1 811 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MISADVENTURE Petra Butler * This article examines the development of medical misadventure law in New Zealand. It discusses the various pieces of legislation impacting on the definition of "medical misadventure" as well as considering the punitive damages cases that are emerging outside ACC against allegedly negligent health professionals and organisations. The author states that the difficulty in devising an appropriate system of accountability lies in the special trust of the doctor patient relationship. There are certain things that civilised society simply cannot permit to be done to its members, even if they are compensated for their resulting losses. 1 Today's expectations in regard to medical treatment are high. Miracle drugs, elaborate surgical procedures which no one would have dreamed of 50 years ago, genetically manufactured drugs and the first steps in genome therapy seem to make nearly everything achievable today. Within a large proportion of the population one finds an unshakeable belief in medicine. 2 However, that faith can sometimes be shaken when the desired result is not achieved. The doctor patient relationship is a special one which can have a wide variety of variables. As Peter Roberts' paper points out healthcare is not "just part of a linear production process" but rather health care is of a "stochastic nature". 3 However, one thing is certain: the doctor patient relationship is one of immense trust from the side of the patient. The medical professional who is initially a complete stranger, over a period of time becomes the confidant knowing often the most intimate details about a person. And the act or omission of the medical professional always impacts * Senior Lecturer, Victoria University of Wellington; LLM(VUW); PhD (Goettingen). 1 Supreme Court of India "Settlement Order 14/ (4 May 1989)" in Madhara Menon (ed) Documents and Court Opinions on Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Case (National Law School of India University, Bangalore, 1991) Peter Roberts "Policy to Protection: The Role of Human Nature and System Nature in Preventing Patient Injury" (2004) 35 VUWLR 829 notes that in the last 25 years the doctor patient relationship has changed and that especially trust in the competence, altruism and integrity of doctors has slipped. 3 Roberts, above n 2, 839.
2 812 (2004) 35 VUWLR on the mental or physical health of the patient. A mistake by a medical professional, therefore, nearly always has negative consequences for the patient either because the patient's problem does not get better or because the problem gets even worse. Because of the consequences of acts or omissions of a medical professional and the immense trust involved in the doctor patient relationship, the legal sphere of this relationship has from, early on, been subject to attention. The failure to cure a patient was already a subject in the Hammurabian Code 4 and in De Lege Hippocrates bemoaned the deficient avengement of medical mistakes by Greek courts. 5 Caius Plinius Secundus reprehended their inadequate punishment in his Historia Naturalis in the same way. 6 The Constitutio Criminalis Carolina relied on terms like intention, carelessness, knowledge, thoughtless and unmethodical acts, and unscientific therapy to establish whether an unfavourable outcome for the patient, especially death, was punishable according to its article Even though the risks of medical acts and omissions were recognised early on and were the subject of criminal offences, the medical profession has been held in high esteem over the centuries. Even today the general practitioner is often consulted by their patient not only as medical advisor but also as advisor on all life problems. Civil or criminal cases against medical professionals used to be rare. The American Medical Association published statistics in the 1960s according to which only 19 per cent of all medical professionals would be subject to a law suit in regard to a potential professional mistake made. 8 While the medical profession in the 1960s was nearly "untouchable", the picture changed in the 1970s. The United States experienced a dramatic rise in civil law suits against the medical profession, leading commentators to speak of a medical malpractice crisis. 9 A case study, sponsored by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, found that between 1975 and 1978 every year 3.83 civil law suits were filed per 100 practicing medical professionals. And, Hammurabian Code Art 218 (Babylon 1728 to 1686 BC) translated by LW King <http://www.lawresearch.com> (last accessed 15 July 2004). 5 Hippocrates (460 to 377 BC) cited according to Hans Joachim Mallach, Gerhard Schlenker, and Alfons Weiser, Aerztlicher Kunstfehler (Fischer, Stuttgart, 1993) 2. 6 Cajus Plinius Secundus (23 to 79 AD) Historia Naturalis, book Peinliche Halsgerichtsordnung Kaiser Karl V Constitutio Criminalis Carolina (Reichstag zu Regensburg, 1532). 8 Robert Dingwell, Paul Fenn and Lois Quam Medical Negligence A Review and Bibliography (Centre for Socio Legal Studies, Oxford, 1991) 4. 9 Paul Weiler Medical Malpractice on Trial (Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass), 1991) 2 and following; Randall Bovbjerg and Thomas Metzloff "Foreword" in Medical Malpractice: Lessons for Reform (1991) 54 L & Contemp Probs 1; Glen Robinson "The Medical Malpractice Crisis of the 1970s: A Retrospective" in Medical Malpractice: Can the Private Sector find Relief? (1986) 49 L & Contemp Probs 5, 5.
