Chromosome Preparation and Banding

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chromosome Preparation and Banding"

Transcription

1 Chromosome Preparation and Banding Charleen M Moore, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA Robert G Best, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA Reliable techniques have been developed to produce large numbers of mitotic cells and to collect them at metaphase in order to visualize individual chromosomes. After cell culture and spreading of the metaphases onto slides, the chromosomes are stained to produce unique banding patterns or to reveal specialized structures. Molecular techniques have been developed to identify submicroscopic rearrangements and to compare karyotypes of different species. Secondary article Article Contents. Introduction. Chromosome Spreads. Classical Staining Methods. Standard Banding Methods. Advanced Banding Methods. Molecular Cytogenetics. Conclusions Introduction Chromosome preparation and banding can be considered an art as well as a science. Chromosomes are visualized individually only during mitosis, and therefore techniques have been developed to stimulate large numbers of cells to begin division through the use of mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed and to collect the cells at metaphase using spindle inhibitors such as colcemid. Numerous methods are now available for identifying chromosomes and preparing karyotypes for clinical and research purposes, although the ability to analyse chromosomes is dependent on the length of the chromosomes and how well they are fixed, spread and stained. Chromosome Spreads Visualization of human chromosomes in somatic cells requires that dividing cells be studied during mitosis. Some cells may, by chance, be caught in the metaphase or anaphase part of the cell cycle at the time that cells are prepared for study under the microscope. However, large numbers of metaphase cells can best be obtained by growing cells in culture, and adding spindle poisons such as colcemid to cell cultures during periods of active growth to arrest cells in metaphase. While the number of cells found in metaphase will increase as the length of exposure to the spindle poison increases, chromosome condensation also progresses with time. The optimal length of exposure to the spindle poison will be determined by the rate of cell division and the degree of condensation that is desired. Many cell types undergo growth and division spontaneously, but some cell types, such as peripheral lymphocytes, need to be stimulated into mitotic activity by the addition of mitogens at the time cell cultures are initiated. A variety of mitogens are available for use in lymphocyte culture. The most commonly employed are phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) for stimulation of T cell lymphocytes, and pokeweed mitogen for the stimulation of B cell lymphocytes. Certain cytogenetic procedures are optimized when all of the cells in culture are synchronized in their mitotic cycle. This is achieved by adding chemical agents that block progression into Sphase to an actively growing culture for h. Excess thymidine, or the DNA antimetabolites amethopterin, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and fluorodeoxyuridine are effective agents for synchronization of cell cultures. Release of the Sphase block by resuspending cells in fresh medium is performed a few hours prior to harvest. Synchronization is critical in replication banding methods where chromosome identification is achieved by the incorporation of DNA base analogues such as BrdU. One key element in the preparation of analysable chromosome spreads is the degree of dispersion of the chromosomes on the microscope slide. Optimal dispersion is influenced by several variables at the time of cell harvest. The ideal metaphase spread has all 46 chromosomes dispersed in the same optical field under the microscope, with no overlapping chromosomes. The harvesting procedure involves centrifugation of cell suspensions into a cell pellet, treatment with a hypotonic salt solution, fixation of the suspended cell pellet, and dropping of the cells onto glass slides. Each of the steps in the harvesting procedure may influence the dispersion of the chromosomes on the slide. Time invested in optimizing the spreading of chromosomes and preparing good slide preparations can save countless hours in the analysis phase of a cytogenetic study. Treatment with a hypotonic salt solution just prior to harvest permits swelling of the nuclei. Incubation in a dilute KCl or sodium citrate solution for min generally achieves good spreading. Insufficient hypotonic treatment results in chromosome spreads that are tightly 1

2 knotted; individual chromosomes are difficult to virtually impossible to visualize. Over-treatment with hypotonic solution results in scattering of chromosomes, or rupture of the nuclei and loss of the chromosomes. Preservation of the cells is the final step before the preparation of slides. Fixation with Carnoy s solution, a mixture of methanol and glacial acetic acid, arrests the process of hypotonic swelling and all metabolic processes of the cells, and preserves cells in a stable state. Care must be exercised to suspend the cells in the cell pellet prior to and during fixation to avoid clumping of cells and poor spreading. Three or more rounds of suspension in fresh Carnoy s and centrifugation of cells into a pellet are usually employed to prepare cells for dropping onto slides. Slide making is not a science. Although careful attention to a number of variables certainly increases the chance of successful results, this aspect of cytogenetic technology is something of an art. Drops of fixed cell suspension are placed onto glass slides and the fixative is allowed to evaporate. Examination of the slide under a phase microscope while the fixative is evaporating reveals the frenetic dancing of the fixed cells until the liquid is nearly gone. Metaphase cells attach one by one onto the slide surface as the final liquid disappears, and the chromosomes appear much like a flower in bloom as the final traces of fixative evaporate. As the slide dries completely, the chromosomes become set immovably on the glass slide. The rate at which the fixative evaporates is critical to the final dispersion of the chromosomes on the slide. Thus, humidity, temperature and the flow of air blown over the surface of the drying slide can be manipulated to produce optimal chromosome preparations. Classical Staining Methods A wide variety of stains are useful for visualizing chromosomes under the microscope. Classical cytological stains such as aceto-orcein, acetocarmine, gentian violet, and haematoxylin readily stain chromatin and are easy to visualize under the standard light microscope. While acetoorcein is noted to produce a crisp staining pattern that permits the study of chromosome morphology, unfortunately it is indelible and does not permit destaining and use of subsequent staining methods for banding. Other stains, such as Giemsa, Wright and Leishman stains can be readily removed with solvents, and are more often employed when unbanded preparations are under study. Chromosome arms, primary constrictions, satellites, stalks and fragile sites are readily recognizable with classical staining. Since the advent of chromosome banding methods, classical staining methods are rarely employed in the clinical analysis of human chromosomes. The chief applications currently for classical staining are in the study of breakage in chromosomes from ageing, clastogens, or DNA repair defects and in defining chromosome structure such as the position of the centromeres and nucleolar organizing regions. Standard Banding Methods Q-Banding In the late 1960s Caspersson postulated that differences in DNA base composition might produce differential intensity patterns along the length of chromosomes when fluorescent DNA-binding dyes were applied to chromosome spreads, and thus the concept of chromosome banding was born. Fluorescent banding was demonstrated in plant chromosomes in 1968 using quinacrine mustard, and in 1971 the quinacrine (Q-) banding pattern for all 24 human chromosomes (22 autosomes, X, and Y) was reported. While the actual molecular basis for differential quinacrine staining is not quite as Caspersson imagined, it became apparent that regions of the genome in which the bases adenine and thymine were relatively abundant (ATrich) tended to produce intense fluorescence, while regions containing abundant guanine and cytosine residues (GCrich) fluoresced more weakly. Most importantly, all 24 human chromosomes could be unequivocally identified for the first time, and clinical cytogenetics studies for structural as well as numerical chromosome abnormalities became possible. Quinacrine banding is relatively simple to perform, although visualization of the fluorescence pattern requires fluorescence microscopy resources and a photomicroscope to capture the short-lived fluorescence pattern on film. Other fluorescent stains produce similar patterns to that of quinacrine, including Hoescht 33258, DAPI (4,6 -diamidino-2-phenylindole) and diimidazolinophenylindole (DIPI). All of these banding patterns are considered to be forms of Q-banding. Counterstaining of chromosomes with a second dye such as distamycin A or actinomycin D, or manipulation of ph, can enhance the sharpness and brightness of Q-bands. G-Banding Soon after the discovery of Q-banding, a second method, Giemsa (G-) banding, was introduced that utilized the common Giemsa stain following various chemical and enzymatic treatments of the chromosome preparations (Figure 1). This method offered the advantage of producing permanent slides that can be studied under a standard light microscope. The pattern of staining in G-banded preparations is quite similar to that in Q-banded preparations (i.e. intense Giemsa-stained regions correlate with intense Q- banded fluorescent regions). G-Banding is most consistently produced by pretreatment of chromosomes with trypsin before staining with Giemsa. Other stains, such as 2

