Internationalizing the Domain Name System. Šimon Hochla, Anisa Azis, Fara Nabilla

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Internationalizing the Domain Name System. Šimon Hochla, Anisa Azis, Fara Nabilla"

Transcription

1 Internationalizing the Domain Name System Šimon Hochla, Anisa Azis, Fara Nabilla

2 Internationalize Internet Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics problematic of using non-ascii characters ease of use to have local linguistic implemented in Internet (suit users needs) Solution: localization: adapting local computing environment to suit local linguistic needs But localization doesn t appear as a compelling solution in multilingual environment for DNS, why? DNS binds all users language symbols together. DNS spans the entire network DNS means to allow the use of all those language symbols within the same system (internationalization) Autumn Computer Networks (MIRI)

3 Situation of the current DNS DNS is the most common means of initiating a network transaction, whether it is a BitTorrent session, The Web, or any other form of network activity. Assumption : DNS is often sequence of words or abbreviation in English and using ASCII character set Can DNS support non western script and diacritics? Some implementations of DNS don't support any other characters than ASCII. Use of acute, grave symbols, umlauts and similar marks can provide unwanted results. DNS resolver doesn t recognize non-ascii character, unicode URL needs to be transformed/encoded into DNS LDH. Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 3

4 Multilingual Characters we have managed to get the non-latin-based scripts into many applications and also can enter non-latin characters on computer keyboards What does it mean Internationalizing DNS? where Latin and English character is used and a communication is initiated in one locale and then the language and presentation are preserved wherever the communication is received Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 4

5 Terminology Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Language: A language uses characters drawn from a collection of scripts. Script: A script is a collection of characters that are related in their use by a language. Character: A character is a unit of a script. Glyph: The presentation of a character within the style of a font is called a glyph. Font: A font is a collection of glyphs encompassing a script character set that share a consistent presentation style. Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 5

6 Unicode Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics What s the objective of Internationalizing the DNS? DNS can support the union of all character sets, while avoiding ambiguity and uncertainty in terms of resolution of any individual DNS name Solution : Unicode - "universal characters set" universal encoding of characters in the contexts of all scripts and all languages Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 6

7 Unicode representations Unicode can be represented in multiple ways by using different character encoding schemes in a Unicode Transformation Format (UTF). Most common are utf-8 and utf-16. UTF-8, UTF-16 variable-length, UTF-32 fixed-length UTF-16 characters that don't belong to the basic multilingual plane are mapped by into a pair of 16-bit words criticism for penalisation of certain scripts by requiring more bytes to represent their code ponts Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 7

8 Context of a script and a language Unicode - weaknesses in terms of identifying a context of a script and a language for a given character sequence Solution: tag the content with the script and encoding scheme Tagging is useful for and web page content, but breaks down in the context of the DNS, why? "universal" character set and a "universal" language context. No natural space in DNS names to contain tags DNS must have implicit tags of all characters and all languages Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 8

9 DNS 7-bit ASCII vs Unicode 8-bit clean 8-bit clean: computer system that correctly handles 8-bit character encodings, such as the ISO 8859 series and the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode The Unicode UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32 encodings all require an 8- bit clean storage and transmission medium. traditional DNS domain names are representable with 7-bit ASCII characters IETF s IDN Working Group decided to move towards application assistance instead of the DNS supporting non ASCII characters Why is DNS domain names are representable with 7-bit ASCII and not with 8-bit clean? LDH restriction applied on DNS domain names Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 9

10 LDH convention RFC 1035: 1. Each DNS label must begin with a letter, restricted to the Latin character subset of A through Z and a through z, followed by a sequence of letters, digits, or hyphens, with a trailing letter or digit, and no trailing hyphen. 2. The case of the letter is not important to the DNS, so, within the DNS a is equivalent to A, and so on (monocase character) 3. DNS uses a left-to-right ordering of these labels, with the ASCII period as the label delimiter. Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 10

11 Internationalisation Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Allow DNS to be set in the user s own language, and at the same time allow the DNS to operate in a consistent and deterministic manner within its restricted language 2 options: make DNS 8-bit clean or applications have to do the work and present to the DNS an encoded form of the Unicode sequences that conform to the restricted DNS character repertoire Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 11

12 IDN framework Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics IDN Working Group of the IETF formed in 2000 wit the goal of developing standards to internationalize domain names. Outcome is the IDNA framework. ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE): Unicode strings of IDNs into ASCII character encoding IETF adopted punycode as its standards IDN ACE Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 12

13 IDN An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in a language-specific script or alphabet. These writing systems are encoded by computers in multi-byte Unicode. Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 13

14 Punycode way to represent Unicode with the limited character subset of ASCII supported by the Domain Name System e.g. "München" (German name for the city of Munich) would be encoded as "Mnchen-3ya". RFC 3454[6] defines a presentation layer in IDNaware applications that is responsible for the punycode ACE encoding and decoding. Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 14

15 IDN in Applications Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics Role of aplication in IDN: transform the domain name expressed in a particular language using a particular script into ASCII-compatible LDH-encoded string and reverse critical: encoding and decoding function works correctly, deterministically, and uniformly DNS stores encoded version of the canonical name DNS is deterministic, does not return a set of possible answers to a query, we cannot use approximation Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 15