3 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MISADVENTURE 813 law suits would lead to a compensation payment to the patient. 10 The United States experienced a second peak in regard to civil law suits against medical professionals in the mid 1980s. 11 Even if it is estimated that the frequency of civil law suits is falling or at least remains stable, 12 the costs arising out of the remaining claims has risen steadily. 13 A study published in April 2004 by the United States Department of Justice showed that the overall win rate for medical malpractice plaintiffs was about half of that found among plaintiffs in all tort trials. However, the median award in medical malpractice trials was nearly 16 times greater than the overall median award in all tort trials. Plaintiff winners were awarded $1 million or more in approximately a third of medical malpractice trials (punitive damages remained rare in medical malpractice trials). 14 In Great Britain, as well, the number of medical malpractice claims has risen steadily. Between 1983 and 1987 alone, for example, the claims for medical malpractice doubled and the amount of damages awards rose significantly. 15 Different solutions have been suggested and developed in the academic literature and by governments within the United States, Canada and Great Britain to combat the so called medical malpractice crisis. 16 Solutions have included the idea of addressing medical liability in the doctor 10 Dingwall, Fenn and Quam, above n 8, Paul Weiler "The Case for No Fault Medical Liability" (1993) 52 Maryland L Rev 908, ; Bovbjerg and Metzloff, above n Thomas Cohen, United States Department of Justice "Medical Malpractice Trials and Verdicts in Large Counties 2001" (NCJ ) <http//www.ojp.usdoj.gov> (last accessed 1 October 2004). The data was collected from the 75 most populous counties in the United States during It found that 1156 medical malpractice trials were litigated during that year of which 96 per cent were disposed of by jury trial. In an estimated nine out of ten medical malpractice trials, the alleged harm involved either permanent injury or a death claim. 13 Michael Jones Medical Negligence (Sweet & Maxwell, London, 1991) 1.05; Dingwall, Fenn and Quam, above n 8, Cohen, above n Michael Jones " Defective Services: A New Dimension for Medical Malpractice? " in BS Jackson and D McGoldnick (eds) Legal Visions of the New Europe: Essays Celebrating the Centenary of the Faculty of Law University of Liverpool (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, London, 1993) 311, 1.05; Dingwall Fenn and Quam, above n 8, See for a detailed reference: Report of the Royal Commission on Civil Liability and Compensation for Personal Injury (1978) Cmnd 7054; Robert Prichard Compensation for Personal Injury and Professional Indemnity in Health Care: A Discussion Paper (Department of Health, Toronto, 1990). The solution depends on the philosophical attitude of the author: "[t]he distinction between an individualistic political philosophy and a more socialist philosophy affects the choice of compensation systems in many ways. Socialists tend to favour active state participation in the provision of help and care to those in need, whereas individualists often advocate that the state should just provide a coercive mechanism for enabling injured persons to obtain compensation from their injurers if they choose to. Individualists often favour providing
4 814 (2004) 35 VUWLR patient contract. 17 This possibility, however, has been rejected by the academic literature and the judiciary because of the lack of equal bargaining power between doctor and patient. 18 Another suggested way of combating the medical malpractice crisis is widening the disciplinary system, including the establishment of a medical practitioners' index, and an emphasis in evaluation of risk management. The index would enable employers, especially hospitals, to access information about prospective medical doctor employees and more particularly their previous involvement in civil and criminal litigation. 19 Some States in the United States have tried to cap the influx of medical malpractice claims by curtailing access to the courts. 20 This has been done by, for example, increasing lawyers' fees for medical malpractice cases, shortening limitation periods, 21 providing for mandatory mediation, screening panels (these panels consist typically of doctors and lawyers who assess the cases in regard to their likely success in court) influencing whether a patient should take the claim to court or not, 22 changing the burden of proof and damages caps. 23 However, despite all these efforts to minimise the medical malpractice crisis the debate about how best to deal with a soured doctor patient relationship is still as much debated today as it was ten or twenty years ago. This Symposium and its session dedicated to the problems faced if a medical misadventure case occurs, is a good example. 24 It is especially interesting to discuss medical misadventure arising out of the doctor patient relationship in New Zealand since New Zealand has been spared the medical malpractice crisis due to the coming into force of the accident compensation scheme in The low number of reported assistance in cash, which the recipient can then use as they choose, rather than assistance in kind." Peter Cane Atiyah's Accidents, Compensation and the Law (4 ed, Fred B Rothman & Co, London, 1987) Clark Havinghurst "Private Reform of Tort Law Dogma: Market Opportunities and Legal Obstacles" (1986) 49 L & Contemp Probs 143; Richard Epstein "Contracting out Medical Malpractice Crisis" (1977) 20 Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 228. See also the discussion of these possibilities in light of the Harvard Study: Weiler, above n 9, Tunkl v Regents of University of California (1963) 60 Cal 2d 92; Dingwall, Fenn and Quam, above n 8, 58 and Orley Lindgren, Ronald Christensen and Don Mills "Medical Malpractice Risk Management Early Warning Systems" (1991) 54 L & Contemp Probs 23; Laura Marlock and Faye Malitz "Do Hospital Risk Management Programs Make a Difference?: Relationships between Risk Management Program Activities and Hospital Malpractice Claims Experience" (1991) 54 L & Contemp Probs Weiler, above n 9, Weiler, above n 9, 28 n 33 and Weiler, above n 9, 29 n 42 and Dingwall, Fenn and Quam, above n 8, 68 and following. 24 See Roberts, above n 2; Bronwyn Howell "Medical Misadventure and Accident Compensation in New Zealand" (2004) 35 VUWLR 857.