3 Figure 1 G-Banding (a) Normal human male metaphase spread showing 46 human chromosomes. G-Bands were produced by treatment with trypsin followed by staining with Giemsa. (b) The same metaphase arranged in standard karyotype format. 3

4 Wright stain and Leishman stain can be used effectively in the place of Giemsa to produce a pattern identical to that obtained with Giemsa, but with slightly different contrasting properties. A standard procedure for clinical study of chromosomes is to photograph (or digitize onto computer disk) the entire metaphase spread, cut out the individual chromosomes (actually or electronically), and arrange the chromosomes in a standard karyotype where both homologues of each chromosome pair are placed side by side in numerical order. Arranged in this manner, careful band-by-band analysis can be performed, which permits identification of even relatively subtle changes in banding patterns caused by structural chromosome abnormalities. Bands that are dark with G-banding (and bright with Q-banding) generally correspond to late-replicating regions of the genome. These bands tend to contain relatively few active genes. Pale bands typically correspond to earlier-replicating regions and are more gene-rich than are light bands. R-Banding A pattern that is approximately the opposite of G- or Q- banding can be produced by various means and is referred to as reverse (R-)banding. Fluorescent R-banding patterns are produced by dyes with GC base-pair affinity such as chromomycin A3, olivomycin and mithramycin. Fluorescent R-banding patterns can often be enhanced by counterstaining with a second dye such as distamycin A, methyl green, actinomycin D or netropsin. R-Bands can also be produced by subjecting slides to high temperatures for several minutes followed by staining with Giemsa or acridine orange. R-Bands have the theoretical advantage of staining the gene-rich chromatin, thus enhancing the ability to visualize small structural rearrangements in the parts of the genome that are most likely to result in phenotypic abnormalities. C-Banding Noncoding constitutive heterochromatin, such as the repetitive DNA surrounding the centromeres of all of the chromosomes, replicates later in the cell cycle than other chromatin and exhibits special characteristics of stability under extreme conditions of heat and chemical exposure. This property of tightly condensed heterochromatin can be exploited to produce a unique banding pattern (Cbanding) in which the constitutive heterochromatin stains darkly and all other chromatin remains pale. C-Banding is produced by treatment of chromatin with acidic and then basic solutions followed by staining with Giemsa. C- Banding is of limited use in the clinical laboratory and is primarily of value in the identification of the gene coding potential of various segments of the genome, especially when small marker chromosomes of unknown origin are present, and for the study of chromosomal polymorphisms in the population. The short arms and satellites of acrocentric chromosomes, pericentric heterochromatin, and much of the long arm of the Y-chromosome are all C- band-positive, contain no active genes, and show variations in size in normal individuals. Advanced Banding Methods High-resolution banding A variety of techniques have been described with more specialized applications than the standard banding techniques. These methods permit more intense scrutiny of various aspects of the human karyotype. High-resolution banding techniques are designed to allow more detailed analysis of chromosomal bands across the entire karyotype, while other specialized techniques focus on specific areas or regions of individual chromosomes. The number of bands that is discernible in a single metaphase chromosome spread may vary from under 300 to approximately 1400, counting bands from only one homologue of each chromosome pair and the Y chromosome when present. The number of identifiable bands in any spread is related to the degree to which the chromosomes are permitted to condense before harvest, the cell type, and the method of banding employed. The degree of difficulty in completing an analysis of the karyotype is directly related to the number of bands that can be identified. Suspected aneuploidy (e.g. trisomy 21) can readily be evaluated at fairly low band resolution levels (i.e bands), while suspicion of subtle deletions and other structural rearrangements requires higher band resolution levels (650 bands or more). High-resolution banding can be achieved by several methods. First, cells that have been fixed in late prophase or early metaphase exhibit minimal chromatin condensation and maximal band resolution. Synchronization of cell cultures followed by relatively short exposures to colcemid produces cell preparations with a very low degree of chromosome condensation and thus a high band level. Similar results can be obtained by using a variety of additives to the culture that intercalate into or bind to the DNA molecule, inhibiting chromosome condensation in the process. Ethidium bromide, acridine orange and actinomycin D are frequently used in this manner. A third method of achieving high-resolution banding relies on the differential uptake of DNA base analogues by early- versus late-replicating bands within the genome. This method, termed replication banding produces chromosome preparations with the highest band levels, as high as 1400 bands per haploid genome. Using replication banding, both R- and G-banded patterns can be produced. The pattern of banding is controlled by changing the timing of 4

