical jurist of his time through combining objectivity and voluntarism, but also studied the practical and social implications of the law. Hofmann stressed that Jellinek, because of his Austro-Hungarian background, might have understood better than others what it meant for the early imperial Germany to create a common citizenship. In relation to Jellinek s religious heritage, Hofmann emphasized that Jellinek had been raised in a liberal, reform-oriented Jewish family his father being the chief rabbi of the most important synagogue in Vienna and suffered in his academic career by being branded as a Jew. Nonetheless, he was no exegete of his own faith and did not refer to his Jewishness in his work. Hofmann put forward that still one might find traces of the Jewish tradition in his occupation with such terms as promise, covenant, responsibility, and freedom, even though one had to be careful not to fall into dangerous speculation. Michael Stolleis strongly dismissed the claim that Jewishness had a significant influence on the writing of Erich Kaufmann ( ). Stolleis presented Kaufmann, one of the leading public law and international law scholars during the Weimar Republic, as an academic who renounced legal positivism and neo-kantianism and embraced a form of Protestant natural law. Stolleis argued that to regard Kaufmann, who had been baptized as a Protestant, as a Jewish expert in international law, would mean to classify him according to the absurd categories of the Nazis. For Stolleis, Kaufmann never wanted to be Jewish. Rather he was a bourgeois intellectual, legal philosopher, expert in
6 798 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06 international law, diplomat, and scholar who embraced the Protestant, Prussian - dominated Wihelminic Reich. Stolleis concluded that Kaufmann belonged to those Germans who had abandoned their Jewishness. In the discussion that followed the first panel, one group of participants supported the panels rather cautious approach to Jewishness as the intellectual stimulus for Kaufmann, Oppenheim, Kelsen, and Jellinek. Ulrich K. Preuß agreed that instead of following Jean Paul Sartre s classical thesis that Jews turned to cosmopolitanism because they had no particular nation to turn to, Kelsen s approach to international law could more plausibly be explained as a reaction to nationalism and particularism in the multi -ethnic Austro-Hungarian empire. Similarly, Phillipe Sands pointed to Lauterpacht s socialization in Lviv (Lemberg /Lwow), during his formative period as a young man at law school, as helpful for understanding the motivation behind Lauterpacht s writing. Sands stressed that in a period of only four and a half years, six different sovereigns ruled the city which was divided between hostile groups of Poles, Ukrainians, and Jews. According to Sands, for Lauterpacht law represented security against mayhem. The skepticism about Jewishness as an important factor in the life of the philosophers did not go unchallenged. Paz underlined that all of the international lega l philosophers came from rabbinic households and that, for instance, Jellinek took parts of his ideas about psychology from his father, who was a cabalistic theorist. Amos Israel -Vleeschlouwer suggested that it might be helpful to talk of Judaisms instead of one Jewish thought. For instance, Jellinek s writing could be described as a form of scientific cosmopolitan Judaism. Furthermore, Koskenniemi depicted the Galician-born Hersch Zvi Lauterpacht ( ) as strongly influenced by his Jewish background. After leaving the Galician university because of the numerus clausus that affected Jews, the Zionist Lauterpacht moved to Vienna where he was elected President of the World Federation of Jewish students. Even though Lauterpacht ended his activities as a Jewish Zionist after his move to Britain in 1923, he still worked as a legal advisor for Jewish organizations on issues of international law and participated (not very successfully) in the declaration of Israeli independence. Koskenniemi conceded that it might turn out that Jewishness did not motivate the writing of Lauterpacht or his colleagues of Jewish descent. However, he argued that some distinctive features are common among all of the philosophers of Jewish descent. Firstly, in contrast to their Christian contemporaries like John Westlake, Tobias Asser, Louis Renault, Johann Caspar Bluntschli, and Walther Schücking, they shared a certain reluctance to approach international law through practice and were neither pacifists nor arbitration enthusiast. Secondly, they believed that by going deeper into scholarship, they would contribute to improving the condition of the world. Koskenniemi suggested that there might be something Judaic to this. The second panel consisting of Amos Israel -Vleeschouwer, Joachim Perels, Marion Röwekamp and Alexandra Kemmerer also debated the question of Jewish identity. With the exception of Röwekamp on Marie Munk, the presenters were more inclined than the