5 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MISADVENTURE 815 medical malpractice cases before the coming into force of the scheme means that a medical malpractice crisis was not the reason for developing the scheme. 25 The New Zealand accident compensation scheme has been heralded by some as an excellent example of how to combat the medical malpractice crisis. 26 However, the case law in regard to medical misadventure under the accident compensation scheme and the legislative activity in regard to medical misadventure shows that even this heralded solution is not without problems. In the original 1972 Act, medical misadventure was not mentioned. However, already by the 1974 amendments to the Accident Compensation Act 1972 personal injury by accident was defined to include "medical, surgical, dental, or first aid misadventure". 27 The most significant legislative innovation in regard to medical misadventure was probably the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Act 1992 (the 1992 Act) which replaced the Accident Compensation Act and which, in section 5, set out an extensive definition of medical misadventure. 29 The change was brought about after a series of High Court decisions which had not helped to clarify the 25 Between 1881 and 1972 (when the Accident Compensation Act 1972 was passed by Parliament) there are only seven reported decisions in regard to medical malpractice in New Zealand. The most famous one of those is Smith v Auckland Hospital Board  NZLR 19 (CA) concerning the concept of informed consent. The real reason for the establishment of the accident compensation scheme was the short comings identified in the Woodhouse Report: New Zealand Royal Commission of Inquiry into Compensation for Personal Injury Compensation for Personal Injury in New Zealand: Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry (Government Printer, Wellington, 1967). 26 See for example: Cane, above n 16; Prichard, above n 16; Leo Weyers "Empfiehlt es ich im Interesse der Patienten und Aerzte ergaenzende Regelungen fuer das aerztliche Vertrags (Standes) und Haftungsrecht einzufuehren? Gutachten A, 52. Deutscher Juristentag Bd I (Beck, Muenchen, 1978) A 1, A Accident Compensation Act 1972, s Accident Compensation Act 1982, s 2 was, in regard to medical misadventure, identical with the Accident Compensation Act 1972, s Definition of 'medical misadventure' (1) For the purpose of this Act, 'medical error' means the failure of a registered health professional to observe a standard of care and skill reasonably to be expected in the circumstances. It is not medical error solely because desired results are not achieved or because subsequent events show that different decisions might have produced better results: ' medical misadventure' means personal injury resulting from medical error or medical mishap: 'medical mishap' means an adverse consequence of treatment by a registered health professional, properly given if (a) (b) The likelihood of the adverse consequence of the treatment occurring is rare; and The adverse consequence of the treatment is severe. The name of the Act changed to Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Act 1992.
6 816 (2004) 35 VUWLR scope of the accident compensation scheme in regard to medical misadventure. 30 The new medical misadventure definition narrowed the cover for medical misadventure so that, more or less, only cases of medical negligence were covered. It did this by defining medical misadventure as medical error which in turn meant "the failure of a registered health professional to observe a standard of care and skill reasonably expected in the circumstances". 31 Therefore, to get cover under the 1992 Act an inquiry needed to be done to establish whether the health professional had acted negligently. And even though the health professional was not liable in tort and, therefore, their insurance and assets were "safe", blame still needed to be attributed, fault still had to be established; an oddity in a scheme essentially based on the principle of no fault cover. Section 5 of the 1992 Act achieved legal certainty in regard to the meaning of medical misadventure. The 1992 Act was replaced by the Accident Insurance Act and then the Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Act 2001 (the 2001 Act). 33 In regard to cover under the Acts for medical misadventure the key concepts were carried over. The 2001 Act filled an important oversight 34 by not only including registered health professionals in the realm of the Act but also acts and omissions of organisations, especially hospitals. Despite the introduction of tort law standards through the back door, an interesting parallel development took place, namely that patients sought recourse in punitive damages claims. 35 Punitive damages are available even if the patient is covered under the accident compensation scheme since the underlying rational of punitive damages is to punish rather than to compensate. 36 Furthermore, the criminal law was invoked against a doctor who made a mistake leading to serious injury or death. 37 According to section 155 of the Crimes Act 1961 the criminal negligence 30 See for an overview of the case law: Petra Butler Medical Misadventure im Neuseelaendischen Accident Compensation Scheme (Peter Lang, Frankfurt, 1999) 84 92, Bruce Corkill "Medical Misadventure: Development of the Statutory Concept, and its Place in the Current Medico Legal Environment" (February 2002) 7 16 available at <http://www.acc.co.nz> (last accessed 26 November 2004). 31 Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Act 1992, s 5(1). Whether a doctor had acted negligently was assessed according to the test developed in the English courts (Sidaway v Bethlehem Royal Hospital  AC 851 (HL) with a modification in Bolitho v City and Hackney Health Authority  AC 232 (HL)). 32 Accident Insurance Act 1998, ss 35 37, 39, Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Act 2001, ss See Butler, above n 30, Butler, above n 30, 141; Corkill, above n 30, Green v Matheson  3 NZLR, 564, 571 (CA) Cooke P; a more recent example is Bottrill v A  3 NZLR 622 (CA). 37 R v Yogasakaran  1 NZLR 399 (CA); R v McDonald (24 October 1982) HC CHCH T 24/82 Roper J; R v Morrison (23 April 1994) HC DUN S 7/91 Fraser J.