5 the pulse addition of the DNA base analogue, BrdU, into growing, synchronized cultures. High-resolution banded metaphase spreads require optimal chromosome spreading if analysis is to be completed in any reasonable length of time. While these techniques are very sensitive for subtle chromosome rearrangements, they are generally reserved for use in clinical cases with a high suspicion of subtle chromosome abnormalities because of the intense labour involved in completing the analysis. Often, a clinical phenotype will suggest specific areas of the karyotype that should be studied with the detail available from high-resolution banding. Sister chromatid exchange The two sister chromatids of a chromosome can also be differentially stained by the addition of BrdU during cell culture and can reveal exchanges between the two chromatids (sister chromatid exchange, SCE). This requires two rounds of replication in BrdU because of the semiconservative nature of DNA replication. After a single cell division, uptake of BrdU (which replaces thymidine) results in homogeneous staining of both chromatids, with each double-stranded DNA molecule (one for each chromatid) containing one strand of the parental (unsubstituted) DNA and one strand of the BrdU-substituted DNA. Differential staining of the two chromatids can be seen after a second cell division in the presence of BrdU. Here, the original parental strand of DNA (without BrdU incorporation) remains on one chromatid, paired with a newly synthesized BrdU-substituted strand, while the other chromatid has BrdU incorporated into both strands. Exposure of the chromosomes to the fluorescent stain Hoechst and UV light causes loss of chromatin in the chromatid, which is composed of two BrdU-substituted DNA strands, with relatively light staining on exposure to Giemsa stain. The chromatid that has only a single BrdUsubstituted strand is more stable and loses less chromatin on exposure to the combination of stain and UV light, and thus stains more darkly with Giemsa stain. Exchanges between sister chromatids are evidenced by discontinuous light and dark staining regions along the length of the chromatids, one sister chromatid showing the opposite staining pattern from the other. SCE occurs naturally at a rate of 6 10 SCE/cell in normal cells grown in BrdU. This method is used as a diagnostic test for Bloom syndrome in the clinical laboratory, where SCE frequencies are extraordinarily high owing to inherent chromosomal instability. SCE is also used as an in vitro genotoxicity assay in the toxicology laboratory to identify chemical agents with genotoxic potential. Restriction enzyme digestion Variable patterns of chromatin staining can be observed in different patients when chromosomes are digested by certain restriction enzymes such as AluI, DdeI, HaeIII, HinfI, MboI, or RsaI. Most of the variability is found in regions of heterochromatin in the pericentromeric areas and on the short arms of the acrocentric chromosomes. These methods are useful in studying chromosome polymorphisms in the population, and more rarely for the purpose of identifying marker chromosomes and the parental origins of individual homologues. Other specialized techniques A variety of specialized techniques have been described that differentially stain chromosome telomeres (T-banding), the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9 (G11- banding), the short arm of chromosome 15 (distamycin/ DAPI banding), centromeric dots (Cd-banding), and active nucleolar organizing regions (NOR or silver staining). Each of these methods, though very narrow in their application, may shed significant light on a variety of cytogenetic abnormalities and normal polymorphisms. However, many of these methods have now been displaced in the clinical cytogenetics laboratory by molecular cytogenetic methods, which permit conclusive identification of most regions of the genome. Molecular Cytogenetics Fluorescence in situ hybridization A wide variety of molecular cytogenetic methods have been described in which labelled DNA probes for specific sequences in the human genome can be hybridized to human chromosomes to locate and enumerate the DNA sequences of interest. The label used is typically fluorescent, and thus fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard procedure employed. Other labelling methods, both isotopic and nonisotopic, have also been employed for the same purpose. Differently coloured fluorochromes in the visible and infrared spectrum are available for use and allow the simultaneous detection of multiple probes, each with a unique colour. Two filters are needed for each fluor to be visualized: an excitation filter that directs UV light toward the specimen within a range of wavelengths that causes the fluor to fluoresce, and a barrier filter that screens out extraneous light emitted from the specimen to permit only the colour of interest to be visualized. Unique repetitive DNA sequences in the a-satellite heterochromatin flanking the centromere are present in most chromosomes, and FISH probes for these regions yield intensely bright signals that can be visualized in both 5

6 interphase and metaphase cell preparations (Figure 2a). These probes are most useful for enumeration of individual chromosomes. Inclusion of interphase cells for study permits much larger sample sizes, allows for study of nondividing cell populations, and eliminates the culture time needed for mitotic preparations. Unique nonrepetitive sequences can also be identified with FISH probes. While the signals produced by cosmid FISH probes are smaller and less intense, distinct punctate signals can readily be identified on each chromatid of both homologues. This method can be used to localize individual DNA sequences within the genome, and is especially valuable in identifying small deletions or duplications (which may be suspected on the basis of clinical phenotype) that are too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic methods. Clinical microdeletion and microduplication syndromes that are difficult to identify by conventional cytogenetic methods are readily identified in the majority of cases by FISH (Figure 2b). Other probes have been particularly valuable in cancer cytogenetics of leukaemias and other neoplasias where specific chromosome rearrangements correlate with the Figure 2 Molecular cytogenetic probes. (a) Normal human metaphase spread showing hybridization of the centromeric region of chromosomes 7 (green) and 8 (red) using a-satellite probes. Chromosomes counterstained in blue using DAPI. (b) Human male metaphase spread with deletion of the elastin (ELN) locus at the Williams syndrome critical region near the centromere on one homologue of chromosome 7. Cosmid probe for the ELN locus and a control probe are visible on the normal homologue (right); however, only the control probe can be seen on the deleted homologue (left). (c) Normal human metaphase spread with whole-chromosome paint probe for chromosome pair number 15 in red. (d) Cross-species colour banding (RX- FISH 1 ) on normal human male chromosomes arranged in standard karyotype format. 6