16 The Presentation Layer Transform for IDNs algorithm groups "equivalent" unicode strings from the DNS LDH string into the unicode string single "canonical" string from the group of possible IDN strings selected Stringprep: original unicode string (numerous transformations applied)-> regular or canonical form of the IDN string (transformation using the punycode ACE) - > encoded DNS string Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 16

17 Transformation Mapping: converting a string to a normal, or canonical, form transforms to lower case and removes characters without semantic meaning that do not affect the equivalence Normalisation: many languages use different character sequences for the same meaning e.g. letter Ä : LATIN CAPITAL A WITH DIARESIS, LATIN CAPITAL LETTER followed by COMBINING DIARESIS Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 17

18 Nameprep: A Stringprep Profile for the DNS specifies stringprep for internationalized domain names, specifying a character repertoire and a profile of mappings, normalization (form KC ), prohibited characters, and bidirectional character handling Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 18

19 The Punycode ASCII-Compatible Encoding transformation from the canonical form of the Unicode name string into a LDH-equivalent string using an ACE Algorithm: division into basic and exteded points literal reproduction of the basic points goes first A delimiter is added (a basic code point that does not occur in the remainder of the string) The extended code points added to the string as a series of integers expressed through an encoding into the basic (LDH) code set Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 19

20 Example of Punycode Master in Innovation and Research in Informatics bücher The encoded form for ü (code 252) delta code of 745 in base 35 expressed as (21 x 35) + 10, (10,22,1) in reverse notation kva. xn--bcher-kva Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 20

21 Homoglyphs Distinct characters not necessarily displayed in unique ways vs the domain name resolved in the DNS as in the second case translated to no clear relationship between characters and glyphs multiple characters - single glyph, e.g. pair f l displayed as the single glyph fl, single character - multiple glyphs. Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 21

22 Homoglyphs cont. Two unequal strings can be indistinguishable from the point of view Browsers: first response: disable the IDN support second response: expose the punycode version of the URL most popular browsers display the glyphs rather than the ASCII punycode Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 22

23 Ambiguity The intention in the IDN effort was to preserve the deterministic property of DNS resolution, but it did not quite manage to reach goal. Languages are human-use systems resistant to automated processing. Language and script context are needed to resolve the homoglyphs refined definition of IDN labels that lists which Unicode code points can be used in the context of IDNs, excluding all others Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 23

24 What about putting IDN codes into the root of the DNS as alternative top-level domains (TLDs)? natural extension of adding punycode-encoded name entries into lower levels of the DNS allow any DNS name to be wholly expressible in the user s language, implying that all parts of the DNS should be able to carry native languageencoded DNS names Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 24

25 Multilingual equivalents of protocol identifier codes The multilingual presentation of these elements is on the application, rather than attempting to alter the protocol identifiers in the relevant standards Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 25

26 Internationalisation of TLD Equivalence of the TLD (top level domain) when it is in the ASCII format and the punycode:.jp vs.xn--wgv71a should they be in the same or in a different DNS zone? precisetly the same subdomain name set registration in one of these equivalence names is in effect a name registration across the entire equivalence set multiligual should not only multiscript:.com in German represented as.kom Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 26

27 DNAME Record of TLD name aliases for their ASCII equivalents DNAME places load back on the name servers - still in early development locks up IDNs into the hands of the TLD name-registry operators single registrar with each IDN variant of the same TLD, competition between the various registrars - may do more harm than good for Internet users DNS top-level name space is very conservatively managed, and new entries into this space are not made lightly Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 27

28 TLD and the presentation layer presentation layer could perform also the mapping the punycode ACE equivalents of the TLDs to the actual ASCII TLDs as 日 本 into xn--wgv71a xn--wgv71a into jp Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 28

29 Conclusion ICANN in a challenging situation, many people point that it ignores noenglish languages because of its political bias overwhelming majority of Internet users and commercial activity of the Internet is in languages other than native English, ASCII only in DNS is unnatural when making changes to dns we need to think long term and not to do ad hoc decisions as it could eventually cause a fragmented internet internationalisation of DNS is necessary, we need both internationalisation and localisation What causes a user the least amount of surprise? Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 29

30 Questions to Discuss Why is DNS such a heavily restricted language? Is it better to have IDN for TLD?(IDN in DNS root)? Autumn 2015 Computer Networks (MIRI) 30

Internationalization of Domain Names

Internationalization of Domain Names Internationalization of Domain Names Marc Blanchet (Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.qc.ca) Co-chair of the IETF idn working group Viagénie (http://www.viagenie.qc.ca) Do You Like Quoted Printable? If yes, then

More information

IDN technical specifications

IDN technical specifications IDN TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION February 3rd, 2012 1 IDN technical specifications - Version 1.0 - February 3rd, 2012 IDN TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION February 3rd, 2012 2 Table of content 1. Foreword...3 1.1. Reference

More information

NAME. Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) -.IN Domain Registry. Policy Framework. Implementation

NAME. Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) -.IN Domain Registry. Policy Framework. Implementation .भ रत (.BHARAT) Country Code Top Level DOMAIN (cctld) NAME Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) -.IN Domain Registry Policy Framework & Implementation Government of India Ministry of Communications &