7 2012] Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field 799 philosophers panel to attribute a significant role to Judaism and Jewish identity for explaining the practical occupation and international law writing of the practitioners Isaak Breuer, Fritz Bauer and Eric Stein. Israel-Vleeschouwer presented Rabbi Isaac Breuer ( ), one of the leading ultraorthodox thinkers and activists, as a neo-kantian philosopher and theorist of law who practiced international law by representing the ultra -orthodox Jewish organizations before the United Nations. Israel-Vleeschouwer characterized Breuer s work as a Jewish ultrareligious critique of nationalism, individualism and rights -based regimes, and he demonstrated that Breuer made many references to divine law, God, and Judaism in his work. According to Breuer, because sovereignty was heresy, one had to try to save humanity through an infinite good law. As an example, Breuer pointed to the Peace of Jerusalem where a society while serving God s law found harmony on earth. In his paper on Fritz Bauer ( ), Joachim Perels, who could not be present in person at the conference, stressed that Bauer had been a fierce social democrat and Reichsbanner fighter during the Weimar Republic. Bauer, who came to be the central figure for the persecution of national socialist crimes in the early Federal Republic, was interned in the concentration camp Heuberg after the national socialist takeover. In his book War Criminals Before Court, Bauer, writing in Swedish exile in 1944, examined how national socialist elites could be brought to justice under international law. Whi le Perels held that Bauer was not a practicing Jew and that his ideas were mainly based on Hugo Grotius s concept of state crimes, he hinted that a look into the Old Testament reveals some roots of his thinking about justice. Kemmerer introduced Czech-American Eric Stein ( ), a German-speaking Jewish émigré and the first legal scholar in the US to do research on and teach the Law of European Integration. 19 Before starting his academic career, which made him one of the most influential international lawyers in the United States, Stein had fled from Czechoslovakia to the United States after the National Socialist invasion in Kemmerer argued that the legal entrepreneur Stein was strongly influenced by his immigration to the United States, hi s experience of exile, and his Czech and European heritage. Even though Stein identified himself as agnostic, his Jewish background impacted his thinking. In a letter to a colleague late in his life, Stein declared: Despite my abominable religious education, deep down I have never succeeded in breaking the bond and I am left with my inarticulate longing to believe in the myth. Röwecamp did not find traces of her Jewish heritage in the work of Marie Munk ( ), who was the first female law student and female attorney in Prussia, and became 19 See Alexandra Kemmerer, Europa ließ ihn nicht los: Zum Tod des großen Rechtsgelehrten Eric Stein, FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG, Aug. 3, 2011, at 32.
8 800 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06 one of the first judges and a leading politician on family law in the Weimar Republic. In 1934, after the National Socialist take-over, Munk was dismissed as a judge and sought exile in the United States, where she worked as a lawyer. Röwecamp argued that despite her émigré experience, Munk s approach to the law was characterized by her gender and class. While Munk was born to a Jewish mother, and thus the Nürnberger Gesetze categorized her as Jewish, she never referred to her Jewish heritage in private correspondences nor in her professional life. Röwekamp proposed that Munk chose to be a woman over being Jewish. The framing of the conference around the question of Jewishness and Jewish identity, hence, led to an energetic controversy. While there was agreement that all of the scholars were perceived and treated as Jews by the outside world, there was controversy especially in relation to the philosophers whether an intrinsic Jewish motivation inspired Kaufmann, Oppenheim, Kelsen, Jellinek and Lauterpacht to turn to international law. One could argue that a methodological problem is partly responsible for the divergent views. How does one detect the impact of Jewish origin if a writer does not explicitly refer to it in his writing? For some, this simply is evidence that there exists no connection. For others, the absence of reference can be read as a form of suppressed