7 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MISADVENTURE 817 standard in regard to professional conduct was the same as the "old" negligence standard in tort. That meant that a doctor who failed to observe the professional standard normally expected in the case before him or her was criminally liable if the patient suffered any adverse physical effect from his or her treatment. Parliament has since acted to amend the Crimes Act 1961 and bring this development to a near halt. Health professionals now have to have acted in a "major departure from the standard of care expected of a reasonable person." 38 In addition, the aim of the Health and Disability Commissioner Act 1994, which was initiated by the Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Allegations Concerning the Treatment of Cervical Cancer at National Women's Hospital and into Other Related Matters (the Cartwright Report), 39 has been the protection and furthering of patients' rights. The Commissioner can investigate and mediate complaints in regard to the breach of the Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights and the Code of Health. Furthermore, the Commissioner has the ability to refer a case to the Director of Proceedings, either for disciplinary proceedings before the relevant professional body, or for a compensatory claim before the Complaints Review Tribunal. 40 There have not been many cases referred to the Director of Proceedings. 41 However, the Health and Disability Commissioners have been active in voicing concerns and opinions in health related matters and have issued opinions in regard to complaints brought before them. 42 The disciplinary trials against doctors in the first 15 years of the accident compensation scheme quadrupled. 43 There was also a significant increase in medical disciplinary proceedings between 1992 and 1996, as Corkill suggests 44 probably due to section 5(10) of the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Act 1992 that gave the Accident Compensation Corporation power to notify the Medical Disciplinary Tribunal of any doctor who acted negligently or inappropriately. In 38 Crimes Act 1961, s 150A. 39 Committee of Inquiry into Allegations Concerning the Treatment of Cervical Cancer at National Women's Hospital and into Other Related Matters Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Allegations Concerning the Treatment of Cervical Cancer at National Women's Hospital and into Other Related Matters (Government Printer, Wellington, 1988) ch 7 [ Cartwright Report ] which identified that the disciplinary redress for patients against a doctor was inadequate; see in regard to the impact of the Cartwright Report on the establishment of the office of the Health and Disability Commissioner: Health Commissioner Bill Health and Disability Commissioner Act 1994, s See for example, Director of Proceedings v O'Neill  NZAR 59 (HC). 42 See for an overview of publications by the Health and Disability Commissioner and opinions: <http://www.hdc.org.nz> (last accessed 31 October 2004). 43 Jarrod Walker "The Medical Practitioners' Bill 1995"  Auck U LR 1078, 1080 n 17; David Collins Medical Law in New Zealand (Brookers, Wellington, 1992) 219 and sch Corkill, above n 30, para 80.
8 818 (2004) 35 VUWLR the last five years, except for 2001, the number of disciplinary proceedings was around 17 a year. 45 Even though that does not seem to be an enormous number of disciplinary proceedings it seems that the public is far more aware of disciplinary proceedings against doctors than 10 years ago. The recourse to the criminal law, the Health and Disability Commissioner Act 1994, the increase of punitive damages claims against health professionals, and the disciplinary hearings show the desire of society "to punish" health care professionals for misconduct. Patients argue that they would like to ensure that what happened to them cannot ever happen again to someone else. Patients also want quality assurance through punitive measures which involve an attribution of fault. 46 Not only have patients tried to hold the medical profession accountable by using all the means available; also various governments have responded by holding the medical profession accountable by launching inquiries into medical misconduct. The Cartwright inquiry has been already mentioned, 47 other examples include the Gisborne inquiry into the misreading of cervical smears by a pathologist and the inquiry into Canterbury Health Limited in regard to concerns about a high number of patient deaths. 48 Peter Roberts, quoting C Paul, argues in his paper that in "New Zealand's context, an environment that enhances professional virtues and internal morality holds more promise than complaint based external morality." 49 Therefore, according to his view quality is best achieved through incentives and a caring, blame free environment. Interestingly, Bronwyn Howell's paper 50 suggests nearly the opposite that a "blame culture" as embodied in the possibility of tort law claims creates incentives for ensuring a better standard. 51 She points out that in New Zealand "only the most serious cases of negligence and medical misadventure will receive the retrospective analysis and information revelation afforded by ex post facto disciplinary action." 52 What a "blame culture" might lead to has been pointed out by Frizelle who, in regard to informed consent, stated that doctors can avoid problems "if she/he works less, talks more, and writes it all down" Medical Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal <http://www.mpdt.org.nz> (last accessed 30 October 2004). 46 See Howell, above n 24, Cartwright Report, above n The inquiries are instituted either by the Minister of Health or the Director of Health. See for further examples: Corkill, above n 30, Roberts, above n Howell, above n Howell, above n Howell, above n F Frizelle "Informed Consent: Do Less, Talk More and Write it all Down" (2002) 1162 NZ Med J 115.