More information

Internationalized Domain Names -

Internationalized Domain Names - Internationalized Domain Names - Getting them to work Gihan Dias LK Domain Registry What is IDN? Originally DNS names were restricted to the characters a-z (letters), 0-9 (digits) and '-' (hyphen) (LDH)

More information

The future of International SEO. The future of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for International Business

The future of International SEO. The future of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for International Business The future of International SEO The future of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for International Business Whitepaper The World Wide Web is now allowing special characters in URLs which means crawlers now

More information

Internationalized Domain Names

Internationalized Domain Names Internationalized Domain Names ICANN Status Report cctld Workshop Dubai, UAE November 20 th -21 st, 2006 By: Baher Esmat Middle East Liaison Agenda What is an Internationalized Domain Name? Need for IDNs

More information

Internationalization of the Domain Name System: The Next Big Step in a Multilingual Internet

Internationalization of the Domain Name System: The Next Big Step in a Multilingual Internet Internationalization of the Domain Name System: The Next Big Step in a Multilingual Internet Tan Tin Wee 1, James Seng 2, and S.Maniam 2 1 National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 2 i-dns.net

More information

MULTILINGUILIZATION STANDARD. Wael Nasr Director, I-DNS.Net

MULTILINGUILIZATION STANDARD. Wael Nasr Director, I-DNS.Net UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL E Distr. LIMITED E/ESCWA/ICTD/2003/WG.2/12 2 June 2003 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Expert Group Meeting on Promotion of

More information

.ASIA CJK (Chinese Japanese Korean) IDN Policies

.ASIA CJK (Chinese Japanese Korean) IDN Policies Date: Status: Version: 1.1.ASIA IDN Policies 04-May-2011 COMPLETE Archive URL: References: http://dot.asia/policies/dotasia-cjk-idn-policies-complete--2011-05-04.pdf.asia ZH / JA / KO IDN Language Tables

More information

Agenda. Network Services. Domain Names. Domain Name. Domain Names Domain Name System Internationalized Domain Names. Domain Names & DNS

Agenda. Network Services. Domain Names. Domain Name. Domain Names Domain Name System Internationalized Domain Names. Domain Names & DNS Agenda Network Services Domain Names & DNS Domain Names Domain Name System Internationalized Domain Names Johann Oberleitner SS 2006 Domain Names Naming of Resources Problems of Internet's IP focus IP

More information

Order of introduction of «.ҚАЗ» domain name

Order of introduction of «.ҚАЗ» domain name Concurred by Vice Minister of Communication & Information, Republic of Kazakhstan S. Sarsenov 2012 Approved by Administrator of Country Code Top- Level Domains in National Internet Domain, President, Kazakhstan

More information

Commission on E-Business, IT and Telecoms Task Force on the Internet and IT Services

Commission on E-Business, IT and Telecoms Task Force on the Internet and IT Services International Chamber of Commerce The world business organization Department of Policy and Business Practices Commission on E-Business, IT and Telecoms Task Force on the Internet and IT Services Issues

More information

Policy Issue Brief EN Internationalized Domain Names

Policy Issue Brief EN Internationalized Domain Names Policy Issue Brief EN Internationalized Domain Names () If you would like information about how to get involved in ICANN policy development activities, please e-mail the ICANN Policy Development Department

More information

IDN - what s up? Patrik Fältström

IDN - what s up? Patrik Fältström IDN - what s up? Patrik Fältström paf@cisco.com In the beginning 3454 Preparation of Internationalized Strings ("stringprep"). P. Hoffman, M. Blanchet. December 2002. (Format: TXT=138684 bytes) (Status:

More information

Draft WGIG Issue Paper on the Multilingualization of

Draft WGIG Issue Paper on the Multilingualization of Draft WGIG Issue Paper on the Multilingualization of Internet Naming System This paper is a 'draft working paper' reflecting the preliminary findings of the drafting team. It has been subject to review

More information

The Unicode Standard Version 8.0 Core Specification

The Unicode Standard Version 8.0 Core Specification The Unicode Standard Version 8.0 Core Specification To learn about the latest version of the Unicode Standard, see http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/. Many of the designations used by manufacturers

More information

IDN Server Proxy Architecture for Internationalized Domain Name Resolution and Experiences with Providing Web Services

IDN Server Proxy Architecture for Internationalized Domain Name Resolution and Experiences with Providing Web Services IDN Server Proxy Architecture for Internationalized Domain Name Resolution and Experiences with Providing Web Services JENG-WEI LIN Tunghai University, Taiwan JAN-MING HO Academia Sinica LI-MING TSENG

More information

Global Registry Services Registrar Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for TLDs using Afilias Technology

Global Registry Services Registrar Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for TLDs using Afilias Technology Global Registry Services Registrar Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for TLDs using Afilias Technology Prepared by Afilias November 2013 Table of Contents Foreword... 1 Non-Technical... 1 Accreditation,

More information

Internationalization of Domain Names: A history of technology development

Internationalization of Domain Names: A history of technology development Internationalization of Domain Names: A history of technology development John C Klensin and Patrik Fältström First-generation Hostnames and Character Coding Consideration of internationalization issues

More information

Internationalized Domain Names

Internationalized Domain Names Internationalized Domain Names RIPE NCC Dubai 7-9 Dec 2003 James Seng jseng@pobox.org.sg (former) co-chair, IDN Working Group Internationalized Domain Names 华 人. 公 司.cn 華 人. 商 業.tw 삼성.회사.kr viagénie.qc.ca

More information

Chapter 4: Computer Codes

Chapter 4: Computer Codes Slide 1/30 Learning Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: Computer data Computer codes: representation of data in binary Most commonly used computer codes Collating sequence 36 Slide 2/30 Data

More information

Arabic Domain Names. Dr. Abdulaziz H. Al-Zoman Director of SaudiNIC Chairman of Steering Committee - ADN Pilot Project zoman@isu.net.sa.