7 type and severity of the cancer and may influence the plan for treatment or therapy. Chromosome paints are libraries of DNA probes spanning an entire chromosome or chromosome arm that are unique to the chromosome in question. When labelled with a fluorochrome, the probe libraries produce a signal only on the chromosome of interest (Figure 2c). These probes are useful for identifying the chromosomal origins of structurally abnormal chromosomes and markers. Multicolour FISH Three methods have been advanced that permit the simultaneous detection of all 24 human chromosomes: spectral karyotyping (SKY 1 ), multiplex FISH (M-FISH), and cross-species colour banding (RX-FISH 1 ). In SKY 1 and M-FISH, a series of five dyes are used to label each chromosome with a unique colour. A third method, RX- FISH 1, employs labelled probes obtained from a variety of primates for hybridization to human chromosomes. These produce a multicoloured banding pattern that, like G-banding, is unique for each chromosome (Figure 2d). Each of these techniques provides a useful tool for evaluating complex chromosomal abnormalities in humans, for rapidly constructing karyotypes for other species and for performing comparative genome mapping. (Note: SKY 1 is a registered trademark of Applied Spectral Imaging, Inc., and RX-FISH 1 is a registered trademark of Applied Imaging, Inc.) Conclusions The improvement in preparation and identification of chromosomes and their component structures over the past few decades has been remarkable. Reliable techniques are now available for obtaining large numbers of cells in division, using mitogens to stimulate specific cell types. Chemicals that disrupt the spindle and swell the cells produce well-spread chromosomes that can be reliably counted and stained for various purposes. Chromosomes were first observed by uniformly staining chromatin with classic stains such as Giemsa. Now, each chromosome in the karyotype can be accurately identified using Q-, G- or R-banding to produce unique banding patterns with a total of up to 1400 bands per karyotype. Specific areas or structures such as centromeres and NORs can be identified through special staining techniques such as C-banding and silver staining. Sister chromatids can be differentially stained through the incorporation of BrdU into the DNA during cell culture. Molecular cytogenetic analysis using techniques such as FISH can detect microdeletions and duplications that are not visible even with high-resolution banding. These techniques have had a dramatic effect on the clinical detection of many different syndromes. Through the use of FISH and other molecular techniques, chromosome number and specific DNA sequences can also be identified in nondividing cells. New techniques are being developed for clinical and research laboratories that will allow the simultaneous detection of all 24 human chromosomes and the evaluation of complex chromosome abnormalities. They also will provide the means for rapid comparative genome mapping between humans and other species and will facilitate investigation into the evolution of karyotypes of different species and comparison with the human genome. Further Reading Barch MJ, Knutsen T and Spurbeck JL (eds) (1997) The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott- Raven. Rooney DE and Czepulkowski BH (eds) (1992) Human Cytogenetics: A Practical Approach, vol. I, Constitutional Analysis, 2nd edn. Oxford: IRL Press. Rooney DE and Czepulkowski BH (eds) (1994) Human Cytogenetics. Essential Data. Chichester: Wiley. Sandberg A (1990) The Chromosomes in Human Cancer and Leukemia, 2nd edn. New York: Elsevier. Therman E and Susman M (1993) Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects, 3rd edn. New York: Springer-Verlag. Verma RSand Babu A (1995) Human Chromosomes: Principles and Techniques, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill. 7

CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA

CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and their structure, inheritance, and abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities occur in approximately:

More information

4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States:

4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States: 4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg. 160 The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States: 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells.

More information

Human Chromosomes lab 5

Human Chromosomes lab 5 Human Chromosomes lab 5 Objectives Upon completion of this activity, you should be able to: describe the structure of human chromosomes with reference to size, centromere position, and presence or absence

More information

Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome.

Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome. Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome. Define the terms karyotype, autosomal and sex chromosomes. Explain how many of

More information

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) rarechromo.org Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Chromosomes Chromosomes are structures that contain the genetic information (DNA) that tells the body

More information

Name Date. Meiosis Worksheet

Name Date. Meiosis Worksheet Name Date Meiosis Worksheet Identifying Processes On the lines provided, order the different stages of meiosis I THROUGH meiosis II, including interphase in the proper sequence. 1. homologous chromosome

More information

Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis

Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis K.Muma Bio 6 Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis Study Objectives: Appendix C: DNA replication and Mitosis 1. Describe the structure of DNA and where it is found. 2. Explain complimentary base pairing:

More information

A SIMPLE R-BANDING TECHNIQUE BY BrdU- HOECHST TREATMENT AND GIEMSA STAINING FOLLOWING HEATING AND ULTRAVIOLET EXPOSURE

A SIMPLE R-BANDING TECHNIQUE BY BrdU- HOECHST TREATMENT AND GIEMSA STAINING FOLLOWING HEATING AND ULTRAVIOLET EXPOSURE Ypn. J. Human Genet. 29, 133-138, 1984 A SIMPLE R-BANDING TECHNIQUE BY BrdU- HECHST TREATMENT AND GIEMSA STAINING FLLWING HEATING AND ULTRAVILET EXPSURE Atsushi IESHIMA, Taeko YRITA, and Kenzo TAKESHITA

More information

The following chapter is called "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)".

The following chapter is called Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Slide 1 Welcome to chapter 9. The following chapter is called "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)". The author is Dr. Maria Lalioti. Slide 2 The learning objectives of this chapter are: To learn the

More information

HUMAN CHROMOSOMES. Using this criterion, human chromosomes are divided in: metacentric, submetacentric, and acrocentric.

HUMAN CHROMOSOMES. Using this criterion, human chromosomes are divided in: metacentric, submetacentric, and acrocentric. HUMAN CHROMOSOMES Normal human somatic cells contain a diploid number of chromosomes (2n=46), so there are 23 pairs of chromosomes: - 22 pairs are identical in man and women and are called autosomes; -

More information

Cell Division CELL DIVISION. Mitosis. Designation of Number of Chromosomes. Homologous Chromosomes. Meiosis

Cell Division CELL DIVISION. Mitosis. Designation of Number of Chromosomes. Homologous Chromosomes. Meiosis Cell Division CELL DIVISION Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for any commercial purpose.

