THE ADOPTION OF IPv6 *

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE ADOPTION OF IPv6 *"

Transcription

1 THE ADOPTION OF IPv6 * STUDENT PAPER Brian Childress Southwest Texas State University Bryan Cathey Southwest Texas State University Sara Dixon Southwest Texas State University ABSTRACT There is no question the Internet has revolutionalized the world. Many of the things we take for granted today were not even possible a few years ago. Will the Internet continue to push the boundaries of technology? The answer lies within IPv6. IPv6 will replace IPv4 as the standard addressing scheme of the Internet. Why do we need a new addressing scheme? There are numerous amounts of limitations in IPv4, namely, the shortage of addresses. Most countries, excluding the United States, do not have nearly as many IP addresses as they need. The United States owns 70% of the available IP addresses, so it is no surprise that the United States is not pushing for a quick transition to the new technology. This is all new material for professional technologists. The first implementation was IPv4, which built the addressing scheme, but now IPv6 is the first step to revise and expand it. This will take extraneous time and perseverance to complete the Internet Protocol next generation. The European Union and Japan are leading the transition to IPv6. This is inevitable since they rely on the Internet as much as the Americans, yet own significantly fewer IP addresses. IT professionals question the theory of which to upgrade first the Domain Name Server (DNS), routers, or hosts. There is * Copyright 2003 by the Consortium for Computing in Small Colleges. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the CCSC copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of the Consortium for Computing in Small Colleges. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or specific permission. 153

2 JCSC 18, 4 (April 2003) not an IPv6 DNS root server. Presently, the DNS implementations all run on top of IPv4 addresses and the DNS system that supports IPv6 is linked to IPv4 information. Some DNS implementations are beginning to support national IPv6 transitions, such as, bind8 with a KAME patch, or newbie and bind9 (which are still under development). Upgrading these servers is a crucial step in the conversion process. Asia is in the process of implementing 6Bone, a virtual network layer that allows IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist. This is a major requirement for a smooth transition to IPv6. Without an intermediate layer like 6Bone, the only alternative would be to change every network in the world over to IPv6 on a specified day at a specific time-not a very ideal situation. Japan's 6Bone will take 4-5 years to complete, not including additional time to debug and fix errors. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Extensive research, design, and organization has been put forth by the European Union (EU) and Japan in the quest to implement Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). Both efforts will be collaborated into finalizing the new generation of Internet protocol. The European Commission's IPv6 task force and the IPv6 promotion council of Japan said in a joint statement that they will cooperate "to foster promotion and deployment and garner support for the new generation Internet Protocol."[2] The European Union is completing its second phase, contracting international cooperation agreements to help set up IPv6 task forces at national and regional levels. They recommended deployment strategy by network designers is to begin at the edge and then move towards the network core reducing costs and operational impacts of integration. [3] Next is the deployment of IPv6 throughout Europe by a 2005 due date. [2] With Japan's construction of 6Bone and other useful software to implement the change this should not be a challenge. We all know the benefits from the new protocol. We do not know the problems it has in store. A major concern is the ongoing Questions "What securities will it provide?" or "Will it cause more intense types of failures?"[7] Truth is no one knows. IPv6 is being implemented and there is no telling what to expect. Experts are embarking upon new and untainted ground. They are just starting the foundation and as the past has shown there are many complications waiting to be discovered as well. And where is the United States in all of this commotion? Since the US still has quite a few Internet protocol address left there isn't a demand for the implementation of more.[3] However, the US does have its hand in developing IPv6; in fact Microsoft is one of the leading designers for the switch. Microsoft, Cisco, and others have a few of its top computer experts overseas assisting international efforts for developing the future's technology. [3] In some perspective, the US is waiting to see what problems will occur from the new protocol and research its effects. Then when all of the flaws are squared away the US will play and intense game of catching up, but this is only a theory. Another decision which has caused numerous headaches is what to implement first. The domain name servers (DNS) deal with the most transport of data so they were chosen first to upgrade. [6] The IPv4 address scheme will be compacted into the IPv6 address. With the IPv6 addressing scheme there is an excess of room to be filled. There is an added section of the IPv6 address to deal with telling the server what type of protocol to handle. This allows the servers to communicate with dual 154

3 CCSC: South Central Conference IPv4/IPv6 encoding of the data. [6] This process changes data from IPv4 by adding zeroes in the address or just by putting zeros in the empty spaces. The server will pick up these zeros or emptied space colons (which are used to shorten a lengthy amount of zeros) and read the address as an IPv6. [6] Then normal computations will take place. With the next generation of protocol intact, the possibilities are endless to what computers can accomplish. 2.1 DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM The domain name system makes it possible for the Internet to be convenient for the average user. Without the DNS, web users would be responsible for keeping track of their favorite websites by memorizing their numerical addresses. Imagine an advertisement; Visit our web site at !"[7] Even worse, imagine an IPv6 advertisement without the services of a DNS, "Visit our web site at 3FFE:0B00:0C18:0001:0290:27FF:FE17:FC1D!"[7] Obviously, Domain Name System servers are crucial to the continued popularity and, more importantly, to the effectiveness of the internet. [3] This is why the Domain Name System servers must be the first physical devices that transition to IPv6. [6] This is a logical assumption because in order to have IPv6 address lookup, there must be an IPv6-compatible DNS sever to answer. Coexistence between IPv4 and IPv6 is the most basic underlying assumption of the transition to IPv6. In order to upgrade DNS servers to be compatible with IPv6, a new resource record type, 'AAAA', that will handle queries by IPv6 hosts, has been created. [4] These IPv6 'AAAA' records are equivalent to IPv4 'A' records. Compatible DNS servers will be capable of handling IPV6 'AAAA' address lookup. It is important to mention that there is not a DNS root server that is accessible through IPv6.The implementations currently installed are all running on top of IPv4. [5] Once the DNS has been upgraded to support 'AAAA' records, it will then be possible for lower level routers and hosts to upgrade to IPv4/IPv6 compatibility. [5] This interoperability will also require DNS resolver libraries to be IPv6 and IPv4 compatible. This means the DNS tables can store and look up 'AAAA' and 'A' records.[5,6] The resolver library must choose from three options when returning a dual node address, return only the IPv6 address, return the only the IPv4 address, or both. [4] However, if automatic tunneling is not supported by the DNS, then it would not be able to return an IPv4 compatible IPv6 address, because this is only possible with tunneling. Most importantly, the DNS server must be the first physical implementation in the transition to IPv6. After an IPv6 compatible DNS is established, nodes running IPv6 exclusively can interact with dual nodes and IPv4 nodes. How will a dual nod host know which protocol to use? When the DNS returns a 32-bit address, it will know to use IPv4. If the DNS returns a 128-bit address, the host will know to use IPv6. [1] one of the great benefits of IPv6 in general is its ability to auto configure. Dynamic DNS updates, which link IPv6 auto configuration to IPv6 DNS, allow DNS servers to be updated when an IPv6 node is renumbered. 2.2 Current Implementations Currently, the largest implementation of IPV6 is 6Bone, once a virtual private network turned worldwide collaboration that was initially created to test standards and implementations. 155