Jewish identity. As one of the participants put it, if one understands i dentity as individuals having a specific relationship to their background and reacting in a certain way to it, negative reactions like conversion and self-description as an agnostic might also be interpreted as expressions of Jewish heritage. Regrettably, methodological issues did not receive much attention at the conference. It seems that a deeper reflection on what identity means, and whether and how a concept of identity could be used as a tool to explain academic scholarship would have enriched the discussion. After Lauterpacht and beyond, the question about what explains the correlation between Jewish heritage and international law scholarship still seems not to be answered satisfactorily. On the one hand, if there is something to the claim that Jews turned to international law because they had no nation state to turn to, how can this be squared with the Zionist activities at that time? On the other hand, if it is true that for converted Jews, their Jewish identity did not matter at all, it stil l has to be explained why such a high number of German speaking individuals of Jewish descent, even if converted, came to be the leading international lawyers in the 20th century. There might exist alternative or additional factors besides Jewish identi ty that explain why so many international lawyers were of a Jewish background. For instance, one could argue that the overrepresentation of international lawyers with Jewish backgrounds in the profession is due to Jewish academic achievements in that peri od, in general. As Paz laid out, 16 18% of legal academia in both Austria and Germany was of Jewish descent, even though Jews accounted for less than 1% in the population in Germany before the rise of national socialism. It might be that a particular appreciation of education in German
9 2012] Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field 801 speaking Jewish bourgeois families led to their children s success, academically and as international lawyers. Furthermore, as Cindy Daase suggested, instead of concentrating only on Jewishness, it might be interesting to ask whether and how minorities in general influenced the writing of international law or the international law project. More scholarship on these issues promises to be rewarding. C. International Lawyers as Theorists or Practitioners A second main theme of the conference was the self-perception of the international law profession. Are international law professors best described as theorists or as practitioners? Most of the participants agreed that the scholarship of German speaking academics of Jewish origin during the 20th century reflected a turn from theory to pragmatism. Christoph Möllers pointed to a move from theory to practice in the day-to-day occupation of an international lawyer between the 1880s and the 1920s. In the late 19 th century, a public law jurist and international lawyer had to engage with theoretical problems of the law simply because not many cases existed. Möllers suggested that Oppenheim might be regarded as shift[ing] the self-description of what a professor of interna tional law really does by taking a more practical approach to international law in the later stage of his career. Garcia Salmones assented and stressed that Oppenheim s connections with US international lawyers spurred his reinvention as a practitioner. Bernstorff pointed out that at least for Germany the Versailles Treaty and the presence of the League of Nations created the need for international lawyers as practitioners. Even the theorist Kelsen turned to more practical questions when he wrote his critique of the League of Nations in In the eyes of the conference participants, after World War II practice became even more center-stage in the international law profession. It seemed to be no coincidence that of the two generations of scholars, the philosophers Oppenheim, Jellinek, Kelsen, Kaufmann, and Lauterpacht wrote their most influential pieces in the 1920s and 1930s or even before, while at least Bauer and Stein of the practitioners had their strongest professional influence after The speakers debated what caused this shift to practice and how one should judge it. Stolleis explained that German international lawyers after World War II were preoccupied with rebuilding Germany s international reputation and thus lacked the intellectual energy to revive the debates of the 1920s and 1930s. Furthermore, in his view the loss of the Jewish intelligentsia, who often did not return to Germany after the war, accelerated the turn to pragmatism. Kemmerer remarked that, after the war, it was not only in Germany 20 HANS KELSEN, ZUR RECHTSTECHNISCHEN REVISION DES VÖLKERBUNDSTATUTS (1937).