9 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MISADVENTURE 819 The different approaches advocated by Roberts and Howell illustrate two very important points: first, that the accident compensation scheme in regard to medical misadventure is not without problems since the doctor patient relationship is a very special one which is based on immense trust. Once the trust is broken it causes harm the patient feels they have not been treated with the concern that they deserve. That the doctor who always has done their best but has now slipped once in their life does not count neither does their previous performance. Secondly, as Atiyah pointed out, the solution proposed depends entirely on the philosophical attitude of the author. 54 But what about the patient? What would be desirable from the patient's point of view? Is there a solution which would allow for good old fashioned common law compensation for the clear cut negligent conduct of a doctor and still a no fault compensation type of accident compensation scheme. The Canadian Prichard Report suggested that a patient should have choice between a non fault compensation scheme and a tort law claim. Once the patient has elected one there was not to be any recourse through the other. 55 The advantage of a split system would be that real medical misadventure could still be fully compensated and in cases of clear cut negligent conduct the patient gets his or her day in court. In cases where negligent conduct cannot easily be established patients will probably opt for the compensation scheme rather than embark on an uncertain tour through the court system. This system would give the courts the chance to review standards. For doctors, a split system would have the advantage that establishing a trusting relationship with the patient which is based on information and openness will most likely not end up in court if the doctor makes a mistake since the patient will not suffer any financial loss from the mistake. Court cases will, however, give the doctors some guidelines of what society finds acceptable practice/behaviour and what not. The British General Medical Council (GMC), for example, has asked the courts to give some guidance on its guidelines on "Withholding and Withdrawing Life prolonging Treatment". Since the high profile High Court decision in R (on the application of Burke) v General Medical Council 56 the GMC felt that "the case raises important points of principle, and there are some areas where we consider further clarification may be needed" and the GMC sought leave to appeal which was granted. 57 The new Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Amendment Bill (No 3) 2004 gets rid of the "medical error" concept to move "away from the punitive system of finding medical error" with the aim of gaining "co operation of the health sector to participate in the claims process, to support claimants to make claims and to provide necessary medical reports and advice to ACC 54 Cane, above n Robert Prichard Liability and Compensation in Health Care (Department of Health, Toronto, 1990); Butler, above n 30, R (on the application of Burke) v General Medical Council  All ER 588 (HC) Munby J. 57 <http://www.gmcpressoffice.org.uk> (last accessed 3 November 2004).
10 820 (2004) 35 VUWLR promptly." 58 Peter Roberts' arguments have been heard. However, if Howell is right we will probably see another surge in the use of the other quality assurance instruments outlined above to hold the medical profession accountable. According to Howell this is the more expensive solution to accountability. 58 Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Amendment Bill (No 3) 2004.
Professional accountability of doctors in New Zealand Katharine Wallis MBChB, MBHL, FRNZCGP In the good old days: A doctor (unlike a politician or an actor) [was] judged only by his patients and immediate
821 ENDING FAULT IN ACCIDENT COMPENSATION: ISSUES AND LESSONS FROM MEDICAL MISADVENTURE Brian Easton * This paper suggests that emphasising prevention and rehabilitation are the key directions that the
ACC Basic Overview BACKGROUND The present Accident Compensation Act is called the Injury Prevention Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2001 Act is the fifth major Act in 28 years dealing with our No Fault
12 May 2014 Geoff Bowyer T 03 9607 9497 F 03 9607 5270 email@example.com Professor Barbara McDonald Commissioner Australian Law Reform Commission GPO Box 3708 Sydney NSW 2001 By Email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
By Darryl S. Weiman, M.D., J.D. Federal Tort Claims Act Passed by Congress in 1946 to reduce the negative impacts of the doctrine of sovereign immunity Designed to eliminate the practice of congressman
9 March 2015 Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Submitted by email: email@example.com Dear Sir/Madam CONSULTATION PAPER: REDRESS AND CIVIL LITIGATION
INTRODUCTION These notes refer to the NHS Redress Act 2006 (c. 44) NHS REDRESS ACT 2006 EXPLANATORY NOTES 1. These explanatory notes relate to the NHS Redress Act 2006, which received Royal Assent on 8th
Arizona State Senate Issue Paper June 22, 2010 Note to Reader: The Senate Research Staff provides nonpartisan, objective legislative research, policy analysis and related assistance to the members of the
CHBA Briefing Note on Liability in the Residential Building Industry Introduction Objectives The objective of this report is to present some recent developments in Canada on the topic of liability in the
Queensland PERSONAL INJURIES PROCEEDINGS ACT 2002 Act No. 24 of 2002 Queensland PERSONAL INJURIES PROCEEDINGS ACT 2002 TABLE OF PROVISIONS Section Page CHAPTER 1 PRELIMINARY PART 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Short
ACTIVITY 3 A patient is admitted into an NHS trust hospital for surgery to repair a hernia. Unfortunately, by mistake, a swab is left inside the patient who has to return to theatre for a second operation.