4 JCSC 18, 4 (April 2003) [1] Now, the focus is on testing the transition and the operational procedures. Administrators are connection IPv6 networks to 6Bone to get a jump on the competition and learn the problems that will encounter when they actually switch their networks over to IPv6. Pseudo top level aggregation identifiers and pseudo next level aggregation identifiers (ptla's and pnla's) are being used on 6Bone. [1] The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) allocated some of the actual IPv6 addresses for testing on 6Bone. [1] These ptla's and pnla's define the underlying backbone a system is working on. 3.1 TUNNELING There are several strategies to deploy IPv6. The five covered in this paper are deploying IPv6 over dual stack. Backbones, deploying IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels, deploying IPv6 over dedicated data links, deploying IPv6 over multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) backbones, and deploying IPv6 is using protocol translation mechanisms. [6] 3.2 Deployment IPv6 Over Dual Stack Backbone A network can choose to upgrade a portion of their routers, such as CPE routers and aggregation routers, to a have dual stack interoperability. This allows IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist in a dual IP layer routing backbone. Dual stack end systems allow applications to upgrade one at a time to IPv6. Those that are not upgraded can coexist with upgraded applications on the same system. Upgraded application can still make use of IPv4 protocol stack. An application that supports both protocols requests all available addresses for the destination host name from a DNS server. The DNS server replies with all available addresses. [4] In most cases IPv6 is the default and the computer will be connected using this protocol stack. Limitations to this approach are that the routers requires a dual addressing scheme to be defined, require dual management of the IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols, and must be configured with enough memory for both the IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables.[6] 3.3 Deploying IPv6 Over IPv4 Tunnels These tunneling techniques include manually configured tunnels, generic routing encapsulation tunnels, and semiautomatic tunnel mechanisms such as tunnel broker services. [2] Proper tunneling requires that the endpoints must run in dual stack mode.[6] manually configured tunnels are used to provide a stable and secure connection for regular communication between two edge routers, or an end system and an edge router, or for connection to remote IPv6 networks such as 6Bone. [2] Each tunnel is independently managed, the more tunnel endpoints you have, the more tunnels you need, and the greater the cost of management overhead. The GRE tunneling technique is designed to provide the services necessary to implement any standard point-to-point encapsulation scheme. It has the same endpoint router requirements and increases the management costs as manual configuration. [6] The tunnel constructed on the destination is automatically determined by the IPv4 address. The tunnel source and destination are automatically determined by the IPv4 address. The 156

5 CCSC: South Central Conference requirement of the IPv4 address removes the benefits of the large IPv6 addressing space. [5] The automatic 6 to 4 tunnel allows isolated IPv6 domains to be connected over an IPv4 network and allows connections to remote IPv6 networks, such as 6Bone. [2] The 6 to 4 tunnel treats the IPv4 infrastructure as a virtual no broadcast link using an IPv4 address embedded in the IPv6 address to find the other end of the tunnel. One 6 to 4 address assignment is necessary for the external interface of the router. All sites need to run an IPv6 interior routing protocol for routing IPv6 within the site; exterior routing is handled by the relevant IPv4 exterior routing protocol. Teredo Tunneling is defined for the case where NAT devices can't be upgraded to offer native IPv6 routing or act as a 6 to 4 router. The mechanism used provides IPv6 connectivity to nodes located behind one or more IPv4 NAT by tunneling IPv6 packets over the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) through NAT devices. 3.4 Deploying IPv6 Over Dedicated Data Links Data links enable IPv6 domain to communicate by using the same Layer 2 infrastructure used for IPv4, but with IPv6 using separate Frame Relay or ATM permanent virtual circuits (PVC), separate optical links, or dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM).[5] Most WAN and MAN have been implemented using this technology. This configuration has the added benefit for the service provider of no loss in service or revenue for the IPv4 traffic. 3.5 Deploying IPv6 Over MPLS Backbone This allows isolated IPv6 domains to communicate with each other, but over and MPLS IPv4 backbone without modifying the core infrastructure. [4] Multiple techniques are available at different points in the network, but each requires little change to the backbone infrastructure because forwarding is based on labels rather than the IP header itself. [5] Three strategies are under development for this use of tunnels on the customers edge (CE) routers, over a circuit transport over MPLS, or on the provider edge (PE) routers. 4.1 PROTOCOL TRANSLATION MECHANISMS Some organization might not want to implement any of these IPv6 strategies. Under the circumstances, intercommunication between IPv6 only hosts and IPv4 only hosts requires some level of translation between the IPv6 and IPv4 protocols on the host or router, or dual stack hosts, with an application level understanding of which protocol to use. [4] Considering, and IPv6 only network might still want to be able to access IPv4 only resources, such as and IPv4 only web server. The following translation mechanisms are under consideration by IETF NGtrans working group: Network Address Translation Protocol Translation (NAT-PT, TCP-UPD relay, Bump in the stack (BIS), Dual Stack Transition Mechanism (DSTM), and SOCKS-based Gateway. [6] The two categories separate the two by those that require no changes to either the IPv4 or IPv6 host, such as TCP-UPD, and those that do require a change. 157