10 802 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06 that international lawyers took a pragmatic approach to international law. For lawyers teaching in France and the United States like René Cassin, Paul Reuter, Eric Stein, and Louis Henkin, a theoretical approach such as Kelsen s was interesting but did not help respond to the pressing practical issues of the time. Evaluating the turn to practice caused some controversy. Koskenniemi expressed his deep disappointment over the push back of theory after He argued that in the 1960s in Germany, Hermann Mosler at the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law at Heidelberg founded a tradition, speaking in terms of a rather unproblematic international community that was light years away from the complexity of the writings in the 1920s and the 1930s. Koskenniemi dismissed the impoverished pragmatism of contemporary international law, which he described as stemming from a specialized, managerial world being built under a technical and economically oriented globalization. He postulated to abandon McDonalds law and suggested learning from the debates of Lauterpacht and his colleagues. Phillipe Sands challenged the view that international scholarship of the inter-war years was superior to today s. Sands argued that the pre-war discussions were not taken up in Great Britain because a significant structural change had occurred. In his view, international law has evolved beyond issues like whether international law really is law because the Lauterpacht vision took root. Koskenniemi conceded that the stupid question about whether international law really is law has gone, but noted that issues about what law is, what an international lawyer does, and how law relates to nationhood, the international sphere, or to democracy are not on the agenda of international lawyers today. Like the controversy about Jewish identity, discussions about the turn to practice might open up a new set of questions. Are there additional factors that enhanced the practical turn in international law? For instance, it might be that the rise of the United States as the Western super power led to the Americanization of the German philosophic tradition. German international lawyers might have adapted the American pragmatic approa ch to international law as a model for their own endeavors. Furthermore, it could also be that post 1945 German international lawyers deliberately decided to focus on a rather empirical, practical method of international law scholarship because in their view the horrors of the Holocaust and World War II had discredited grand theories and ideologies. More generally, the debate on the turn to pragmatism seems to have relevance for the self-conception of the profession today. Are international lawyers today practitioners or theorists? Kemmerer indicated that in contemporary scholarship one could witness an increased occupation with theory, while Koskenniemi seemed very skeptical of that observation. What is the day-to-day occupation of international lawyers? What should it be? The conference demonstrated that the history of international law writing can be understood as an exercise in self-reflection.
11 2012] Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field 803 D. The Function of Law in the International Community and Contemporary International Law Hersch Zvi Lauterpacht was the intellectual inspiration of the symposium. Former International Court of Justice (ICJ) President Stephen M. Schwebel once described Lauterpacht s achievements as unsurpassed by any international lawyer of [the 20th] century... he taught and wrote with unmatched distinction. 21 Most of the participants at the conference seemed to sympathize with this statement. Koskenniemi presented the newly edited version of Lauterpacht s main book The Function of Law in the International Community, originally published in Koskenniemi introduced four central themes of Lauterpacht s writing: The description of international law as a system, presenting international law as international governance through international institutions, the i dea of international community consisting of individual human beings, and a form of functional pragmatism, a need to engage with international institutions in reforming the world through law. According to Koskenniemi, it was Lauterpacht who invented these aspects that are central to the contemporary discussion in international law. For Koskenniemi, Lauterpacht s life and work best represents the maturity of international law during the interwar era. Sands and Isabel Feichtner agreed with the depiction of Lauterpacht s manuscript as one of the key international law books. For Sands, the radical book still resonates today because of its modernity and its relative comprehensiveness. Particularly, Sands admired Lauterpacht s fearlessness and independence of spirit in articulating his vision against the mainstream. Feichtner stressed that three themes of the manuscript could particularly enrich the contemporary discussion: Lauterpacht s idea of the international community gradually becoming reality through progress in legal and political integration, the question about the object and method of international legal scholarship, and his description of the role of the judge in the international legal system. Yoram Shachar was more skeptical of Lauterpacht s writing. He expressed his fear about the utopia of international law and the audacity of the dream. Shachar asked, By idealizing Lauterpacht and other idealist would one not create the basis for mega tyranny? In Shachar s view, a world organization ruled by law would inevitably be abducted by tyrants, and in that case, refugees would have no state to turn to. 21 STEPHEN M. SCHWEBEL, INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION: THREE SALIENT PROBLEMS (1987). 