Chapter This chapter covers the way the English legal system is organised: the two main branches of law; the personnel of the legal system and their roles; and the courts which make up the system. As court
Medical Malpractice BAD DOCTORS G. Randall Green, MD, JD St. Joseph s Hospital Health Center Syracuse, New York The nature of the crisis US not in a medical malpractice litigation crisis US in a medical
Making Amends the CMO s proposals for reforming the approach to clinical negligence in the NHS. Response to the consultation document by The Royal College of Surgeons of England OCTOBER 2003 Response of
1 PERSONAL INJURIES PROCEEDINGS BILL 2002 EXPLANATORY NOTES General Outline Purpose of legislation The main purpose of this Act is to facilitate the ongoing affordability of insurance through appropriate
Expert Medical Evidence: The Australian Medical Association s Position The Australian Medical Association and its members have had an increasing interest in this field for many years, with the level of
South Australia LAW REFORM (CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE AND APPORTIONMENT OF LIABILITY) ACT 2001 An Act to reform the law relating to contributory negligence and the apportionment of liability; to amend the
SRJ 35: Study of Health Care Medical Malpractice: Montana's Approach to Limiting Liability by Sue O'Connell, Research Analyst Prepared for the Children, Families, Health, and Human Services Interim Committee
Michigan Prepared by Cardelli Lanfear P.C. 322 West Lincoln Royal Oak, MI 48067 Tel: 248.850.2179 Fax: 248.544.1191 1. Introduction History of Tort Reform in Michigan Michigan was one of the first states
WikiLeaks Document Release February 2, 2009 Congressional Research Service Report RS20519 ASBESTOS COMPENSATION ACT OF 2000 Henry Cohen, American Law Division Updated April 13, 2000 Abstract. This report
EXPLANATION OF LEGAL TERMS Affidavit: After the event litigation insurance: Application notice: Bar Council: Barrister: Basic Charges: Before the Event Legal Expenses Insurance: Bill of costs: Bolam test:
QUESTION NO. 3 Amendment to Titles 1 and 3 of the Nevada Revised Statutes CONDENSATION (ballot question) Shall Title 1 of the Nevada Revised Statutes governing attorneys, and Title 3 of the Nevada Revised
Responses submitted by: Name: Roddy Bourke Law Firm/Company: McCann FitzGerald Location: Dublin, Ireland 1. Would your jurisdiction be described as a common law or civil code jurisdiction? The Republic
USING LAWYERS IN HONG KONG This Guide deals in general terms with using lawyers in Hong Kong. It aims to help a seafarer understand the legal profession in Hong Kong, and how to select, engage and if need
www.mcdermottqc.com Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill: Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill: The Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill covers a wide
Queensland WHISTLEBLOWERS PROTECTION ACT 1994 Act No. 68 of 1994 Queensland WHISTLEBLOWERS PROTECTION ACT 1994 Section PART 1 PRELIMINARY TABLE OF PROVISIONS Division 1 Title and commencement Page 1 Short
The legal framework for patient safety in Switzerland Prof. Olivier Guillod Institut de droit de la santé Université de Neuchâtel Ascona / 20.11.13-2 - 2 What are the relevant facts? Hospitals save lives
Duty of Care and Negligence Villamanta Disability Rights Legal Service Inc. Information Sheet Updated March 2007 What is Negligence? Negligence is when someone who owes you a duty of care, has failed to
Advocate Magazine March 2011 Why medical malpractice still matters. Despite MICRA limitations, medical-negligence claims still have a crucial role in society BY BRUCE G. FAGEL We all know the statistics
The criminal and civil justice systems in England and Wales Introduction Important differences exist between UK civil and criminal proceedings that have implications for fraud investigations, including
How Much Protection Does the Oregon Tort Claims Act Really Provide? Session Materials by Jens Schmidt Harrang Long Gary Rudnick P.C. Oregon Public Risk Manager s Fall Conference October 3, 2013 Salishan
Austria Burden of proof is shifted to the health care provider proven and presumed error. Damages: Economic; n-economic Tort law reform is considered. Compulsory by the Medical Association s code of Conduct
Accident Compensation: 40 Years On - A Celebration of the Woodhouse Report: Compensation for Personal Injury in New Zealand: Report of the Royal Commission on Inquiry Common Law Actions on the Margin Rosemary
Proposed Apology Legislation: from the Medical Perspective Dr David Dai JP Consultant Physician Member of the Working Group on Apology Legislation Of the Steering Committee on Mediation 11 July, 2015 The
BERMUDA 1951 : 39 LAW REFORM (LIABILITY IN TORT) ACT 1951 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS 1 Interpretation 2 Savings 3 Apportionment of liability where contributory negligence 4 Defence of common employment abolished
Update to your Vero MotorPlan policy As a result of a change brought about by the Sentencing Amendment Act 2014, we would like to bring to your attention an update to our Vero MotorPlan policy wording.