6 JCSC 18, 4 (April 2003) 5.1 SUMMARY The development of IPv6 is underway with a flexible time table for the actual upgrade. Eventually it will become more of a necessity to upgrade. Large and small companies will implement the changes to improve security, scalability, and support. The root of the DNS is currently being established but they are not global. Each site will choose a plan to implement over their network. The strategy of starting on the edge allows companies to focus on the applications, which are still being assembled. The process will require many patches to software as we learn through the testing now in place. The inevitability of this upgrade will surely change our entire lives as we move forward to having home networks to automate everyday tasks. As professionals push the borders of technology by the use of IPv6 new designs of systems, software, and networks will unmask what the future has in store. REFERENCES [1] "NTT Communications to Provide Global IPv6 Internet Access Service", April [2] Meller, Paul, "Europe, Japan join forces on IPv6 adoption", September [3] Berger, Matt, "Gates, academics join on security, shared source", July [4] Buclin, Bertand, "IPv6 DNS Setup Information", January [5] "ABCs of IPv6", August [6] "IPv6 DNS Settings", RFC1884. [7] Zaborav, Dev, "Hack the Fridge", August

IPv6 Deployment Strategies

IPv6 Deployment Strategies Version History Version Number Date Notes 1 10/15/2001 This document was created. 2 11/13/2001 Update to the explanation of NAT along tunnel paths. 3 03/08/2002 Update to the Related Documents section.

More information

Interconnecting IPv6 Domains Using Tunnels

Interconnecting IPv6 Domains Using Tunnels Interconnecting Domains Using Tunnels Version History Version Number Date Notes 1 30 July 2002 This document was created. 2 19 May 2003 Updated the related documents section. This document describes how

More information

Cisco Which VPN Solution is Right for You?

Cisco Which VPN Solution is Right for You? Table of Contents Which VPN Solution is Right for You?...1 Introduction...1 Before You Begin...1 Conventions...1 Prerequisites...1 Components Used...1 NAT...2 Generic Routing Encapsulation Tunneling...2

More information

Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses

Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses A Silicon Valley Insider Migrating to an IPv6 Internet while preserving IPv4 addresses Technology White Paper Serge-Paul Carrasco Abstract The Internet is running out of addresses! Depending on how long

More information

Industry Automation White Paper Januar 2013 IPv6 in automation technology

Industry Automation White Paper Januar 2013 IPv6 in automation technology Table of contents: 1 Why another White Paper IPv6?... 3 2 IPv6 for automation technology... 3 3 Basics of IPv6... 3 3.1 Turning point/initial situation... 3 3.2 Standardization... 4 3.2.1 IPv6 address

More information

AT&T Managed IP Network Service (MIPNS) MPLS Private Network Transport Technical Configuration Guide Version 1.0

AT&T Managed IP Network Service (MIPNS) MPLS Private Network Transport Technical Configuration Guide Version 1.0 AT&T Managed IP Network Service (MIPNS) MPLS Private Network Transport Technical Configuration Guide Version 1.0 Introduction...2 Overview...2 1. Technology Background...2 2. MPLS PNT Offer Models...3

More information

Guide to TCP/IP Fourth Edition. Chapter 10: Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6: Interoperation

Guide to TCP/IP Fourth Edition. Chapter 10: Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6: Interoperation Guide to TCP/IP Fourth Edition Chapter 10: Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6: Interoperation Objectives Describe the various methods that allow IPv4 and IPv6 networks to interact, including dual stack and

More information

IPv4 and IPv6 Integration. Formation IPv6 Workshop Location, Date

IPv4 and IPv6 Integration. Formation IPv6 Workshop Location, Date IPv4 and IPv6 Integration Formation IPv6 Workshop Location, Date Agenda Introduction Approaches to deploying IPv6 Standalone (IPv6-only) or alongside IPv4 Phased deployment plans Considerations for IPv4

More information

IPv6 over IPv4/MPLS Networks: The 6PE approach

IPv6 over IPv4/MPLS Networks: The 6PE approach IPv6 over IPv4/MPLS Networks: The 6PE approach Athanassios Liakopoulos Network Operation & Support Manager (aliako@grnet.gr) Greek Research & Technology Network (GRNET) III Global IPv6 Summit Moscow, 25

More information

MPLS VPN Services. PW, VPLS and BGP MPLS/IP VPNs

MPLS VPN Services. PW, VPLS and BGP MPLS/IP VPNs A Silicon Valley Insider MPLS VPN Services PW, VPLS and BGP MPLS/IP VPNs Technology White Paper Serge-Paul Carrasco Abstract Organizations have been demanding virtual private networks (VPNs) instead of

More information

DirectAccess in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Aydin Aslaner Senior Support Escalation Engineer Microsoft MEA Networking Team