22 For reviews of the book, see: Isabel Feichtner, Sir Hersch Lauterpacht: The Function of Law in the International Community, 22 EUR. J. INT L L (2011); Alexandra Kemmerer, Lauterpacht, Hersch: The Function of Law in the International Community, FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG, Sept. 29, 2011 at 36, available at
12 804 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06 Besides Shachar s critique, the participants who embraced The Function of Law in general, also pointed to one weakness in Lauterpacht s approach. Koskenniemi criticized Lauterpacht for not elaborating on the close link between law and politics. While Lauterpacht treated the two as distinct phenomena, Koskenniemi stressed that law is politics because every legal institution is an ins titution that operates power. Sands underlined that judges often come to judicial results by integrating political considerations in their thinking, especially if terms like equitable have to be interpreted. Feichtner agreed that there was an important place for politics in international law and international relations, which Lauterpacht missed. Kemmerer described a feeling, shared among the participants, of a certain uneasiness with the idealized preeminence of the rule of law and the completeness of law in Lauterpacht s account, an account that did not leave much space for political contestation. E. History of International Law and Its Potential Despite the rising interest, the intellectual history of international law is still to a large extent unexplored territory. As Christoph Möllers pointed out, German law faculties are having a hard time transforming into research institutions that are open to historical, sociological, and philosophical research. The conference, however, can be seen as a step towards opening up interdisciplinary scholarship. It revealed various potential routes for further research. Besides the issues treated above, the participants also raised other intriguing questions. Paz, for instance, pointed to the relationship between German public law and international law scholarship, and Koskenniemi asked the German international legal academy to start looking at its own heritage and analyze the context of the debates in the 1920s. Does a specific German tradition in internati onal law exist? If yes, what are its elements and under which conditions did it emerge? Furthermore, Helmut Aust underlined that the ongoing discussion about the constitutionalization and fragmentation of international law was indebted to the work of Lauterpacht and his colleagues. Aust described Kelsen and Lauterpacht as the building blocks for the debate of constitutionalization, and mentioned Stein for contributing constitutionalist language and references to federal structures. It seems promising to examine the roots of contemporary theory more closely and to analyze under which sociopolitical and cultural circumstances the ideas were constructed. On a more abstract level, tracing the roots of international law scholarship in the 20 th century has the potential to assist international legal scholars in conceptualizing their own role as academics. The historical studies enable scholars to renegotiate the ideas of their predecessors in the context of an increasingly globalized world. Also, knowing what motivated international legal scholars and how international legal scholarship functioned in the past can provide assurance and orientation today. Koskenniemi argued at the conference that the international lawyers of the 1920s and of today have certain
13 2012] Intellectual History of International Law as a Research Field 805 trademarks: The belief in rationality, individualism, and international institutions combined with a certain sentimental inclination to try to do good in the world. Are international lawyers today really motivated by a romantic idea about world unity? What would this mean for their scholarship? As Paz articulated: How can one theorize the way one s identity as an individual affects the professional enterprise? Whatever the answers to these questions may be, it seems quite clear that today s scholarship can only benefit from a deeper and improved understanding of the contexts and factors that shaped international law writing in the past.
14 806 Ge r m a n Law J o u r n a l [Vol. 13 No. 06
World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies All World History courses (Honors or otherwise) utilize the same targets and indicators for student performance. However, students enrolled in Honors
APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify
Political Science Coordinator: Maximilian Felsch, Ph.D. The Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences offers the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Political Science. On completion of the degree in Political
COURSE TITLE: AP EUROPEAN HISTORY COURSE NUMBER: 3510 DEPARTMENT: History and Social Science GRADE LEVEL(S): 10-12 CREDITS PER SEMESTER: 5 credits LENGTH OF COURSE: One Year REQUIRED OR ELECTIVE: Elective-designed
The Secularization of the Modern American University BY J. A. APPLEYARD, S.J. IN CONVERSATIONS ON JESUIT HIGHER EDUCATION, 10 (1996): 31-33 Appleyard is a Professor of English literature and the Vice President
University Press Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 39 items for: keywords : business school The Future of the MBA: Designing the Thinker of the Future Mihnea C. Moldoveanu and Roger L. Martin
THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK MAY 2015 Political Science Objectives 1. To study the structure and functions of government. 2. To understand political
Unifying Epistemologies by Combining World, Description and Observer Stuart Umpleby Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning The George Washington University Washington, DC Umpleby@gwu.edu
The Rise and Decline of the Modern Liberal Arts Ideal in the U. S. A. George Marsden University of Notre Dame The liberal arts tradition as we know it is only a little over a century old. Of course something
Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Social Studies Mission Statement It is our belief that Social Studies education is ultimately to prepare students to assume the responsibilities
Political Science Courses-1 American Politics POL 110/American Government Examines the strengths and weaknesses, problems and promise of representative democracy in the United States. Surveys the relationships
MAREK A. CICHOCKI New Countries, Old myths A Central European appeal for an expansion of European understanding (Internationale Politik (Global Edition), vol. 8 4/2007) Since the beginning of 20 th century
for Research on Freedom at the SRH University Heidelberg e.v. The only freedom which deserves the name, is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of
THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT To view this PDF as a projectable presentation, save the file, click View in the top menu bar of the file, and select Full Screen Mode To request an editable PPT version of this
29 October 2004 Holger Nehring/Florian Schui Minutes of the Workshop International exchanges of ideas about taxation, c. 1750-1914 18 October 2004, Saltmarsh Rooms, King s College, Cambridge The workshop,
Christoph Möllers Chair for Public Law and Legal Philosophy Faculty of Law Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Unter den Linden 9 D-10099 Berlin Germany fon + 49 (0) 30 2093 3585 fax + 49 (0) 30 2093 3552 email@example.com
011 MAN FOR READING KNOWLEDGE. (3) This course is designed to meet the needs of upper division and graduate students who are preparing for the graduate reading examination, who need a reading knowledge
On the 2. Holocaust and its Education Implications1 in China The Jewish ghetto of Shanghai during the Second World War: Jewish refugees transformed a small street in Hongkew into one reminiscent of Vienna.
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action 20:2 Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should
Curriculum Vitae Ulrich Franke Personal information Address E-mail Bielefeld University Faculty of Sociology P.O. Box 100131 33501 Bielefeld Germany firstname.lastname@example.org Phone +49-521-1064622
Institute of Philosophy Study Programmes Discover KU Leuven Situated in the heart of Western Europe, KU Leuven has been a centre of learning for nearly six centuries. Today, it is Belgium s largest university.
Chapter 23 America and the Great War, 1914 1920 Chapter Summary Chapter 23 introduces the student to the American role in World War I. Among the topics covered in this chapter are the complexity of the
history (his) Mark R. Correll, Chair Mark T. Edwards David Rawson Charles E. White The fundamental purpose of the department of history, politics, and geography is to aid the student in gaining an understanding
SENSUS COMMUNIS AND THE PUBLIC Jacob Lund Drawing upon the analyses of French philosopher and art theorist Yves Michaud and the Belgian art theorist Thierry de Duve, this article is an investigation of
FACULTY PROFESSOR(S) R. M. Myers, B.A. (Hons), M. A., Ph.D. (Toronto) ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR(S) D. A. Jackson, B.A. (Hons), M.A. (Toronto) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR(S) N. Cruickshank, B.A. (Hons), M.A. (Wilfrid
A Criminologist s Journey: Embracing the Sociological Roots of Justice Studies Courtney Waid-Lindberg, Northern State University Abstract This piece has afforded me the opportunity to reflect on my role
Group Members: Leslie-Ann Bolden, Michela Bowman, Sarah Kaufman, Danielle Jeanne Lindemann Selections from: The Marx-Engels Reader Karl Marx s broad theoretical and political agenda is based upon a conception
190 P O L I T I C A L S C I E N C E POLITICAL SCIENCE (POSCI) Politics rules over everything you do as a human being and gives you an understanding that enables you to have more control over your own life.