More information

Exercise 1: Q: B.1. Answer Cell A: 2 Q: B.3. Answer (a) Somatic (body). CELL CYCLE, CELL DIVISION AND STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOME. Cell B: 4 Q: B.

Exercise 1: Q: B.1. Answer Cell A: 2 Q: B.3. Answer (a) Somatic (body). CELL CYCLE, CELL DIVISION AND STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOME. Cell B: 4 Q: B. CELL CYCLE, CELL DIVISION AND STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOME Exercise 1: Q: B.1 Cell A: 2 Cell B: 4 Q: B.2 (a) - Metaphase. (b) - Telophase. (c) - Prophase. (d) - Anaphase. Q: B.3 (a) Somatic (body). (b) Four.

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know.

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Rooting for Mitosis Overview Students will fix, stain, and make slides of onion root tips. These slides will be examined for the presence

More information

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle (Mitosis) Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle (Mitosis) Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle (Mitosis) Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle Concept 12.1: Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Most cell division (mitosis) results

More information

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Page 1 of 5 Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Genetics Exercise: Understanding how meiosis affects genetic inheritance and DNA patterns

More information

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Mitosis and Cytokinesis B-2.6 Summarize the characteristics of the cell cycle: interphase (called G1, S, G2); the phases of mitosis (called prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase); and plant and animal cytokinesis. The

More information

Sample Questions for Exam 3

Sample Questions for Exam 3 Sample Questions for Exam 3 1. All of the following occur during prometaphase of mitosis in animal cells except a. the centrioles move toward opposite poles. b. the nucleolus can no longer be seen. c.

More information

The Process of Cell Division. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. Cell Growth and Development

The Process of Cell Division. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. Cell Growth and Development Lesson Overview Cell Growth and Development Chromosomes The genetic information that is passed on from one generation of cells to the next is carried by chromosomes. Every cell must copy its genetic information

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis BRING YOUR TEXT TO LAB!

Mitosis and Meiosis BRING YOUR TEXT TO LAB! Mitosis and Meiosis BRING YOUR TEXT TO LAB! Objectives: 1. To begin to understand the mechanics of cellular Reproduction/Life Cycles and how the process underlies inheritance. 2. To simulate the movement

More information

Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Cell Cycle and Mitosis THE CELL CYCLE The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. These

More information

LAB EXERCISE: Mitosis and Meiosis

LAB EXERCISE: Mitosis and Meiosis LAB EXERCISE: Mitosis and Meiosis Laboratory Objectives After completing this lab topic, you should be able to: 1. Describe the activities of chromosomes and microtubules in the cell cycle, including all

More information

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Review

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Review Cell Cycle and Mitosis Review This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a The phase of the cell cycle in which cells stop dividing all together. Cell division in bacteria cells is

More information

BIOL100 Laboratory Assignment 4: Mitosis and Meiosis. Name:

BIOL100 Laboratory Assignment 4: Mitosis and Meiosis. Name: BIOL100 Laboratory Assignment 4: Mitosis and Meiosis Name: Laboratory Objectives After completing this lab topic, you should be able to: 1. Describe the activities of chromosomes and microtubules in the

More information

Biology 3A Laboratory MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction

Biology 3A Laboratory MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction Biology 3A Laboratory MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction OBJECTIVE To study the cell cycle and understand how, when and why cells divide. To study and identify the major stages of cell division. To relate the

More information

Lecture 2: Mitosis and meiosis

Lecture 2: Mitosis and meiosis Lecture 2: Mitosis and meiosis 1. Chromosomes 2. Diploid life cycle 3. Cell cycle 4. Mitosis 5. Meiosis 6. Parallel behavior of genes and chromosomes Basic morphology of chromosomes telomere short arm

More information

Cell Division Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Cell Division Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Cell Division Mitosis and the Cell Cycle A Chromosome and Sister Chromatids Key Points About Chromosome Structure A chromosome consists of DNA that is wrapped around proteins (histones) and condensed Each

More information

Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Cell Cycle and Mitosis THE CELL CYCLE The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. These

More information

Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells

Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells A quick overview of cell division The genetic information of plants, animals and other eukaryotic organisms resides in several (or many) individual DNA molecules, or chromosomes.

More information

March 19, 2014. Dear Dr. Duvall, Dr. Hambrick, and Ms. Smith,

March 19, 2014. Dear Dr. Duvall, Dr. Hambrick, and Ms. Smith, Dr. Daniel Duvall, Medical Officer Center for Medicare, Hospital and Ambulatory Policy Group Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 7500 Security Boulevard Baltimore, Maryland 21244 Dr. Edith Hambrick,

More information

growth and tissue repair in multicellular organisms (mitosis)

growth and tissue repair in multicellular organisms (mitosis) Cell division: mitosis and meiosis I. Cell division -- introduction - roles for cell division: reproduction -- unicellular organisms (mitosis) growth and tissue repair in multicellular organisms (mitosis)

More information

EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS 1 Chromosomes contain the genetic material Genes are physically located within the chromosomes Chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins Primary function

More information

Lab 10 Mitosis. Background. Mitosis. Prokaryotic fission. Prophase During prophase, the chromatin. Eukaryotic cell division

Lab 10 Mitosis. Background. Mitosis. Prokaryotic fission. Prophase During prophase, the chromatin. Eukaryotic cell division Lab 10 Mitosis Background Reproduction means producing a new organism from an existing organism. The new offspring must receive hereditary information and enough cytoplasmic material to maintain its own

More information

Cell Growth and Reproduction Module B, Anchor 1

Cell Growth and Reproduction Module B, Anchor 1 Cell Growth and Reproduction Module B, Anchor 1 Key Concepts: - The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, a larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrients

More information

BCOR 011, Exam 3. Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. Name KEY Section

BCOR 011, Exam 3. Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. Name KEY Section BCOR 011, Exam 3 Name KEY Section Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. 1. A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the nuclear process of mitosis. For mitosis