DirectAccess in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Aydin Aslaner Senior Support Escalation Engineer Microsoft MEA Networking Team DirectAccess in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Aydin Aslaner Senior Support Escalation Engineer Microsoft MEA Networking Team 0 Introduction to DirectAccess Increasingly, people envision a world

More information

Transition to IPv6 in Service Providers

Transition to IPv6 in Service Providers Transition to IPv6 in Service Providers Jean-Marc Uzé Director Product & Technology, EMEA juze@juniper.net UKNOF14 Workshop Imperial college, London, Sept 11 th, 2009 1 Agenda Planning Transition Transition

More information

MPLS-based Virtual Private Network (MPLS VPN) The VPN usually belongs to one company and has several sites interconnected across the common service

MPLS-based Virtual Private Network (MPLS VPN) The VPN usually belongs to one company and has several sites interconnected across the common service Nowdays, most network engineers/specialists consider MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching) one of the most promising transport technologies. Then, what is MPLS? Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is

More information

MOVING TO THE IPv6 WORLD Eric CARMÈS 6WIND

MOVING TO THE IPv6 WORLD Eric CARMÈS 6WIND MOVING TO THE IPv6 WORLD Eric CARMÈS 6WIND Transition issues IP version 6 (IPv6) is a new version of the Internet Protocol, designed as a successor to the current IP version 4 (). The transition between

More information

TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA), A Simple Proposal for Internet Addressing and Routing

TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA), A Simple Proposal for Internet Addressing and Routing Network Working Group Request for Comments: 1347 Ross Callon DEC June 1992 TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA), A Simple Proposal for Internet Addressing and Routing Status of the Memo This memo provides

More information

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):547-553. Research Article

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):547-553. Research Article Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):547-553 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Intercommunication Strategy about IPv4/IPv6 coexistence

More information

Internetworking II: VPNs, MPLS, and Traffic Engineering

Internetworking II: VPNs, MPLS, and Traffic Engineering Internetworking II: VPNs, MPLS, and Traffic Engineering 3035/GZ01 Networked Systems Kyle Jamieson Lecture 10 Department of Computer Science University College London Taxonomy of communica@on networks Virtual

More information

IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanisms. Luka Koršič, Matjaž Straus Istenič

IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanisms. Luka Koršič, Matjaž Straus Istenič IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Luka Koršič, Matjaž Straus Istenič IPv4/IPv6 Migration Both versions exist today simultaneously Dual-stack IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stack Address translation NAT44, LSN, NAT64

More information

Other VPNs TLS/SSL, PPTP, L2TP. Advanced Computer Networks SS2005 Jürgen Häuselhofer

Other VPNs TLS/SSL, PPTP, L2TP. Advanced Computer Networks SS2005 Jürgen Häuselhofer Other VPNs TLS/SSL, PPTP, L2TP Advanced Computer Networks SS2005 Jürgen Häuselhofer Overview Introduction to VPNs Why using VPNs What are VPNs VPN technologies... TLS/SSL Layer 2 VPNs (PPTP, L2TP, L2TP/IPSec)

More information

Campus IPv6 connection Campus IPv6 deployment

Campus IPv6 connection Campus IPv6 deployment Campus IPv6 connection Campus IPv6 deployment Campus Address allocation, Topology Issues János Mohácsi NIIF/HUNGARNET Copy Rights This slide set is the ownership of the 6DISS project via its partners The

More information

IPv6 Tunneling Over IPV4

IPv6 Tunneling Over IPV4 www.ijcsi.org 599 IPv6 Tunneling Over IPV4 A.Sankara Narayanan 1, M.Syed Khaja Mohideen 2, M.Chithik Raja 3 Department of Information Technology Salalah College of Technology Sultanate of Oman ABSTRACT

More information

ISTANBUL. 1.1 MPLS overview. Alcatel Certified Business Network Specialist Part 2

ISTANBUL. 1.1 MPLS overview. Alcatel Certified Business Network Specialist Part 2 1 ISTANBUL 1.1 MPLS overview 1 1.1.1 Principle Use of a ATM core network 2 Overlay Network One Virtual Circuit per communication No routing protocol Scalability problem 2 1.1.1 Principle Weakness of overlay

More information

PRASAD ATHUKURI Sreekavitha engineering info technology,kammam

PRASAD ATHUKURI Sreekavitha engineering info technology,kammam Multiprotocol Label Switching Layer 3 Virtual Private Networks with Open ShortestPath First protocol PRASAD ATHUKURI Sreekavitha engineering info technology,kammam Abstract This paper aims at implementing

More information

Cisco Configuring Basic MPLS Using OSPF

Cisco Configuring Basic MPLS Using OSPF Table of Contents Configuring Basic MPLS Using OSPF...1 Introduction...1 Mechanism...1 Hardware and Software Versions...2 Network Diagram...2 Configurations...2 Quick Configuration Guide...2 Configuration

More information

We Are HERE! Subne\ng

We Are HERE! Subne\ng TELE 302 Network Design Lecture 21 Addressing Strategies Source: McCabe 12.1 ~ 12.4 Jeremiah Deng TELE Programme, University of Otago, 2013 We Are HERE! Requirements analysis Flow Analysis Logical Design

More information

CIRA s experience in deploying IPv6

CIRA s experience in deploying IPv6 CIRA s experience in deploying IPv6 Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) Jacques Latour Director, Information Technology Ottawa, April 29, 2011 1 About CIRA The Registry that operates the Country

More information

Document ID: 45741. Introduction

Document ID: 45741. Introduction Products & Services 6bone Connection Using 6to4 Tunnels for IPv6 Document ID: 45741 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions How 6to4 Tunnels Work Limitations of 6to4