Arabic Domain Names. Dr. Abdulaziz H. Al-Zoman Director of SaudiNIC Chairman of Steering Committee - ADN Pilot Project zoman@isu.net.sa. Arabic Domain Names Pilot Project Dr. Abdulaziz H. Al-Zoman Director of SaudiNIC Chairman of Steering Committee - ADN Pilot Project zoman@isu.net.sa Agenda Introduction What is the problem? Internet in

More information

Distributed Systems. 09. Naming. Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2015

Distributed Systems. 09. Naming. Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2015 Distributed Systems 09. Naming Paul Krzyzanowski Rutgers University Fall 2015 October 7, 2015 2014-2015 Paul Krzyzanowski 1 Naming things Naming: map names to objects Helps with using, sharing, and communicating

More information

Internationalized Domain Names LACTLD Meeting

Internationalized Domain Names LACTLD Meeting Internationalized Domain Names LACTLD Meeting Tina Dam ICANN Director, IDN Program tina.dam@icann.org Salvador Bahia, Brazil 27-28 May 2008 1 Agenda Definitions How does IDNs work Considerations at implementation

More information

Internationalized Domain Names. Tina Dam Senior Director, IDNs

Internationalized Domain Names. Tina Dam Senior Director, IDNs Internationalized Domain Names Tina Dam Senior Director, IDNs tina.dam@icann.org Prepared for: Localization World Berlin, Germany - 8 June 2010 1 First Four IDN cctlds امارات рф مصر السعودية 2 The First

More information

Introduction to Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)

Introduction to Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) Introduction to ized Domain Names (IDN) IP Symposium for CEE, CIS and Baltic States Moscow, Russia 16-19 September 2003 Robert Shaw ITU Internet Strategy and Policy Advisor Agenda

More information

Request for Comments: 3491 Category: Standards Track Viagenie March 2003

Request for Comments: 3491 Category: Standards Track Viagenie March 2003 Network Working Group Request for Comments: 3491 Category: Standards Track P. Hoffman IMC & VPNC M. Blanchet Viagenie March 2003 Status of this Memo Nameprep: A Stringprep Profile for Internationalized

More information

Internationalized Domain Names Business Access Meeting

Internationalized Domain Names Business Access Meeting Internationalized Domain Names Business Access Meeting Tina Dam ICANN Director, IDN Program tina.dam@icann.org Paris, France 23 June 2008 1 Agenda Definitions and basics How does IDNs work What work still

More information

<.bloomberg> gtld Registration Policies

<.bloomberg> gtld Registration Policies gtld Registration Policies General Statement... 2 Definitions... 2 String Requirements... 3 Reserved Names... 3 Name Collision... 3 Acceptable Use... 4 Reservation of Rights... 4 Rapid Takedown

More information

Published by ICANN 7 June 2013 - For Information Only

Published by ICANN 7 June 2013 - For Information Only String Similarity new gtld Evaluation Panel Process Description 1 Application Receipt and Verification Checks Incoming applications from ICANN automatically generate new tickets in internal tracking system

More information

.AXA Domain Policy. As of March 3, 2014

.AXA Domain Policy. As of March 3, 2014 .AXA Domain Policy As of March 3, 2014 The.AXA TLD, also designated as the AXA domain or dot-axa, is a generic Top Level Domain string exclusively developed for the AXA insurance group and will be therefore

More information

Distributed Systems. 22. Naming. 2013 Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2013

Distributed Systems. 22. Naming. 2013 Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2013 Distributed Systems 22. Naming Paul Krzyzanowski Rutgers University Fall 2013 November 21, 2013 2013 Paul Krzyzanowski 1 My 15 MacBook Pro The rightmost computer on my desk Paul s aluminum laptop, but

More information

Procedure to Develop and Maintain the Label Generation Rules for the Root Zone in Respect of IDNA Labels

Procedure to Develop and Maintain the Label Generation Rules for the Root Zone in Respect of IDNA Labels Procedure to Develop and Maintain the Label Generation Rules for the Root Zone in Respect of IDNA Labels Version 2013-03-20b Table of Contents A. INTRODUCTION, MOTIVATIONS, AND BACKGROUND 6 A.1. PURPOSE

More information

Designing Global Applications: Requirements and Challenges

Designing Global Applications: Requirements and Challenges Designing Global Applications: Requirements and Challenges Sourav Mazumder Abstract This paper explores various business drivers for globalization and examines the nature of globalization requirements