Hegel s Trinitarian Claim G. W. F. Hegel is one of the greatest thinkers of the Greek-Western trinitarian tradition. He said that the theologians of his day had effective ly abandoned the doctrine of the
INTRODUCING THEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE A Book Review Presented to Dr. Jason Lee Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for SYSTH 3203 by Jeffrey
Orientation Lecture Series: LEARNING TO LEARN Developing critical thinking skills Outline of Lecture what is critical thinking? demonstrating critical thinking strategies for critical writing using evidence
Aaron L. Herold, Ph.D. Department of Political Science College of the Holy Cross P.O. Box 49A 1 College Street Worcester, MA 01610 508-793-2598 (office) email@example.com ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 2014-16
A Global Symposium in Memory of Gabriella Angiulli Bicameralism under Pressure: Constitutional Reform of National Legislatures LUISS Guido Carli University Viale Romania 32 Rome, Italy Monday and Tuesday,
PHILOSOPHY AT COPENHAGEN BUSINESS SCHOOL by Ole Thyssen research professor, dr. phil Dept. Of Management, Politics and Philosophy Copenhagen Business School In 1986, a position in general systems theory
Rise of Dictatorships and Beginnings of WWII Chapter 4 Mr. R. Smith Causes: Why Did Dictatorships Rise? Extreme situations call for extreme governments People are afraid of disorder Sometimes, people will
Master of Divinity Concentration in Black Church Studies This concentration enables students enrolled in the MDIV degree program to take graduate level courses in history, theology, ethics, homiletics,
University Press Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 35 items for: keywords : systematic theology The Architecture of Theology: Structure, System, and Ratio A. N. Williams Published in print:
KARL MARX Karl Marx, (1818-1883), a German-Jewish political philosopher and father of modern communism. Editor of Rheinische Zeitung, (1842). Expelled from Prussia in 1849, settled in London and devoted
Questionnaire on Analyzing the Degree of Satisfaction Regarding the Professional Skills of the Graduates as Perceived from the Employers Perspective Abstract Cristina BALACEANU Associate Professor, Ph.D,
Curriculum of the Vienna Master of Arts (M.A.) in Human Rights This interdisciplinary and practice-oriented postgraduate programme comprises of 9 obligatory modules (88 ECTS), a Master thesis (30 ECTS)
674 Kata Ivić KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION Kata Ivić, Ph.D. Faculty of Economics in Osijek SUMMARY Significant changes are happening daily at all levels of society. Profit-based
The Faculty of Social and Political Sciences is one of Indonesia s leading faculties in social subjects constituting of 7 Departments: Communication Studies, Criminology, International Relations, Political
Teaching about Christianity in the new RE Syllabus for Worcestershire Alan Brown University of Worcester (firstname.lastname@example.org) One of the peculiarities of Religious Education during the compulsory years
Ladies and Gentlemen, Thank you very much for the invitation to the 4 th international TDP workshop to present the European Law School programme (ELS). My name is Martin Heger. Since 2005, I have taught
Silver School of Social Work UNDSW US 67 Social Justice and Peacemaking (4 CLI UG.1444, Lyrics on Lockdown (4 S99.2111, Ending Poverty: Models for Social Change and Social Action (4 TBD, Tweeting for the
Department Head: Professor John T. Rourke Department Office: Room 137, Monteith Building Undergraduate Catalog 1998-1999 POLITICAL SCIENCE (POLS) For major requirements, see the College of Liberal Arts
The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of the statement.
18 Who Jesus Is LESSON 1 Finding Out About Jesus Who do you think Jesus is? Some people say He was a great teacher. Others say He was a prophet, a philosopher, a Western god, or a good man whose example
Brigham Young University Idaho 2015-201 Department of Foreign Affairs Emphasis The Foreign Affairs emphasis is available to students who wish to concentrate on comparative and international politics. This
What is public theology? David Bromell 1 Visiting Fellow, Centre for Theology and Public Issues University of Otago, May 2011 This paper addresses a set of four related questions. What is the proper Does
Tennessee Curriculum Standards for High School World History Correlations to Wright Group/McGraw-Hill s World History Course Description: In World History High School, students study the history of humankind
THE BACHELOR OF ARTS DEGREE IN HISTORY (HIST) The study of History is an important part of the journey for intellectual development and human understanding. Through a study of History, we cultivate and
Appendix: The Survey Questionnaire Q1.1 2014 AJS Study of the Jewish Studies Profession Q1.2 Your Work Q1.3 Which of the following best describes your current (or, if not working: most recent) profession
www.xtremepapers.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2009 question paper for the guidance of
Name Address WILBERFORCE SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA DEADLINE: DECEMBER 1, 2015 City State Zip County of Residence Telephone Cell Email Major Intended Occupation I. APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION
Master of Arts in Employment and Labor Relations (MAELR) http://www.clas.wayne.edu/maelr/ Labor @ Wayne Director, Dr. Marick Masters Academic Advisors: Frank Koscielski/ email@example.com Linda J. Johnson/
1 PRE-TEST Directions: Read the following statements and circle whether they are True or False. 1. After World War One, many countries had difficulty dealing with war debts, hunger, and unemployment. 2.