More information

RFC 2547bis: BGP/MPLS VPN Fundamentals

RFC 2547bis: BGP/MPLS VPN Fundamentals White Paper RFC 2547bis: BGP/MPLS VPN Fundamentals Chuck Semeria Marketing Engineer Juniper Networks, Inc. 1194 North Mathilda Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA 408 745 2001 or 888 JUNIPER www.juniper.net

More information

Residential IPv6 IPv6 a t at S wisscom Swisscom a, n an overview overview Martin Gysi

Residential IPv6 IPv6 a t at S wisscom Swisscom a, n an overview overview Martin Gysi Residential IPv6 at Swisscom, an overview Martin Gysi What is Required for an IPv6 Internet Access Service? ADSL L2 platform, IPv6 not required VDSL Complex Infrastructure is Barrier to Cost-efficient

More information

MPLS L2VPN (VLL) Technology White Paper

MPLS L2VPN (VLL) Technology White Paper MPLS L2VPN (VLL) Technology White Paper Issue 1.0 Date 2012-10-30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

More information

Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks

Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks Guy Davies Telindus, UK John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Contents List of Figures List of Tables About the Author Acknowledgements Abbreviations Introduction xi xiii

More information

Implementing IP Addressing Services

Implementing IP Addressing Services Implementing IP Addressing Services Accessing the WAN Chapter 7 Version 4.0 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1 Objectives Configure DHCP in an enterprise branch network Configure

More information

Chapter 12 Supporting Network Address Translation (NAT)

Chapter 12 Supporting Network Address Translation (NAT) [Previous] [Next] Chapter 12 Supporting Network Address Translation (NAT) About This Chapter Network address translation (NAT) is a protocol that allows a network with private addresses to access information

More information

MPLS and IPSec A Misunderstood Relationship

MPLS and IPSec A Misunderstood Relationship # 129 TECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER Page: 1 of 5 MPLS and IPSec A Misunderstood Relationship Jon Ranger, Riverstone Networks ABSTRACT A large quantity of misinformation and misunderstanding exists about the place

More information

VXLAN: Scaling Data Center Capacity. White Paper

VXLAN: Scaling Data Center Capacity. White Paper VXLAN: Scaling Data Center Capacity White Paper Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) Overview This document provides an overview of how VXLAN works. It also provides criteria to help determine when and where

More information

IPv6 Security: How is the Client Secured?

IPv6 Security: How is the Client Secured? IPv6 Security: How is the Client Secured? Jeffrey L Carrell Network Conversions Network Security Consultant 1 IPv6 Security: How is the Client Secured? IPv6/IPsec IPsec Challenges IPsec Monitoring/Management

More information

OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS

OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS Matt Eclavea (meclavea@brocade.com) Senior Solutions Architect, Brocade Communications Inc. Jim Allen (jallen@llnw.com) Senior Architect, Limelight

More information

TR-296 IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Test Plan

TR-296 IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Test Plan Technical Report TR-296 IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Test Plan Issue:1 Issue Date: November 2013 The Broadband Forum. All rights reserved. Notice The Broadband Forum is a non-profit corporation organized

More information

Overlay Networks and Tunneling Reading: 4.5, 9.4

Overlay Networks and Tunneling Reading: 4.5, 9.4 Overlay Networks and Tunneling Reading: 4.5, 9.4 COS 461: Computer Networks Spring 2009 (MW 1:30 2:50 in COS 105) Mike Freedman Teaching Assistants: WyaN Lloyd and Jeff Terrace hnp://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/archive/spring09/cos461/

More information

IEEE GLOBECOM 2009 Deploying IPv6 at AT&T

IEEE GLOBECOM 2009 Deploying IPv6 at AT&T IEEE GLOBECOM 2009 Deploying IPv6 at AT&T Simon Zelingher Vice President - Global Optical, IP & Data Development AT&T Labs 2009 AT&T Intellectual Property, Inc. All rights reserved Outline Drivers for

More information

Virtual Private Networks Solutions for Secure Remote Access. White Paper

Virtual Private Networks Solutions for Secure Remote Access. White Paper Virtual Private Networks Solutions for Secure Remote Access White Paper Copyright Decipher Information Systems, 2005. All rights reserved. The information in this publication is furnished for information

More information

Cisco IPv6 Position RN.2 Project Proposal

Cisco IPv6 Position RN.2 Project Proposal Cisco Position RN.2 Project Proposal Graça Carvalho graca@cisco.com Cisco IOS Roadmap: The Confluence of IPv4/ IOS upgrade = Free support Phase I IOS 12.2(1)T Q1 CY 2001 Market Target Early Adopter Deployment

More information

ProCurve Networking IPv6 The Next Generation of Networking

ProCurve Networking IPv6 The Next Generation of Networking ProCurve Networking The Next Generation of Networking Introduction... 2 Benefits from... 2 The Protocol... 3 Technology Features and Benefits... 4 Larger number of addresses... 4 End-to-end connectivity...