QBE European Operations The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 Issues Forum The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 Issues Forum Contents History 1 A time of reform 2 Strict liability 2 The
Limitation of Liability Submission to the Attorney-General (Western Australia) July 2000 The Institution of Engineers, Australia Institution of Engineers, Australia 11 National Circuit, Barton, ACT, 2604
Fault versus No Fault for Personal Injury Reviewing the International Evidence Kirsten Armstrong & Daniel Tess PricewaterhouseCoopers Who Cares? Accident Comp insurance is General Insurance Very much a
The Facts About Medical Malpractice in Pennsylvania Congress Watch March 2004 Public Citizen s Congress Watch i Medical Malpractice in Pennsylvania Executive Summary Section I: Lawsuits Are Not Responsible
Department of the Parliamentary Library I NFORMATION AND R ESEARCH S ERVICES Bills Digest No. 56 2001 02 Health and Other Services (Compensation) Legislation Amendment Bill 2001 ISSN 1328-8091 Copyright
Chapter 4 Crimes (Review) On a separate sheet of paper, write down the answer to the following Q s; if you do not know the answer, write down the Q. 1. What is a crime? 2. There are elements of a crime.
Introduction CIVIL JUSTICE COUNCIL THE IMPACT OF THE JACKSON REFORMS ON COSTS AND CASE MANAGEMENT Submission by the Motor Accident Solicitors Society (MASS) March 2014 1. This response is prepared on behalf
240 CANBERRA LAW REVIEW [(2011) THE CASE FOR COMPULSORY THIRD PARTY INSURANCE REFORM IN THE AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY JON STANHOPE Sixty years ago, on 14 November 1947, Herbert Victor Johnson, Minister
Tort Reform in Utah: Disclosure, Apology and Resolution Intermountain Healthcare Healthy Dialogues Series Greg Bell President/CEO Utah Hospital Association Who is UHA? NFP trade association established
Brain injury claims As specialist brain injury lawyers we are renowned for our experience in dealing with these complex claims. We focus on your claim and what you need in the early days after a serious
CAROL PRICE IN THE Plaintiff CIRCUIT COURT vs. FOR SINAI HOSPITAL OF BALTIMORE, INC. BALTIMORE CITY CASE NO.: 24-C-04-007323 Defendant MEMORANDUM This case comes before this Court on a Petition for Court
MEDICO/LEGAL ASSOCIATION ALICE SPRINGS 2002 MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE The World Changes In considering what some have called the crisis in medical negligence we need to bear in mind that there has been a large
Bridget Rankin Principal Pharmacist, Medicines Information Guy s & St. Thomas NHS Foundation Trust April 2015 Aim of the Session Identify legal and ethical problems that may be encountered when providing
Anatomy of a Medical Malpractice Case You have an important story to tell Let our voice tell your story with power, clarity and effectiveness Our Litigation Team Why choose our team? We provide more than
MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE by Michael A. Jones B.A., LL.M., Ph.D., Solicitor of the Supreme Court Professor of Common Law ofth.e University of Liverpool Contributing Editor: - Muiris Lyons, LL.B., LL.M. Solicitor
THE DEATH OF THE DISPUTE RESOLUTION REGULATIONS & THE NEW ACAS CODE 1. THE PRESENT REGIME 1.1 The Employment Act 2002 (Dispute Resolution) Regulations 2004, SI 2004/752 ( the 2004 Regs ), enacted by Schedule
You are not alone. It was not your fault. You have courage. You have choices. You have power. We re here to help. A Guide for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors Breaking the silence. Raising Awareness. Fighting
WHAT IS LEGAL MALPRACTICE IN CALIFORNIA? A client who sustains harm as a direct result of legal malpractice can file a civil lawsuit against the attorney who was responsible for causing that harm. MICHAEL
PRIME MINISTER A NEW MEDICAL INDEMNITY INSURANCE FRAMEWORK Today I am announcing the Government s package of measures to address rising medical indemnity insurance premiums and ensure a viable and ongoing
10.4 The ICF and accident compensation in Australia John Walsh, Actuarial, PricewaterhouseCoopers Address for correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This paper briefly describes the Australian
CHAPTER 310 THE LAW REFORM (FATAL ACCIDENTS AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS) ACT [PRINCIPAL LEGISLATION] ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Section Title 1. Short title and application. 2. Interpretation. PART I PRELIMINARY
Bill 34 The New Limitation Act: Significant Changes and Transition Issues Explained A Presentation for CLE Employment Law Conference 2013 Pan Pacific Hotel Vancouver, BC May 9, 2013 Carman J. Overholt,
14 Improving the Complaints Process Our systemic review demonstrated that the complaints mechanisms in place to address public concerns about the work of pathologists providing forensic pathology services
Board for Physician Workforce Spotlight on National Tort Reform & Reform in the Surrounding States August 2010 Tort reform continues to be a highly debated issue at both the state and national level. In