More information

IDN FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

IDN FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS IDN FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS General 1. What is an Internationalised Domain Name (IDN)? 2. What is the difference between an IDN and an ASCII domain name? 3. How will my IDN be shown on the WHOIS? Registration

More information

Radix Reserved Names Policy

Radix Reserved Names Policy Radix Reserved Names Policy 1. Introduction This policy describes Radix FZC s and its subsidiaries ( Radix ) Reserved Names Policy as it applies to all new top-level domains operated by Radix subsidiaries

More information

September 2009 Report #33

September 2009 Report #33 September 2009 Report #33 Overall spam volumes averaged at 87 percent of all email messages in August 2009. Health spam decreased again this month and averaged at 6.73 percent, while over 29 percent of

More information

Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques

Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques Standard ECMA-35 6th Edition - December 1994 Standardizing Information and Communication Systems Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques Phone: +41 22 849.60.00 - Fax: +41 22 849.60.01 - X.400:

More information

Glossary of Technical Terms Related to IPv6

Glossary of Technical Terms Related to IPv6 AAAA Record An AAAA record stores a 128-bit Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address, which does not fit the standard A record format. For example, 2007:0db6:85a3:0000:0000:6a2e:0371:7234 is a valid

More information

Product Internationalization of a Document Management System

Product Internationalization of a Document Management System Case Study Product Internationalization of a ì THE CUSTOMER A US-based provider of proprietary Legal s and Archiving solutions, with a customizable document management framework. The customer s DMS was

More information

IANA Functions to cctlds Sofia, Bulgaria September 2008

IANA Functions to cctlds Sofia, Bulgaria September 2008 IANA Functions to cctlds Sofia, Bulgaria September 2008 Kim Davies Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers What is IANA? Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

More information

XML. CIS-3152, Spring 2013 Peter C. Chapin

XML. CIS-3152, Spring 2013 Peter C. Chapin XML CIS-3152, Spring 2013 Peter C. Chapin Markup Languages Plain text documents with special commands PRO Plays well with version control and other program development tools. Easy to manipulate with scripts

More information

MULTILINGUALISM AND THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM 1

MULTILINGUALISM AND THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM 1 MULTILINGUALISM AND THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM 1 Kangsik Cheon The Internet was developed from ARPANET in the United States. Since 1990, it has flourished with tremendous speed and is now a critical part of

More information

SUMMARY PRINCIPLES, RECOMMENDATIONS & IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

SUMMARY PRINCIPLES, RECOMMENDATIONS & IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES SUMMARY PRINCIPLES, RECOMMENDATIONS & IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES 1. This section sets out, in table form, the set of Principles, proposed Policy Recommendations and Guidelines that the Committee has derived

More information

.ASIA Reserved Names Policies

.ASIA Reserved Names Policies Prepared by: DotAsia Organisation Date: 10-Aug-2007 Reference #: N/A Status: Complete Version: 2.0 Executive Summary This document describes the Reserved Names Policies for the.asia Registry. These policies

More information

Report on the Meeting of the Project Country Partners with Policy Makers

Report on the Meeting of the Project Country Partners with Policy Makers Report on the Meeting of the Project Country Partners with Policy Makers Bal Krishna Bal, bal@mpp.org.np Madan Puraskar Pustakalaya Lalitpur, PatanDhoka, Nepal March, 2009 Meeting on Internationalized

More information

Taipei Enterprise Sunrise Period Policy

Taipei Enterprise Sunrise Period Policy Taipei Enterprise Sunrise Period Policy Purpose: The Taipei Enterprise Sunrise Period offers a legal person or a natural person who registers in Great Taipei Area (Taipei City and New Taipei City) and

More information

Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) necessary or waste of money? IP and the Internet_ a KOLSTER Seminar_ Helsinki 31 May 2012.

Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) necessary or waste of money? IP and the Internet_ a KOLSTER Seminar_ Helsinki 31 May 2012. Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) necessary or waste of money? Non ASCII characters Definition Support Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, etc. alphabets Many TLDs now support IDNs Transform the Internet into

More information

New gtld Basics New Internet Extensions

New gtld Basics New Internet Extensions New gtld Basics New Internet Extensions Agenda Overview about domain names, gtld timeline and the New gtld Program Why is ICANN doing this; potential impact of this initiative to businesses, governments,

More information

Policies, Standards and Guidelines Notice of Approval

Policies, Standards and Guidelines Notice of Approval Policies, Standards and Guidelines Notice of Approval Doc Ref Number: PSG 200-05 06-15-2014 Title: State of MS Domain Name Policy Approval Notice is hereby given, that the above specified document meets

More information

EFFECTIVE AS OF AUGUST 15, 2015

EFFECTIVE AS OF AUGUST 15, 2015 EFFECTIVE AS OF AUGUST 15, 2015.LAT DOMAIN NAMES GENERAL POLICY Effective as of January 30, 2015. The domain name registration under the gtld.lat, is delegated to Federación de Latinoamérica y el Caribe

More information

The Domain Name System (DNS) Jason Hermance Nerces Kazandjian Long-Quan Nguyen

The Domain Name System (DNS) Jason Hermance Nerces Kazandjian Long-Quan Nguyen The Domain Name System (DNS) Jason Hermance Nerces Kazandjian Long-Quan Nguyen Introduction Machines find 32-bit IP addresses just peachy. Some Computer Science majors don t seem to mind either Normal