More information

Pre-lab Homework Lab 2: Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Pre-lab Homework Lab 2: Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Pre-lab Homework Lab 2: Mitosis and the Cell Cycle Name: Date/Lab time: 1. Label the figure with the following phases of the cell cycle (note the position of interphase and mitosis): G 1 G 2 S Anaphase

More information

Multiple Choice Review Mitosis & Meiosis

Multiple Choice Review Mitosis & Meiosis Multiple Choice Review Mitosis & Meiosis 1. Which of the following accurately describes the one of the major divisions of mitosis? a. During the mitotic phase, cells are performing their primary function

More information

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n)

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n) MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n) Meiosis is sexual reproduction. Two divisions (meiosis I and meiosis

More information

DNA Detection. Chapter 13

DNA Detection. Chapter 13 DNA Detection Chapter 13 Detecting DNA molecules Once you have your DNA separated by size Now you need to be able to visualize the DNA on the gel somehow Original techniques: Radioactive label, silver

More information

EXPERIMENT #8 CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

EXPERIMENT #8 CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS & MEIOSIS Introduction Cells, the basic unit of life, undergo reproductive acts to maintain the flow of genetic information from parent to offspring. The processes of mitosis and meiosis are cellular events in which

More information

Chapter 3. Cell Division. Laboratory Activities Activity 3.1: Mock Mitosis Activity 3.2: Mitosis in Onion Cells Activity 3.

Chapter 3. Cell Division. Laboratory Activities Activity 3.1: Mock Mitosis Activity 3.2: Mitosis in Onion Cells Activity 3. Chapter 3 Cell Division Laboratory Activities Activity 3.1: Mock Mitosis Activity 3.2: Mitosis in Onion Cells Activity 3.3: Mock Meiosis Goals Following this exercise students should be able to Recognize

More information

Cell cycle & Mitosis. Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material 2016-06- 13

Cell cycle & Mitosis. Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material 2016-06- 13 Cell cycle & Mitosis Review In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair

More information

Unit 2: Tissues, Organs, and Systems. The Cell Cycle

Unit 2: Tissues, Organs, and Systems. The Cell Cycle Unit 2: Tissues, Organs, and Systems The Cell Cycle Cells All living things are made up of one or more cells. An adult human is made up of approximately 100 trillion cells. Cells are the structural and

More information

CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION 1 CH 10 CELL CYCLE & CELL DIVISION CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION Growth and reproduction are characteristics of living cells and organisms. Cell Cycle The sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its

More information

Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB)

Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB) Cell Cycle in Onion Root Tip Cells (IB) A quick overview of cell division The genetic information of plants, animals and other eukaryotic organisms resides in several (or many) individual DNA molecules,

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis. Part I Mitosis

Mitosis and Meiosis. Part I Mitosis Mitosis and Meiosis Name Date Part I Mitosis It was discovered in 1858, by Rudolf Virchow, that new cells can only arise from previously existing cells. This is done in two ways: mitosis and meiosis. Body

More information

www.njctl.org PSI Biology Mitosis & Meiosis

www.njctl.org PSI Biology Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis Classwork 1. Identify two differences between meiosis and mitosis. 2. Provide an example of a type of cell in the human body that would undergo mitosis. 3. Does cell division

More information

Lecture 3 Cell division: mitosis and meiosis

Lecture 3 Cell division: mitosis and meiosis Lecture 3 Cell division: mitosis and meiosis CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 8 1 The Cell Division Cycle Almost 90% of the cycle is taken up with Interphase during which DNA in the nucleus is replicated Mitosis

More information

Biology 160 Lab Module 10 Meiosis Activity & Mendelian Genetics

Biology 160 Lab Module 10 Meiosis Activity & Mendelian Genetics Name Biology 160 Lab Module 10 Meiosis Activity & Mendelian Genetics Introduction During your lifetime you have grown from a single celled zygote into an organism made up of trillions of cells. The vast

More information

Every time a cell divides the genome must be duplicated and passed on to the offspring. That is:

Every time a cell divides the genome must be duplicated and passed on to the offspring. That is: DNA Every time a cell divides the genome must be duplicated and passed on to the offspring. That is: Original molecule yields 2 molecules following DNA replication. Our topic in this section is how is

More information

1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes?

1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes? Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes? 2. Define: gamete zygote meiosis homologous chromosomes diploid haploid

More information

The Somatic Cell Cycle

The Somatic Cell Cycle The Somatic Cell Cycle Maternal chromosome Diploid Zygote Diploid Zygote Paternal chromosome MITOSIS MITOSIS Maternal chromosome Diploid organism Diploid organism Paternal chromosome Int terpha ase The

More information

Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis

Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis students will describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis o define and explain the significance of chromosome number in somatic and sex cells o explain the events of

More information

Lab 6. Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis

Lab 6. Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis Lab 6. Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis Cell Division - Mitosis Sexually-reproducing, multicellular organisms begin life as a single cell, the fertilized egg. This cell, the zygote, through the

More information

2. Discrete units of hereditary information consisting of duplicated DNA are called.

2. Discrete units of hereditary information consisting of duplicated DNA are called. LAB TOPIC 7 BSC 2010L (Principles of Biology 1 Laboratory, Professor Chiappone) MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS (Investigating Biology, 7 th edition) PRACTICE QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. DNA is found in structures called. (a)

More information

Chapter 8 Cell division. Review

Chapter 8 Cell division. Review Chapter 8 Cell division Mitosis/Meiosis Review This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a centromere The phase of the cell cycle in which cells stop dividing all together. G 0 Cell

More information

Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division

Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division Chapter Outline Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division Section 1: Cell Reproduction KEY IDEAS > Why do cells divide? > How is DNA packaged into the nucleus? > How do cells prepare for division? WHY CELLS

More information

Asexual - in this case, chromosomes come from a single parent. The text makes the point that you are not exact copies of your parents.