More information

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports

2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports 1. Introduction to IP... 1 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports... 1 3. IP Packet Structure... 2 4. IP Address Structure... 2 Network Portion... 2 Host Portion... 3 Global vs. Private IP Addresses...3

More information

Transport and Network Layer

Transport and Network Layer Transport and Network Layer 1 Introduction Responsible for moving messages from end-to-end in a network Closely tied together TCP/IP: most commonly used protocol o Used in Internet o Compatible with a

More information

Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses

Internetworking and Internet-1. Global Addresses Internetworking and Internet Global Addresses IP servcie model has two parts Datagram (connectionless) packet delivery model Global addressing scheme awaytoidentifyall H in the internetwork Properties

More information

MPLS/BGP Network Simulation Techniques for Business Enterprise Networks

MPLS/BGP Network Simulation Techniques for Business Enterprise Networks MPLS/BGP Network Simulation Techniques for Business Enterprise Networks Nagaselvam M Computer Science and Engineering, Nehru Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Abstract Business Enterprises used VSAT

More information

Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that

Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that MPLS and MPLS VPNs: Basics for Beginners Christopher Brandon Johnson Abstract Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that operates essentially in between Layers 2 and 3 of

More information

Introducing Basic MPLS Concepts

Introducing Basic MPLS Concepts Module 1-1 Introducing Basic MPLS Concepts 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-1 Drawbacks of Traditional IP Routing Routing protocols are used to distribute Layer 3 routing information. Forwarding

More information

Aculab digital network access cards

Aculab digital network access cards Aculab digital network access cards Adding and Using IPv6 Capabilities Guide Revision 1.0.2 PROPRIETARY INFORMATION Aculab Plc makes every effort to ensure that the information in this document is correct

More information

Internet, Part 2. 1) Session Initiating Protocol (SIP) 2) Quality of Service (QoS) support. 3) Mobility aspects (terminal vs. personal mobility)

Internet, Part 2. 1) Session Initiating Protocol (SIP) 2) Quality of Service (QoS) support. 3) Mobility aspects (terminal vs. personal mobility) Internet, Part 2 1) Session Initiating Protocol (SIP) 2) Quality of Service (QoS) support 3) Mobility aspects (terminal vs. personal mobility) 4) Mobile IP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) SIP is a protocol

More information

Addressing Inter Provider Connections With MPLS-ICI

Addressing Inter Provider Connections With MPLS-ICI Addressing Inter Provider Connections With MPLS-ICI Introduction Why migrate to packet switched MPLS? The migration away from traditional multiple packet overlay networks towards a converged packet-switched

More information

ITL BULLETIN FOR JANUARY 2011

ITL BULLETIN FOR JANUARY 2011 ITL BULLETIN FOR JANUARY 2011 INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPv6): NIST GUIDELINES HELP ORGANIZATIONS MANAGE THE SECURE DEPLOYMENT OF THE NEW NETWORK PROTOCOL Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division

More information

HP and IPv6 Deployment. Bill Medlin HP-UX IPv6 Project Manager

HP and IPv6 Deployment. Bill Medlin HP-UX IPv6 Project Manager HP and IPv6 Deployment Bill Medlin HP-UX IPv6 Project Manager OUTLINE Why IPv6? Current HP-UX IPv6 Features IPv6 Customer Experience HP-UX and IPv6 Deployment HP Strategy for IPv6 page 2 Why IPv6? Immediate

More information

Virtual Private Networks

Virtual Private Networks Virtual Private Networks The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@cse.ohio-State.Edu http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview Types of VPNs When and why VPN? VPN Design Issues Security

More information

CLOUD NETWORKING FOR ENTERPRISE CAMPUS APPLICATION NOTE

CLOUD NETWORKING FOR ENTERPRISE CAMPUS APPLICATION NOTE CLOUD NETWORKING FOR ENTERPRISE CAMPUS APPLICATION NOTE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This application note proposes Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) as a solution technology to deliver departmental segmentation, business

More information

Managing the Co-existing Network of IPv6 and IPv4 under Various Transition Mechanisms

Managing the Co-existing Network of IPv6 and IPv4 under Various Transition Mechanisms Managing the Co-existing Network of IPv6 and IPv4 under Various Transition Mechanisms I-Ping Hsieh Shang-Juh Kao Department of Computer Science National Chung-Hsing University 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung,

More information

Efficient Addressing. Outline. Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1

Efficient Addressing. Outline. Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1 Efficient Addressing Outline Addressing Subnetting Supernetting CS 640 1 IPV4 Global Addresses Properties IPv4 uses 32 bit address space globally unique hierarchical: network + host 7 24 Dot Notation 10.3.2.4

More information

WHITE PAPER. Best Practices for Deploying IPv6 over Broadband Access

WHITE PAPER. Best Practices for Deploying IPv6 over Broadband Access WHITE PAPER Best Practices for Deploying IPv6 over Broadband Access www.ixiacom.com 915-0123-01 Rev. C, December 2013 2 Table of Contents Udi cusciamenis minctorpos... 4 Toreptur aut dolo cone verum aute

More information

Internetworking. Problem: There is more than one network (heterogeneity & scale)

Internetworking. Problem: There is more than one network (heterogeneity & scale) Internetworking Problem: There is more than one network (heterogeneity & scale) Hongwei Zhang http://www.cs.wayne.edu/~hzhang Internetworking: Internet Protocol (IP) Routing and scalability Group Communication

More information

Telepresence in an IPv6 World. Simplify the Transition

Telepresence in an IPv6 World. Simplify the Transition Telepresence in an IPv6 World Simplify the Transition IPV6 has the potential to transform communications, collaboration, learning, entertainment, physical security and more. What You Will Learn If you

More information

MPLS VPN over mgre. Finding Feature Information. Prerequisites for MPLS VPN over mgre

MPLS VPN over mgre. Finding Feature Information. Prerequisites for MPLS VPN over mgre The feature overcomes the requirement that a carrier support multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) by allowing you to provide MPLS connectivity between networks that are connected by IP-only networks. This

More information

Top-Down Network Design

Top-Down Network Design Top-Down Network Design Chapter Five Designing a Network Topology Copyright 2010 Cisco Press & Priscilla Oppenheimer Topology A map of an internetwork that indicates network segments, interconnection points,

More information

NTT - A global IPv6 deployment case study

NTT - A global IPv6 deployment case study About NTT NTT - A global IPv6 deployment case study Adoption considerations An Adoption how-to IPv6 beyond the transition Hikari-TV Earthquake warning service 6 All backbone equipment needs to be audited