More information

.hitachi Domain Name Registration Policies

.hitachi Domain Name Registration Policies .hitachi Domain Name Registration Policies (May 12, 2014) Contents Contents... 2 Definitions... 3 Introduction... 5 Launch Phases... 5 Chapter 1.Domain Name Registration and Allocation... 6 1.1.Purpose

More information

Right-to-Left Language Support in EMu

Right-to-Left Language Support in EMu EMu Documentation Right-to-Left Language Support in EMu Document Version 1.1 EMu Version 4.0 www.kesoftware.com 2010 KE Software. All rights reserved. Contents SECTION 1 Overview 1 SECTION 2 Switching

More information

.eu Insights. EURid-UNESCO World report on Internationalised Domain Names deployment 2012

.eu Insights. EURid-UNESCO World report on Internationalised Domain Names deployment 2012 .eu Insights EURid-UNESCO World report on Internationalised Domain Names deployment 2012 November 2012 .eu Insights The EURid Insights series aims to analyse specific aspects of the domain name environment.

More information

Chapter 5. Data Communication And Internet Technology

Chapter 5. Data Communication And Internet Technology Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology Purpose Understand the fundamental networking concepts Agenda Network Concepts Communication Protocol TCP/IP-OSI Architecture Network Types LAN WAN

More information

PROMOTION OF THE ARABIC DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM

PROMOTION OF THE ARABIC DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM Distr. LIMITED E/ESCWA/ICTD/2009/Technical Paper.1 31 December 2009 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR WESTERN ASIA (ESCWA) PROMOTION OF THE ARABIC DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM Request for Comments

More information

Chapter 23 The Domain Name System (DNS)

Chapter 23 The Domain Name System (DNS) CSC521 Communication Protocols 網 路 通 訊 協 定 Chapter 23 The Domain Name System (DNS) 吳 俊 興 國 立 高 雄 大 學 資 訊 工 程 學 系 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Names For Machines 3. Flat Namespace 4. Hierarchical Names 5.

More information

Policy Overview and Definitions

Policy Overview and Definitions Overview The following policies, which govern the top level domain (TLD or Registry) indicated on Schedule A, are based on policies and best practices drawn from ICANN, WIPO, and other relevant sources,

More information

TCP/IP Sockets in Java: Practical Guide for Programmers

TCP/IP Sockets in Java: Practical Guide for Programmers TCP/IP Sockets in Java: Practical Guide for Programmers Kenneth L. Calvert Michael J. Donahoo Computer Chat! How do we make computers talk?! How are they interconnected? Internet Protocol (IP) Internet

More information

Arabic Domain Names. SaudiNIC s Experiences and Initiatives Relate to UA. Raed Alfayez, SaudiNIC ICANN 55, Marrakech, March 2016

Arabic Domain Names. SaudiNIC s Experiences and Initiatives Relate to UA. Raed Alfayez, SaudiNIC ICANN 55, Marrakech, March 2016 Arabic Domain Names SaudiNIC s Experiences and Initiatives Relate to UA Raed Alfayez, SaudiNIC ICANN 55, Marrakech, March 2016 Agenda About SaudiNIC SaudiNIC Previous Work IDN Assessment reports Raseel

More information

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM INTERNET DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM http://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_technologies/internet_domain_name_system.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Overview When DNS was not into existence, one had to download

More information

Phishing by data URI

Phishing by data URI Phishing by data URI Henning Klevjer henning@klevjers.com October 22, 2012 1 Abstract Historically, phishing web pages have been hosted by web servers that are either compromised or owned by the attacker.

More information

Reserved and Restricted Domain Names Policy

Reserved and Restricted Domain Names Policy 15 June 2015 CURRENT dotshabaka Registry Dubai Marina, Dubai dotshabaka.com @dotshabaka دوت شبكة ريجستري دبي مارينا دبي اسماء.شبكة @dotshabaka International Domain Registry Pty Ltd trading as dotshabaka

More information

IDN and SSL certificates

IDN and SSL certificates IDN and SSL certificates ICANN Cape Town, December 2004 Valentin Németh, senior engineer, Thawte Consulting Who we are Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd., based in Cape Town, South Africa; the second largest

More information

NICC ND 1633 V1.1.2 (2008-08)

NICC ND 1633 V1.1.2 (2008-08) ND 1633 V1.1.2 (2008-08) Document Next Generation Networks; Element Naming Framework Network Interoperability Consultative Committee, Ofcom, 2a Southwark Bridge Road, London, SE1 9HA. 2 ND1633 V1.1.2 (2008-08)

More information

EURESCOM - P923 (Babelweb) PIR.3.1

EURESCOM - P923 (Babelweb) PIR.3.1 Multilingual text processing difficulties Malek Boualem, Jérôme Vinesse CNET, 1. Introduction Users of more and more applications now require multilingual text processing tools, including word processors,

