KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR MIGRATING TO THE VERSION 5 NERC CIP CYBER SECURITY STANDARDS

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1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR MIGRATING TO THE VERSION 5 NERC CIP CYBER SECURITY STANDARDS Lenny Mansell Director, Consulting Services 1 January 29, 2014

2 AGENDA Introduction Multiple paradigm shifts ahead How to determine whether your D-SCADA is coming into scope CANs and CARs what meaning will these documents have in relation to CIP Version 5? Highlights: NERC CIP v5 Implementation Plan Introducing the Encari NERC CIP Version 5 Index 2

3 INTRODUCTION FERC Order NO. 791 was issued on Nov 22, It approved many aspects of CIP v5, representing several significant departures from prior versions of CIP. Question: How will this impact the Industry? Answer: We have some work to do! 3

4 PARADIGM SHIFTS AHEAD: IDENTIFYING SYSTEMS OF CYBER ASSETS The concept of CCA identification will be abandoned We will identify systems (BES Cyber Systems) as opposed to boxes (Cyber Assets, critical or otherwise) Is this the beginning of a shift toward NIST standards for the BES? Sys-tem: a group of related parts that move or work together 4

5 BES CYBER SYSTEMS AND ASSETS BES Cyber System: One or more BES Cyber Assets logically grouped by a responsible entity to perform one or more reliability tasks for a functional entity. BES Cyber Asset: A Cyber Asset that if rendered unavailable, degraded, or misused would, within 15 minutes of its required operation, mis-operation, or non-operation, adversely impact one or more Facilities, systems, or equipment, which, if destroyed, degraded, or otherwise rendered unavailable when needed, would affect the reliable operation of the Bulk Electric System. 5

6 IDENTIFYING BES CYBER SYSTEMS Okay, we have a new definition, now what? How do we identify system boundaries? Which Cyber Assets are members of the System? Does published guidance exist for identifying system boundaries? Specific guidance for identifying BES-Cyber Systems has not yet been published (though presumably it will be). 6

7 7

8 SELECTED (SYSTEM BOUNDARY) QUOTES FROM NIST WHICH ARE USEFUL AS GUIDANCE IN IDENTIFYING BES CYBER SYSTEM BOUNDARIES NIST SP Guide for Developing Security Plans for Federal Information Systems Section 2.1 System Boundaries Great flexibility in determining what constitutes an information system [Information systems] should generally be under the same direct management control. It is also possible for an information system to contain multiple subsystems. A subsystem is a major subdivision or component of an information system consisting of information, information technology, and personnel that perform one or more specific functions. Subsystems typically fall under the same management authority and are included within a single system security plan. Information systems: Have the same function or mission objective and essentially the same operating characteristics and security needs. Reside in the same general operating environment (or in the case of a distributed information system, reside in various locations with similar operating environments). Section 2.2 Major Applications Certain applications, because of the information they contain, process, store, or transmit, or because of their criticality to the agency's mission, require special management oversight. These applications are major applications. An information system that requires special management attention because of its importance to an agency mission Systems that perform clearly defined functions for which there are readily identifiable security considerations and needs May comprise many individual programs and hardware, software, and telecommunications components Components can be a single software application or a combination of hardware/software focused on supporting a specific, mission-related function. May also consist of multiple individual applications if all are related to a single mission function Section 2.3 General Support Systems Interconnected set of information resources under the same direct management control that shares common functionality Normally includes hardware, software, information, data, applications, communications, facilities, and people and provides support for a variety of users and/or applications (limited list of examples: LAN including smart terminals that support a branch office; Backbone (e.g., agency-wide); Communications network; Agency data processing center including its operating system and utilities, Tactical radio network; or Shared information processing service facility A major application can be hosted on a general support system. Definitions: Information System [44 U.S.C., Sec. 3502] [OMB Circular A-130, Appendix III]: A discrete set of information resources organized for the collection, processing, maintenance, use, sharing, dissemination, or disposition of information. 8

9 ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE Devices connected to the same network segment as your High and Medium BES Cyber Systems should be moved elsewhere if they do not belong. (Think Low-impact BES Cyber Systems mixed w/ High or Medium) How the network and devices are actually connected has everything to do with determining who is part of the [networked] family. If a device is within the boundary, it is a member of the system. (same goes for determining ESPs under CIP v3) 9

10 SYSTEM BOUNDARIES FOR DIRECT SERIAL, NON-ROUTABLE CONNECTIONS Meeting the challenge in identifying system boundaries: direct serial, non-routable connections where there is no perimeter or firewall type security

11 STILL EXEMPT Cyber Assets associated with communication networks and data communication links between discrete Electronic Security Perimeters. (Exemptions, section of each Standard) For Distribution Providers, the systems and equipment that are not included in section above

12 PARADIGM SHIFTS AHEAD: MONITOR THE BASELINE CIP-010-1, R2.1 Monitor at least once every 35 calendar days for changes to the baseline Configuration Document and investigate detected unauthorized changes. Baseline (minimum)= OS w/ version software packages intentionally installed with versions any custom software installed any patches any logical network accessible ports 12

13 PARADIGM SHIFTS AHEAD: ACTIVE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT Active required every 36 months (H); paper or active required every 15 months (H&M); new Cyber Assets to prod (H). Typically involves sending probes to devices over the network to look for open ports and known vulnerabilities. In a nutshell: scanning tools are now part of it Examples of active tools: Vulnerability scanning Port scanning w/ misc. fingerprinting War dialers Warning: It is relatively easy to break things using active vulnerability assessment tools. Always walk before you run. 13