Asexual - in this case, chromosomes come from a single parent. The text makes the point that you are not exact copies of your parents. Meiosis The main reason we have meiosis is for sexual reproduction. It mixes up our genes (more on that later). But before we start to investigate this, let's talk a bit about reproduction in general:

More information

From DNA to Protein

From DNA to Protein Nucleus Control center of the cell contains the genetic library encoded in the sequences of nucleotides in molecules of DNA code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins determines which specific proteins

More information

1. When new cells are formed through the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the new cells

1. When new cells are formed through the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the new cells Cell Growth and Reproduction 1. When new cells are formed through the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the new cells A. is half of that of the parent cell. B. remains the same as in the

More information

SELF-PREPARATION FOR THE BIOLOGY ASSESSMENT TEST MODULE 5: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

SELF-PREPARATION FOR THE BIOLOGY ASSESSMENT TEST MODULE 5: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS SELF-PREPARATION FOR THE BIOLOGY ASSESSMENT TEST MODULE 5: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Mitosis and meiosis: Two types of eukaryotic cell division According to the Cell Theory, new cells are created by the division

More information

Lab 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Lab 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Lab 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Introduction: All new cells come from previously existing cells. New cells are formed by karyokinesis (the process in cell division that involves replication of the cell s nucleus)

More information

HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t)

HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t) GENETIC CROSSES In minks, a single gene controls coat color. The allele for a brown (B) coat is dominant to the allele for silver-blue (b) coats. 1. A homozygous brown mink was crossed with a silverblue

More information

Mitosis. Asexual Reproduction. identical to each other and to the parent cell

Mitosis. Asexual Reproduction. identical to each other and to the parent cell Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis Asexual Reproduction The end result is 2 cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell from which they formed Occurs in somatic cells (non-gametes)

More information

Mitosis, Meiosis and Gametogenesis

Mitosis, Meiosis and Gametogenesis Mitosis, Meiosis and Gametogenesis Mitosis is the mechanism by which somatic (body) cells in higher organisms replicate & divide. each cell has 2 copies of each of each chromosome, one that is of paternal

More information

Lecture 7 Mitosis & Meiosis

Lecture 7 Mitosis & Meiosis Lecture 7 Mitosis & Meiosis Cell Division Essential for body growth and tissue repair Interphase G 1 phase Primary cell growth phase S phase DNA replication G 2 phase Microtubule synthesis Mitosis Nuclear

More information

CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION Cell division is an inherent property of living organisms. It is a process in which cells reproduce their own kind. The growth, differentiation, reproduction and

More information

This phase of mitosis is? This phase of mitosis is? - This phase of mitosis is? This phase of mitosis is? Graphic source:

This phase of mitosis is? This phase of mitosis is? - This phase of mitosis is? This phase of mitosis is? Graphic source: 1 2 This phase of mitosis is? This phase of mitosis is? - 3 4 This phase of mitosis is? This phase of mitosis is? 5 6 What are the stages of mitosis in chronological order? This phase of mitosis is? -Anaphase,

More information

DNA STAINING REAGENTS KIT STOCK NO. PI-STAIN

DNA STAINING REAGENTS KIT STOCK NO. PI-STAIN DNA STAINING REAGENTS KIT STOCK NO. PI-STAIN Table of Contents: Intended Use... 2 Background and Principle... 2 Reagents and Materials Provided... 2 Reagents and Materials that may be Required, but are

More information

Mitosis vs. Meiosis. The Somatic Cell Cycle (Mitosis) The somatic cell cycle consists of 3 phases: interphase, m phase, and cytokinesis.

Mitosis vs. Meiosis. The Somatic Cell Cycle (Mitosis) The somatic cell cycle consists of 3 phases: interphase, m phase, and cytokinesis. Mitosis vs. Meiosis In order for organisms to continue growing and/or replace cells that are dead or beyond repair, cells must replicate, or make identical copies of themselves. In order to do this and

More information

Preparation of Blood Films

Preparation of Blood Films Preparation of Blood Films Principle: Blood film enables us to evaluate WBC, RBC, and PLT morphology, also, allows us to perform differential WBC count, furthermore estimation of WBC and platelets counts

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis. Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen

Mitosis & Meiosis. Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 1 Mitosis & Meiosis Bio 103 Lecture Dr. Largen 2 Cells arise only from preexisting cells all cells come from cells perpetuation of life based on reproduction of cells referred to as cell division 3 Cells

More information

Lecture 11 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Lecture 11 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Lecture 11 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis In this lecture Cell division Chromosomes The cell cycle Mitosis PPMAT Apoptosis What is cell division? Cells divide in order to reproduce themselves The cell cycle

More information

Technical Note. Roche Applied Science. No. LC 18/2004. Assay Formats for Use in Real-Time PCR

Technical Note. Roche Applied Science. No. LC 18/2004. Assay Formats for Use in Real-Time PCR Roche Applied Science Technical Note No. LC 18/2004 Purpose of this Note Assay Formats for Use in Real-Time PCR The LightCycler Instrument uses several detection channels to monitor the amplification of

More information

Meiosis Worksheet. Do you have ALL your parents' chromosomes? Introduction to Meiosis. Haploid vs. Diploid. Overview of Meiosis NAME - PERIOD

Meiosis Worksheet. Do you have ALL your parents' chromosomes? Introduction to Meiosis. Haploid vs. Diploid. Overview of Meiosis NAME - PERIOD Meiosis Worksheet NAME - PERIOD Do you have ALL your parents' chromosomes? No, you only received half of your mother's chromosomes and half of your father's chromosomes. If you inherited them all, you

More information

Uses of Flow Cytometry

Uses of Flow Cytometry Uses of Flow Cytometry 1. Multicolour analysis... 2 2. Cell Cycle and Proliferation... 3 a. Analysis of Cellular DNA Content... 4 b. Cell Proliferation Assays... 5 3. Immunology... 6 4. Apoptosis... 7

More information

*Please consult the online schedule for this course for the definitive date and time for this lecture.