More information

2. Compressing data to reduce the amount of transmitted data (e.g., to save money).

2. Compressing data to reduce the amount of transmitted data (e.g., to save money). Presentation Layer The presentation layer is concerned with preserving the meaning of information sent across a network. The presentation layer may represent (encode) the data in various ways (e.g., data

More information

3. The Domain Name Service

3. The Domain Name Service 3. The Domain Name Service n Overview and high level design n Typical operation and the role of caching n Contents of DNS Resource Records n Basic message formats n Configuring/updating Resource Records

More information

The Domain Name System (DNS)

The Domain Name System (DNS) The Domain Name System (DNS) Each Internet host is assigned a host name and an IP address Host names are structured character strings, e.g., www.cs.iastate.edu IP addresses are 32 bit integers, e.g., 129.186.3.6

More information

Domain Name System Richard T. B. Ma

Domain Name System Richard T. B. Ma Domain Name System Richard T. B. Ma School of Computing National University of Singapore CS 3103: Compute Networks and Protocols Names Vs. Addresses Names are easier for human to remember www.comp.nus.edu.sg

More information

Four ACEs. A Survey of ASCII Compatible Encodings. International Unicode Conference 22 September 2002

Four ACEs. A Survey of ASCII Compatible Encodings. International Unicode Conference 22 September 2002 Four ACEs A Survey of ASCII Compatible Encodings International Unicode Conference 22 September 2002 by Addison P. Phillips Director, Globalization Architecture c TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 WHAT'S

More information

Communicating access and usage policies to crawlers using extensions to the Robots Exclusion Protocol Part 1: Extension of robots.

Communicating access and usage policies to crawlers using extensions to the Robots Exclusion Protocol Part 1: Extension of robots. Communicating access and usage policies to crawlers using extensions to the Robots Exclusion Protocol Part 1: Extension of robots.txt file format A component of the ACAP Technical Framework Implementation

More information

.Leclerc Domain Name Policy (DNP)

.Leclerc Domain Name Policy (DNP) .Leclerc Domain Name Policy (DNP) TABLE OF CONTENT.Leclerc Domain Name Policy (DNP)... 1 Background - Validated on April 2015... 2 Definition... 2 Eligibility requirements... 3 Licensing of domain name

More information

Internetworking with TCP/IP Unit 10. Domain Name System

Internetworking with TCP/IP Unit 10. Domain Name System Unit 10 Domain Name System Structure 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) Generic Domains Country Domains 10.3 Mapping domain names to IP addresses 10.4 Mapping IP Addresses to Domain

More information

An introduction to IANA Presentation Notes

An introduction to IANA Presentation Notes An introduction to IANA Presentation Notes Date 29 September 2008 Contact Kim Davies, Manager of Root Zone Services kim.davies@icann.org While the Internet is renowned for being a worldwide network free

More information

NASK.PL Registry & Registrars. www.dns.pl email: partner@dns.pl

NASK.PL Registry & Registrars. www.dns.pl email: partner@dns.pl NASK.PL Registry & Registrars www.dns.pl email: partner@dns.pl AGENDA.PL REGISTRAR PROGRAM before and now Registration process Prices and discounts for Registrars IDNs States of the domain Services only

More information

The Proposal for Internationalizing cctld Names

The Proposal for Internationalizing cctld Names The Proposal for Internationalizing cctld Names By Chinese Domain Name Consortium (CDNC) June 2005 Introduction The Internet from its birth was in English. In its early years in the United States of America,

More information

One Report, Many Languages: Using SAS Visual Analytics to Localize Your Reports

One Report, Many Languages: Using SAS Visual Analytics to Localize Your Reports Technical Paper One Report, Many Languages: Using SAS Visual Analytics to Localize Your Reports Will Ballard and Elizabeth Bales One Report, Many Languages: Using SAS Visual Analytics to Localize Your

More information

Technical Integration Guide

Technical Integration Guide TECHNICAL INTEGRATION GUIDE February 25th, 2013 1 Technical Integration Guide - Version 2.7 - February 25th, 2013-1 - TECHNICAL INTEGRATION GUIDE February 25th, 2013 2 Table of content 1. Preface... 5

More information

.kiwi Landrush Policy. 17 March 2014 Version 1.0 Dot Kiwi Limited

.kiwi Landrush Policy. 17 March 2014 Version 1.0 Dot Kiwi Limited 17 March 2014 Version 1.0 Dot Kiwi Limited Summary and Timeline Dot Kiwi Limited (the Registry or Dot Kiwi ) will offer a preliminary application period ( Landrush ) before registration on a first- come,

More information

Maximizing Domain Name Competencies Within Large Corporations

Maximizing Domain Name Competencies Within Large Corporations Maximizing Domain Name Competencies Within Large Corporations Introduction Managing a multinational corporation s domain name portfolio can be extremely difficult given the fragmented nature of the domain

More information

Teldat Router. DNS Client

Teldat Router. DNS Client Teldat Router DNS Client Doc. DM723-I Rev. 10.00 March, 2003 INDEX Chapter 1 Domain Name System...1 1. Introduction...2 2. Resolution of domains...3 2.1. Domain names resolver functionality...4 2.2. Functionality