More information

Enterprise Network Simulation Using MPLS- BGP

Enterprise Network Simulation Using MPLS- BGP Enterprise Network Simulation Using MPLS- BGP Tina Satra 1 and Smita Jangale 2 1 Department of Computer Engineering, SAKEC, Chembur, Mumbai-88, India tinasatra@gmail.com 2 Department of Information Technolgy,

More information

Kingston University London

Kingston University London Kingston University London Thesis Title Implementation and performance evaluation of WAN services over MPLS Layer-3 VPN Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Master of Science in Networking and Data

More information

Introduction to The Internet

Introduction to The Internet Introduction to The Internet ISP Workshops Last updated 5 September 2014 1 Introduction to the Internet p Topologies and Definitions p IP Addressing p Internet Hierarchy p Gluing it all together 2 Topologies

More information

Virtual private network. Network security protocols VPN VPN. Instead of a dedicated data link Packets securely sent over a shared network Internet VPN

Virtual private network. Network security protocols VPN VPN. Instead of a dedicated data link Packets securely sent over a shared network Internet VPN Virtual private network Network security protocols COMP347 2006 Len Hamey Instead of a dedicated data link Packets securely sent over a shared network Internet VPN Public internet Security protocol encrypts

More information

SANS Technology Institute Group Discussion/Written Project. The Rapid Implementation of IPv6 at GIAC Enterprises

SANS Technology Institute Group Discussion/Written Project. The Rapid Implementation of IPv6 at GIAC Enterprises SANS Technology Institute Group Discussion/Written Project The Rapid Implementation of IPv6 at GIAC Enterprises 12/9/2010 Stacy Jordan Beth Binde Glen Roberts Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Background

More information

Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing

Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing WHITE PAPER Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing Contents Overview...3 Video Conferencing Bandwidth Demand...3 Bandwidth and QoS...3 Bridge (MCU) Bandwidth Demand...4 Available

More information

Proxy Server, Network Address Translator, Firewall. Proxy Server

Proxy Server, Network Address Translator, Firewall. Proxy Server Proxy Server, Network Address Translator, Firewall 1 Proxy Server 2 1 Introduction What is a proxy server? Acts on behalf of other clients, and presents requests from other clients to a server. Acts as

More information

Deploying IPv6 Service Across Local IPv4 Access Networks

Deploying IPv6 Service Across Local IPv4 Access Networks Deploying IPv6 Service Across Local IPv4 Access Networks ALA HAMARSHEH 1, MARNIX GOOSSENS 1, RAFE ALASEM 2 1 Vrije Universiteit Brussel Department of Electronics and Informatics ETRO Building K, Office

More information

Virtual Private LAN Service on Cisco Catalyst 6500/6800 Supervisor Engine 2T

Virtual Private LAN Service on Cisco Catalyst 6500/6800 Supervisor Engine 2T White Paper Virtual Private LAN Service on Cisco Catalyst 6500/6800 Supervisor Engine 2T Introduction to Virtual Private LAN Service The Cisco Catalyst 6500/6800 Series Supervisor Engine 2T supports virtual

More information

WHITE PAPER SERIES Transition to IPv6

WHITE PAPER SERIES Transition to IPv6 WHITE PAPER SERIES Transition to IPv6 INDEX Executive Summary Page 3 Till today-a Brief History of Internet Protocol (IP) Page 4 Challenges with IPv4 Page 5 Options for Business Continuity Page 6 The New

More information

WAN Traffic Management with PowerLink Pro100

WAN Traffic Management with PowerLink Pro100 Whitepaper WAN Traffic Management with PowerLink Pro100 Overview In today s Internet marketplace, optimizing online presence is crucial for business success. Wan/ISP link failover and traffic management

More information

Juniper / Cisco Interoperability Tests. August 2014

Juniper / Cisco Interoperability Tests. August 2014 Juniper / Cisco Interoperability Tests August 2014 Executive Summary Juniper Networks commissioned Network Test to assess interoperability, with an emphasis on data center connectivity, between Juniper

More information

MPLS Implementation MPLS VPN

MPLS Implementation MPLS VPN MPLS Implementation MPLS VPN Describing MPLS VPN Technology Objectives Describe VPN implementation models. Compare and contrast VPN overlay VPN models. Describe the benefits and disadvantages of the overlay

More information

Real World IPv6 Migration Solutions. Asoka De Saram Sr. Director of Systems Engineering, A10 Networks

Real World IPv6 Migration Solutions. Asoka De Saram Sr. Director of Systems Engineering, A10 Networks Real World IPv6 Migration Solutions Asoka De Saram Sr. Director of Systems Engineering, A10 Networks 1 Agenda Choosing the right solutions Design considerations IPv4 to IPv6 migration road map Consumer

More information

Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2547. March 1999

Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2547. March 1999 Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2547 Category: Informational E. Rosen Y. Rekhter Cisco Systems, Inc. March 1999 BGP/MPLS VPNs Status of this Memo This memo provides information for the Internet

More information

IPv6-only hosts in a dual stack environnment

IPv6-only hosts in a dual stack environnment IPv6-only hosts in a dual stack environnment using Free Software Frédéric Gargula, Grégoire Huet Background on IPv4 and IPv6 usage IPv4 addresses depletion doesn't need to be reminded No straight way exists

More information

Introduction to MPLS-based VPNs

Introduction to MPLS-based VPNs Introduction to MPLS-based VPNs Ferit Yegenoglu, Ph.D. ISOCORE ferit@isocore.com Outline Introduction BGP/MPLS VPNs Network Architecture Overview Main Features of BGP/MPLS VPNs Required Protocol Extensions