*Please consult the online schedule for this course for the definitive date and time for this lecture. CHROMOSOMES AND DISEASE Date: September 29, 2005 * Time: 8:00 am- 8:50 am * Room: G-202 Biomolecular Building Lecturer: Jim Evans 4200A Biomolecular Building jpevans@med.unc.edu Office Hours: by appointment

More information

Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting

Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting You are about to perform a procedure known as DNA fingerprinting. The data obtained may allow you to determine if the samples of DNA that you will be provided with are from the

More information

Biology. Chapter 10/11

Biology. Chapter 10/11 Biology Chapter 10/11 Interest grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Getting Through Materials move through cells by diffusion. Oxygen and food move into cells, while waste products move out of cells. How does the size

More information

Asexual Reproduction in Eukaryotes: Mitosis

Asexual Reproduction in Eukaryotes: Mitosis Asexual Reproduction in Eukaryotes: Mitosis The Argentine band The real thing going on inside their cells Nuclear Genomes and Chromosomes Genome size in bp (or kbp or Mbp or Gbp) = C value S. cerevisiae

More information

Eukaryotic Cells and the Cell Cycle

Eukaryotic Cells and the Cell Cycle Eukaryotic Cells and the Cell Cycle Mitosis, Meiosis, & Fertilization Learning Goals: After completing this laboratory exercise you will be able to: 1. Identify the stages of the cell cycle. 2. Follow

More information

The Chemical Nature of DNA

The Chemical Nature of DNA Experiment 3 The Chemical Nature of DNA Chemically, DNA is a polymer composed of four simple repeating subunits, the nucleotides. Each nucleotide is comprised of a molecule of deoxyribose, a phosphate

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257 CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION P. 243-257 SECTION 9-1 CELLULAR GROWTH Page 244 ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why is it beneficial for cells to remain small? MAIN IDEA Cells grow until they reach their size limit,

More information

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY Adapted from Foundations of Biology I; Lab 6 Introduction to Microscopy Dr. John Robertson, Westminster College Biology Department,

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 1 Ojectives Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid. List the phases of meiosis I and

More information

Mitosis: Student Activity Lesson Plan

Mitosis: Student Activity Lesson Plan : Student Activity Lesson Plan Subject/Strand/Topic: Science Reproduction - Mitosis Grade(s) / Course(s): 9 / SNC 1D, SNC 1P Ontario Expectations: BY1.02, BY1.01 Key Concepts: mitosis, cell division, prophase,

More information

General Biology 1004 Chapter 8 Lecture Handout, Summer 2005 Dr. Frisby

General Biology 1004 Chapter 8 Lecture Handout, Summer 2005 Dr. Frisby Slide 1 CHAPTER 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance PowerPoint Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential Biology with Physiology Presentation prepared by Chris C.

More information

4.2 Meiosis. Meiosis is a reduction division. Assessment statements. The process of meiosis

4.2 Meiosis. Meiosis is a reduction division. Assessment statements. The process of meiosis 4.2 Meiosis Assessment statements State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei. Define homologous chromosomes. Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing

More information

ab139418 Propidium Iodide Flow Cytometry Kit for Cell Cycle Analysis

ab139418 Propidium Iodide Flow Cytometry Kit for Cell Cycle Analysis ab139418 Propidium Iodide Flow Cytometry Kit for Cell Cycle Analysis Instructions for Use To determine cell cycle status in tissue culture cell lines by measuring DNA content using a flow cytometer. This

More information

The illustrations below reflect other scientists results in identifying and counting the stages of the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula.

The illustrations below reflect other scientists results in identifying and counting the stages of the onion root tip and the whitefish blastula. Abstract: The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to identify in what stage of mitosis viewed cells were in. The stages of mitosis include prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Although the

More information

Laboratory Observing the Cell Cycle of Onion Root Tip Cells

Laboratory Observing the Cell Cycle of Onion Root Tip Cells Laboratory Observing the Cell Cycle of Onion Root Tip Cells Background: Because of their rapid growth, the cells of the root tips of plants undergo rapid cell division. Ornamental onion root tips cells

More information

BIOTECHNOLOGY. What can we do with DNA?

BIOTECHNOLOGY. What can we do with DNA? BIOTECHNOLOGY What can we do with DNA? Biotechnology Manipulation of biological organisms or their components for research and industrial purpose Usually manipulate DNA itself How to study individual gene?

More information

Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Introduction Stages of an Organism s Life Cycle: Development: All changes that occur from a fertilized egg or an initial cell to an adult organism.

More information

Worksheet for Morgan/Carter Laboratory #7 Mitosis and Meiosis

Worksheet for Morgan/Carter Laboratory #7 Mitosis and Meiosis Worksheet for Morgan/Carter Laboratory #7 Mitosis and Meiosis Ex. 7-1: MODELING THE CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS IN AN ANIMAL CELL Lab Study A: Interphase How many pairs of homologous chromosomes are present

More information

LABORATORY 2 THE CELL CYCLE AND THE STAGES OF MITOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES AFTER COMPLETING THIS LABORATORY, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

LABORATORY 2 THE CELL CYCLE AND THE STAGES OF MITOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES AFTER COMPLETING THIS LABORATORY, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: LABORATORY 2 THE CELL CYCLE AND THE STAGES OF MITOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES AFTER COMPLETING THIS LABORATORY, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Describe the cell cycle. 2. Identify stages of mitosis from prepared

More information

cells in an aliquot were counted in a hemocytometer, and the and 0.4 x 106 cells per ml, typical culture volumes being between

cells in an aliquot were counted in a hemocytometer, and the and 0.4 x 106 cells per ml, typical culture volumes being between Proc. NatL Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 78, No. 12, pp. 7727-7731, December 1981 Medical Sciences High-resolution analysis of human peripheral lymphocyte chromosomes by flow cytometry (metaphase chromosomes/peripheral

More information

Overview of Genetic Testing and Screening

Overview of Genetic Testing and Screening Integrating Genetics into Your Practice Webinar Series Overview of Genetic Testing and Screening Genetic testing is an important tool in the screening and diagnosis of many conditions. New technology is

More information

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE CHROMOSOME NUMBERS

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE CHROMOSOME NUMBERS CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE 1. During nuclear division, the DNA (as chromatin) in a Eukaryotic cell's nucleus is coiled into very tight compact structures called chromosomes. These are rod-shaped structures made

More information

Mitosis. Cellular Reproduction Part I

Mitosis. Cellular Reproduction Part I Mitosis Cellular Reproduction Part I Cells must reproduce, the cell cycle describes how cells reproduce and what regulates reproduction. All somatic cells (non sex cells) go through the cell cycle. It

More information