14 ACTIVE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES Responsible Entities are strongly encouraged to include at least the following elements: 1. Network Discovery Use of active discovery tools to discover active devices and identify communication paths in order to verify that the discovered network architecture matches the documented architecture. 2. Network Port and Service Identification Use of active discovery tools (such as Nmap) to discover open ports and services. 3. Vulnerability Scanning Use of a vulnerability scanning tool to identify network accessible ports and services along with the identification of known vulnerabilities associated with services running on those ports. 4. Wireless Scanning Use of a wireless scanning tool to discover wireless signals and networks in the physical perimeter of a BES Cyber System. Serves to identify unauthorized wireless devices within the range of the wireless scanning tool. REs are strongly encouraged to see NIST for vulnerability assessment guidance and best practices. 14

15 PARADIGM SHIFTS AHEAD: PORTS AND NOT SO MUCH SERVICES CIP doesn t mention services at all, and only mentions ports with respect to firewall rules/acls; CIP handles locally listening ports on EACMS (which includes ESP Access Points) R1.1 enable only logical network accessible ports needed including port ranges or services where needed to handle dynamic ports From guidelines section: The SDT intends for the entity to know what network accessible ( listening ) ports and associated services are accessible on their assets and systems, whether they are needed for that Cyber Asset s function, and disable or restrict access to all other ports (R1.1) When no provision exists for disabling or restricting a port, it is deemed to be a needed port. [Disabling ports] is, most often accomplished by disabling the corresponding service or program can also be accomplished through using host-based firewalls, TCP_Wrappers, or other means on the Cyber Asset to restrict access 15

16 PARADIGM SHIFTS AHEAD: DETECTING MALICIOUS COMMUNICATIONS Detecting malicious communications is now required for High and Medium impact BES Cyber Systems. Many Entities will use IDS or IPS. They can detect malicious items within any kind of traffic. Multipurpose. IPS are newer generation. They can inspect a packet all the way up to Layer 7 (i.e. the data, like the words of a sentence in an or naughty code snippets) Proxy servers (a.k.a. application layer firewalls/gateways) are another example mentioned. Only works for specific application protocols. May be a good option for ESPs with very limited traffic in and out of the ESP, probably not including remote administration or remote access. See NIST for guidance on IDS placement (and a whole lot more INFOSEC) for Industrial Control Systems 16

17 The little blue dots are IDS sensors (from NIST SP page 70) 17

18 CIP V5 AND D-SCADA How to determine whether your D-SCADA is coming into scope? The Applicability section in each standard has an entry to describe if and when the standard applies to various Functional Entities. Section of each standard pertains to Distribution Providers with respect to: Certain UFLS or UVLS Systems (see sub-requirements) Certain Special Protection System or Remedial Action Schemes Certain Protection System (excluding UFLS and UVLS) that apply to Transmission Certain Cranking Path and group of Elements meeting the initial switching requirements from a Blackstart Resource 18

19 CANS AND CARS WHAT MEANING WILL THESE DOCUMENTS HAVE IN RELATION TO CIPVERSION 5? The Guidelines and Technical Basis section of each Standard appears to have intentions of replacing CANs and CARs. Many of the CANs and CARs use deprecated terminology. If there are no more CCAs, one could surmise that the guidance around CCAs may no longer apply. 19

20 NERC CIP V5 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN: HIGHLIGHTS The Transition Guidance (LINK) document is meant to assist Responsible Entities in the process of identifying Critical Assets (CA) in the interim timeframe before V5 takes effect on the effective date for High and Medium Impact, April 1, 2016 Effective date for Low Impact: April 1, 2017 Book-end requirements: What does the new list of bookends look like? (see the index) 20

21 INTRODUCING THE ENCARI NERC CIP VERSION 5INDEX A consolidated resource for your NERC CIP RTFM needs! Index, all CIP V5 standards and more, consolidated into a single PDF document. Comes in two fun flavors: Regular and Senior Manager! We ll keep it updated, and provide the world with a link to the most recent version Intelligent selection of words and terms for which index entries would be created. For those entries, the location of all instances are indexed. Today s webinar registrants get a special pre-release version Contains frequency of recurring NERC CIP activities correlated by duration between occurrences (e.g., 30 days, 90 days). There is no other resource like this that we are aware of. We made the index the old fashioned way. Index of calendar days

22 More changes to come Unresolved Lineup: What protections will a Low-Impact BES Cyber System need? The risks posed by transient devices The protection of communication networks Identify, assess and correct language; what is going to happen with that? 22

23 HANDY NIST GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS (TO BE DISTRIBUTED WITH PRESENTATION MATERIALS) SP Technical Guide to Information Security Testing and Assessment CIP-010-1, Guidelines and Technical Basis for R3 calls this document out and Res are strongly encouraged to review [800-15] for additional guidance SP Guide for Developing Security Plans (see section on System Boundary Analysis ) Guidance on defining the boundaries of a system Can be used as source materials for developing BES Cyber System identification methodology SP800-82r1 - Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security The name kind of says it all 23

24 QUESTIONS/DISCUSSION 24

25 NEXT WEBINAR Thursday, February 20, 2014, 10:30 am CST Topic: What changes to my existing CIP technical operations should I plan for CIP v5? Got Webinar suggestions? We are recruiting the best of the best: 25

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