More information

Māori Language Domain Names

Māori Language Domain Names Māori Language Domain Names The ability to use a macron in Internet addresses and email addresses is a Human Right currently not afforded to Māori. 2006 Karaitiana N Taiuru http://www.taiuru.maori.nz http://www.māorimacrons.com

More information

Translating QueueMetrics into a new language

Translating QueueMetrics into a new language Translating QueueMetrics into a new language Translator s manual AUTORE: LOWAY RESEARCH VERSIONE: 1.3 DATA: NOV 11, 2006 STATO: Loway Research di Lorenzo Emilitri Via Fermi 5 21100 Varese Tel 0332 320550

More information

Introduction to Unicode. By: Atif Gulzar Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing

Introduction to Unicode. By: Atif Gulzar Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing Introduction to Unicode By: Atif Gulzar Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing Introduction to Unicode Unicode Why Unicode? What is Unicode? Unicode Architecture Why Unicode? Pre-Unicode Standards

More information

Encoding Text with a Small Alphabet

Encoding Text with a Small Alphabet Chapter 2 Encoding Text with a Small Alphabet Given the nature of the Internet, we can break the process of understanding how information is transmitted into two components. First, we have to figure out

More information

web hosting and domain names

web hosting and domain names web hosting and domain names web hosting An internet service provider (ISP) provides internet services A common internet service is web hosting web hosting means storing your website on a public server

More information

GENERAL* POLICY OF AKKY S DOMAIN NAMES. Policy to be enforced as from May 5 th, 2012.

GENERAL* POLICY OF AKKY S DOMAIN NAMES. Policy to be enforced as from May 5 th, 2012. GENERAL* POLICY OF AKKY S DOMAIN NAMES. Policy to be enforced as from May 5 th, 2012. 1. DEFINITIONS. 2. GENERAL PROVISIONS. 3. REGARDING THE DOMAIN NAMES. 4. USERS AND CONTACTS FACULTIES AND OBLIGATIONS.

More information

Domain Name Registration Policies (Version 1.1 June 10, 2014)

Domain Name Registration Policies (Version 1.1 June 10, 2014) Domain Name Registration Policies (Version 1.1 June 10, 2014) Contents Contents... 2 Definitions... 3 Introduction... 5 Purpose and Principles of the.tokyo TLD... 5 Launch Phases... 6 Chapter 1. The Sunrise

More information

ICANN Synthesis on Single-Character Domain Names at the Second-Level

ICANN Synthesis on Single-Character Domain Names at the Second-Level ICANN Synthesis on Single-Character Domain Names at the Second-Level Prepared by Patrick Jones Registry Liaison Manager 27 February 2008 ICANN staff has prepared this synthesis document for community consideration

More information

Lab - Observing DNS Resolution

Lab - Observing DNS Resolution Objectives Part 1: Observe the DNS Conversion of a URL to an IP Address Part 2: Observe DNS Lookup Using the Nslookup Command on a Web Site Part 3: Observe DNS Lookup Using the Nslookup Command on Mail

More information

ITEC310 Computer Networks II

ITEC310 Computer Networks II ITEC310 Computer Networks II Chapter 25 Domain Name System Department of Information Technology Eastern Mediterranean University Objectives 2/56 After completing this chapter you should be able to do the

More information

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) Specific Questions about Afilias Managed DNS What is the Afilias DNS network? How long has Afilias been working within the DNS market? What are the names of the Afilias

More information

Defining and Signaling Relationships Between Domains

Defining and Signaling Relationships Between Domains Defining and Signaling Relationships Between Domains Casey Deccio John Levine Abstract Various Internet protocols and applications require some mechanism for determining whether two Domain Name System

More information

Lecture 2. Internet: who talks with whom?

Lecture 2. Internet: who talks with whom? Lecture 2. Internet: who talks with whom? An application layer view, with particular attention to the World Wide Web Basic scenario Internet Client (local PC) Server (remote host) Client wants to retrieve

More information

Multi-lingual Label Printing with Unicode

Multi-lingual Label Printing with Unicode Multi-lingual Label Printing with Unicode White Paper Version 20100716 2009 SATO CORPORATION. All rights reserved. http://www.satoworldwide.com softwaresupport@satogbs.com 2009 SATO Corporation. All rights

More information

Application-layer protocols

Application-layer protocols Application layer Goals: Conceptual aspects of network application protocols Client server paradigm Service models Learn about protocols by examining popular application-level protocols HTTP DNS Application-layer

More information

Domain Name System. CS 571 Fall 2006. 2006, Kenneth L. Calvert University of Kentucky, USA All rights reserved

Domain Name System. CS 571 Fall 2006. 2006, Kenneth L. Calvert University of Kentucky, USA All rights reserved Domain Name System CS 571 Fall 2006 2006, Kenneth L. Calvert University of Kentucky, USA All rights reserved DNS Specifications Domain Names Concepts and Facilities RFC 1034, November 1987 Introduction

More information

Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ MEng. Nguyễn CaoĐạt

Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ MEng. Nguyễn CaoĐạt Computer Networks 1 (Mạng Máy Tính 1) Lectured by: Dr. Phạm Trần Vũ MEng. Nguyễn CaoĐạt 1 Lecture 10: Application Layer 2 Application Layer Where our applications are running Using services provided by

More information