The codification of criminal law and current questions of prison matters Kondorosi Ferenc Under Secretary of State Ministry of Justice Hungary Criminal law is the branch of law, in which society s expectations
History of Law in Society Laws in Canada Our legal system has its origins in many cultures including aspects of Mosaic Law, Greek Law, Roman Law, French Law, and British Laws. In Canada, we are also influenced
Supporting Your Child s Heart, Soul, and Mind during the College Years TODD C. REAM, TIMOTHY W. HERRMANN, & C. SKIP TRUDEAU by Stanton L. Jones Provost, Wheaton College f the glossy viewbooks generated
Discussion Guide for THE REPUBLIC Plato The Great Books Foundation ABOUT THIS DISCUSSION GUIDE How should society be governed? How should communities be structured? Download the free Great Books Foundation
US History 2 Ch. 24: World War II 1941-1945 Review Sheet Mr. Mulry Axis Power Goals Country Leader Goals Germany Adolf Hitler Dominate Europe and eliminate inferior Jews Italy Benito Mussolini Dreams of
University Press Scholarship Online You are looking at 41-50 of 397 items for: keywords : lawyers Championing the Defenseless and Oppressed, Protecting Widows and Children Richard L. Abel in Lawyers on
Turning insult into opportunity: Anti-Shari ah sentiments in America and their implications for American Muslims Celene Ayat Lizzio By many measures, Muslims in the U.S. are thriving, satisfied, and optimistic,
Religious Studies Religion can inspire and provoke, unite and polarize. Whether practiced behind closed doors or demonstrated in the streets, religion has been a fundamental force throughout history in
Paper for the Future Ed: New Business Models for U.S. and Global Legal Education Conference Harvard Law School, Oct. 15-16, 2010 Internationalization and Post-J.D. Executive Education The Bucerius Model.
PhD in Theology - Course Descriptions Interdisciplinary Core Courses DS9010 Research Methods & Design A doctoral seminar that deals with the essential elements of academic research and writing, including
Theo-Web. Academic Journal of Religious Education Vol. 9, Issue 2-2010 Editorial and Summary in English by Manfred L. Pirner This Editorial is intended to make the major contents of the contributions in
Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate Of Secondary Education HISTORY 0470/01 Paper 1 For Examination from 2015 SPECIMEN PAPER 2 hours Additional Materials: Answer
FROM TERRIBLE TO TERRIFIC UNDERGRADUATE ECONOMICS CURRICULA: An evidence- based assessment of an intellectual disaster, and a proposal for an alternative approach to economics teaching 1 PEPS- Économie
Colonial & Revolutionary Periods SAMPLE APUSH ESSAY TOPICS 1) Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750. British French Spanish
J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature
Martin J. Wein Czechoslovakia s First Republic, Zionism and The State of Israel THESIS ABSTRACT The establishment of Czechoslovakia s First Republic in 1918 left a great impression on many Zionists. They
Constitutional Studies Comprehensive Exam Questions Field 1: American Constitutional Law and Judicial Politics 1. Alexander Bickel argued that judicial review suffers from a counter-majoritarian difficulty
History 123 History Thomas W. Taylor, PhD, Chair Objectives Defying classification as either humanity or social science, history functions as both. It focuses on the values, as well as the ideas, personalities,
Page 1 PHILOSOPHY General Major I. Depth and Breadth of Knowledge. A. Will be able to recall what a worldview is and recognize that we all possess one. B. Should recognize that philosophy is most broadly
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A DRIVER OF CONTINUOUS CHANGE MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Kata Ivić 1 1 Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia, firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Globalization processes
GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM The General Education program at Bethel College provides an academic base and educational experience for all students in the liberal arts and professional