Personal Injury Law: Minnesota Medical Malpractice Medical Malpractice Terms Statutes of Limitations Minnesota Medical Malpractice Laws Medical malpractice includes many forms of liability producing conduct
Have you or someone you know suffered a personal injury? TIPS TO MAXIMIZE COMPENSATION If you have suffered a personal injury it is important to consider all potential sources of compensation. A personal
Simplification of the Tax and National Insurance Treatment of Termination Payments Consultation document Publication date: 24 July 2015 Closing date for comments: 16 October 2015 Subject of this consultation:
Working with the Physician s Counsel in Defending Off-Label Use Litigation By Gerald P. Schneeweis Morris Polich & Purdy LLP Working with the Physician s Counsel in Defending Off-Label Use Litigation By
Proposed changes to the Comcare scheme Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Legislation Amendment Bill 2014 (Cth) Submission to Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment Inquiry into the
Statutory duty of candour with criminal sanctions Briefing paper on existing accountability mechanisms Background In calling for the culture of the NHS to become more open and honest, Robert Francis QC,
Fitness to Practise Determination The following case was heard by a Fitness to Practise Panel. It is presented here to give an example of one possible outcome of breaching a principle in Good Medical Practice.
July 2014 Principles for the assessment and management of complaints and notifications Introduction The Council s functions, powers and responsibilities as a regulator are specified in the Health Practitioners
Executive summary and overview of the national report for Denmark Section I Summary of findings There is no special legislation concerning damages for breach of EC or national competition law in Denmark,
Moving from Policy to Practice Principles of a Just Culture Dr Heather Wellington 3 December 2007 Overview of presentation What is organisational culture? Who shapes organisational culture? Our cultural
Justice Committee Apologies (Scotland) Bill Written submission from the Law Society of Scotland Introduction The Law Society of Scotland (the Society) aims to lead and support a successful and respected
Our Commitment to Victims September 2014 We need to do more to help victims of crime navigate the criminal justice system, access the information and support they need, protect vulnerable victims and witnesses
CAR ACCIDENT GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction... 1 First Step... 1 Finding and Hiring a Lawyer... 1 Financial Arrangements... 2 Your Claim... 3 Documenting Your Claim... 5 Parties to the Claim...
FIXED RECOVERABLE COSTS IN CLINICAL NEGLIGENCE PRE CONSULTATION RESPONSE BY Action against Medical Accidents Questionnaire The Government proposes to introduce fixed recoverable costs for all cases where
STATEMENT OF CHERYL NIRO Incoming Member, Standing Committee on Medical Professional Liability Member, House of Delegates On Behalf of the AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION Before the Committee on Health, Education,
MONTANA SELF INSURERS ASSOCIATION Executive Director Bob Worthington Board of Directors Rick Clark Plum Creek Timber Co Tim Fitzpatrick MT Schools Group Donna Haeder NorthWestern Corp Marv Jordan MT Contractors
Education and Training Committee, 10 March 2011 Professional indemnity insurance Executive summary and recommendations Introduction This paper appeared as a paper to note at the Council meeting on 10 February
Item11 M/10/20 July 10 Midwifery Committee Review of policy on professional insurance and indemnity For information Issue 1 The paper provides an update on the policy review of professional insurance and
This document is made available electronically by the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library as part of an ongoing digital archiving project. http://www.leg.state.mn.us/lrl/lrl.asp.~l' ''''d:.,j i.;'~\;
This article originally appeared in The Colorado Lawyer, Vol. 25, No. 26, June 1996. by Jeffrey R. Pilkington TORT AND INSURANCE LAW REPORTER Informal Discovery Interviews Between Defense Attorneys and
"THE LAW OR JUSTICE" SYNOPSIS OF U3A COURSE AN OVERVIEW/OUTLINE 1. Introduction and Explanation: Opening and Welcome to U3A course Course like a Trial process with many case examples and notable trials
LEGISLA ATIVE RESEARCH SERVICES Alaska State Legislature Division of Legal and Research Services State Capitol, Juneau, AK 99801 (907) 465 3991 phone (907) 465 3908 fax email@example.com TO: FROM:
Avant Mutual Group Limited Submissions to the Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commission Inquiry into Aspects of the Wrongs Act 1958 1. Introduction Avant Mutual Group Limited ( Avant ) is Australia
Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2004 Session HB 1237 FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE House Bill 1237 Judiciary (Delegate Vallario, et al.) Health Care Malpractice - Mandatory Mediation
Clinical Trial Compensation Guidelines Preface These guidelines contain two distinct sections: Phase I Clinical Trials Compensation Guidelines Phases II, III and IV Clinical Trials Compensation Guidelines