More information

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks CTS2134 Introduction to Networking Module 07: Wide Area Networks WAN cloud Central Office (CO) Local loop WAN components Demarcation point (demarc) Consumer Premises Equipment (CPE) Channel Service Unit/Data

More information

Master Course Computer Networks IN2097

Master Course Computer Networks IN2097 Chair for Network Architectures and Services Prof. Carle Department for Computer Science TU München Master Course Computer Networks IN2097 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Carle Christian Grothoff, Ph.D. Chair for

More information

ELEC3030 (EL336) Computer Networks. How Networks Differ. Differences that can occur at network layer, which makes internetworking difficult:

ELEC3030 (EL336) Computer Networks. How Networks Differ. Differences that can occur at network layer, which makes internetworking difficult: How Networks Differ Differences that can occur at network layer, which makes internetworking difficult: It is impossible to resolve all differences, and the solution is to take a simple approach (as in

More information

VPLS Technology White Paper HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Issue 01. Date 2012-10-30

VPLS Technology White Paper HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Issue 01. Date 2012-10-30 Issue 01 Date 2012-10-30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of

More information

MPLS Concepts. Overview. Objectives

MPLS Concepts. Overview. Objectives MPLS Concepts Overview This module explains the features of Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) compared to traditional ATM and hop-by-hop IP routing. MPLS concepts and terminology as well as MPLS label

More information

White Paper. Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the security of Frame Relay and ATM. March 30, 2001

White Paper. Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the security of Frame Relay and ATM. March 30, 2001 The leading edge in networking information White Paper Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the security of Frame Relay and ATM March 30, 2001 Abstract: The purpose of this white paper is to present discussion

More information

How Routers Forward Packets

How Routers Forward Packets Autumn 2010 philip.heimer@hh.se MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING (MPLS) AND MPLS VPNS How Routers Forward Packets Process switching Hardly ever used today Router lookinginside the packet, at the ipaddress,

More information

MP PLS VPN MPLS VPN. Prepared by Eng. Hussein M. Harb

MP PLS VPN MPLS VPN. Prepared by Eng. Hussein M. Harb MP PLS VPN MPLS VPN Prepared by Eng. Hussein M. Harb Agenda MP PLS VPN Why VPN VPN Definition VPN Categories VPN Implementations VPN Models MPLS VPN Types L3 MPLS VPN L2 MPLS VPN Why VPN? VPNs were developed

More information

Network Virtualization Network Admission Control Deployment Guide

Network Virtualization Network Admission Control Deployment Guide Network Virtualization Network Admission Control Deployment Guide This document provides guidance for enterprises that want to deploy the Cisco Network Admission Control (NAC) Appliance for their campus

More information

State Government Improves Delivery of Services to Agencies

State Government Improves Delivery of Services to Agencies Customer Case Study State Government Improves Delivery of Services to Agencies The State of Oregon has undertaken a major consolidation of its information infrastructure using Cisco Integrated Services

More information

MIF Charter update proposal

MIF Charter update proposal MIF Charter update proposal MIF WG Charter update proposal summary http://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/mif/current/msg02125.html Specific deliverables listed MPVD architecture document Requirement for

More information

Provisioning Cable Services

Provisioning Cable Services CHAPTER 10 This chapter describes how to provision MPLS VPN cable in IP Solutions Center (ISC). It contains the following sections: Overview of MPLS VPN Cable, page 10-1 in ISC, page 10-5 Creating the

More information

Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 Course, Class Outline

Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 Course, Class Outline www.etidaho.com (208) 327-0768 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 Course, Class Outline 5 Days Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices, Part 1 (ICND1) v2.0 is a five-day, instructorled training course

More information

Training course: Introduction to IPv6: Protocols, Services, and Migration

Training course: Introduction to IPv6: Protocols, Services, and Migration Training course: Introduction to IPv6: Protocols, Services, and Migration Bureau Telecommunicatie en Post (BTP) offers you this training course, which will learn you the essentials for integrating IPv6

More information

MikroTik RouterOS Introduction to MPLS. Prague MUM Czech Republic 2009

MikroTik RouterOS Introduction to MPLS. Prague MUM Czech Republic 2009 MikroTik RouterOS Introduction to MPLS Prague MUM Czech Republic 2009 Q : W h y h a v e n 't y o u h e a r d a b o u t M P LS b e fo re? A: Probably because of the availability and/or price range Q : W

More information

Introduction to The Internet. ISP/IXP Workshops

Introduction to The Internet. ISP/IXP Workshops Introduction to The Internet ISP/IXP Workshops 1 Introduction to the Internet Topologies and Definitions IP Addressing Internet Hierarchy Gluing it all together 2 Topologies and Definitions What does all

More information

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs November 2013 S P E C I A L R E P O R T Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs Table of Contents Introduction... 3 What Are VPNs?... 4 What Are MPLS VPNs?... 5 What Are the Benefits of MPLS VPNs?... 8 How Do

More information

Transition to IPv6 for Managed Service Providers: Meet Customer Requirements for IP Addressing

Transition to IPv6 for Managed Service Providers: Meet Customer Requirements for IP Addressing White Paper Transition to IPv6 for Managed Service Providers: Meet Customer Requirements for IP Addressing What You Will Learn With the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses, businesses and government agencies

More information

1 Basic Configuration of Cisco 2600 Router. Basic Configuration Cisco 2600 Router

1 Basic Configuration of Cisco 2600 Router. Basic Configuration Cisco 2600 Router 1 Basic Configuration of Cisco 2600 Router Basic Configuration Cisco 2600 Router I decided to incorporate the Cisco 2600 into my previously designed network. This would give me two seperate broadcast domains

More information