Operations and supply chain management

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1 Operations and supply chain management Prof. Nilesh S. Jambhulkar, Lecturer, Dept. of MCA, JSPM s Jayawant Technical Campus, Tathwade, Pune. Abstract: Operations and supply chain management have been proposed as means of improving quality, while simultaneously reducing cost, eliminating waste and improving efficiency. Many companies are implementing SCM in an effort to increase profits and customer satisfaction. This paper presents the Operations and SCM basic concepts as well as advances in information system technology for the evolution of supply chain management. The operational efficiency cost has a direct impact on the manufacturing cost of final product. From the perspective of supply chain management, the operational efficiency cost of an enterprise is the organization operating cost that takes place in the process of providing products or services by the enterprise. This paper examines the variety operational decisions that companies make and the effects of those decisions on the supply chain like Six Sigma, Material requirements planning (MRP), PLC (programmable logic controller). Key words: Operations & Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Management (SCM), Operations Management Introduction & Overview- The operations and supply chain management is designed to use how to manage operations in business and government. An operation is the process by which a company or organization converts raw materials, labor and capital into a final product or service. In an automobile company, for example, materials and labor are transformed by manufacturing operations into cars. In a hospital, nurses and doctors use medicines, care and equipment to help sick patients become healthy. In a bank, staff members use computers and systems to manage the flow of money among accounts and provide customers with statements and other banking services. Whatever the operation, decisions have to be made to establish work schedules for employees, forecast demand for products and services, improve and maintain quality, ensure adequate inventory, transport and store products and materials, and order materials and parts. These all require operational decisions that can be made using the managerial techniques and computing technologies taught in the in the Operations & Supply chain management option of our major. Operations management becomes one of the most important tasks that consist of a great deal of stages. These stages include, but not limited to operations strategy, product design, process design, choice of technology, quality management, supply chain management, forecasting, facilities and aggregate planning, scheduling operations, and inventory control and 1

2 management. Due to time constraints, however, this paper will focus on three major aspects of operations management. First, it deals with major steps of process design, then it focuses on how to manage a supply chain system, and last but not least it highlights the inventory management in which independent-demand inventory, materials requirements planning, and just-in-time system will be carefully treated. When operating in global markets, a traditional company is at a competitive disadvantage. The scale of operations is wrong, products may be inadequate, and the company is organized in the wrong way to produce and market its products. As a result, the global companies have emerged with the following characteristics. (1) Facilities and plants are located on a worldwide basis. (2) Products and services can be shifted back and forth between countries. (3) Components, parts, and services are sourced on a global basis. Hence, global product design and process technology need to be used; demand for products is considered worldwide, not a local, basis; the economies of scale are greatly magnified, and costs can be lower; and logistics and inventory control systems are also global basis. For such above reasons, among the most important decisions made by operations managers are those involving the design and improvement of the process for producing goods and services. A number of examples of operational decisions can be identified in manufacturing, supplier relationships and logistics. Manufacturing Companies make tactical decisions with regards to manufacturing, such as the adoption of just-in-time. However, if the local manufacturing site is unable to rely on certain supplier s delivery times, the just-in-time method may not be suitable for some product lines. Just-in- Time (JIT) is an approach that seeks to eliminate all sources of waste in production activities by providing right part at the right place at the right time. The JIT system results in much less inventory, lower costs, and better quality than the JIC approach. The objective of JIT, however, is to improve return on investment (ROI). A JIT system can increase revenue by improving quality, or by giving better delivery service. Better service is provided by shorter lead times, which allow faster response to customer needs, and by better conformance to schedule commitments. Cost reduction can be obtained in materials (less scrap and rework), 2

3 labor, and overhead. Finally, investment is reduced by less inventory and greater throughput of plant and equipment. Suppliers Global suppliers and negotiated contracts are decisions made at a company level to take advantage of the company s global buying power. This offers considerable cost savings, but local sites may have to make operational decisions with suppliers to ensure an efficient supply chain. In some instances local negotiations with global suppliers are required to ensure quality of the product. Logistics Strategic and tactical supply chain decisions in the logistics process often focus on the use of third party logistics companies (3PL). Many companies have identified the cost benefits of these 3PL companies and have integrated them into their supply chain. However, in some instances these 3PL companies may not operate in all regions where the company requires logistics. Operational supply management plays an important role in providing long-term success to the business organizations. This type of management considers a number of performance related factors. There are a number of tools and techniques that are used to ensure long term growth of the business. Tools and Techniques of Operational Supply Management Quality Management: It is an essential factor to bring about lasting changes in the performance of the business. Operation supply management sets the quality standards. At the same time, it also handles factors like cost management and quality control. Balancing Demand and Supply: Inventory analysis and inventory management are important parts of the operational supply management. At the same time, several other factors like outsourcing and in sourcing, materials inputs and so on are also crucial in this context. Selection and Management of Suppliers: It is essential to secure the long-term growth of a company or business and because of this, operational supply management considers this with due importance. A number of factors are related to this process like identifying the potential suppliers, helping the suppliers to grow simultaneously and using these suppliers as available resources. Information System: Collection of relevant data and using those data in the best possible manner are crucial for the growth of any business. Introduction of integrated information system and new technologies to increase the quality of service and bring down the costs is also essential. Negotiations: These are internal parts of the process of operational supply management. Designing strategies and applying those in a proper manner are also very important. 3

4 Operational supply chain management decisions are made daily to ensure the efficient flow of material. This paper examines the variety operational decisions that companies make and the effects of those decisions on the supply chain. Six Sigma is a business management strategy that was initially developed by Motorola in the 1980 s, and now is used in many Fortune 500 companies. It is used primarily to identify and rectify errors and defect in a manufacturing or business process. Six Sigma uses a number of quality methods and tools that are used by professionals within the organization, who have been trained on Six Sigma techniques. Often the terms used in Six Sigma are sometimes misleading, so listed below are some of the more frequently used with an explanation of the term. Lean Six Sigma takes the fundamentals of Six Sigma and incorporates the cost reduction principles of Lean Manufacturing. Basics of Lean Six Sigma The Six Sigma approach looks at getting organizations to perform their processes in a more efficient manner to reduce defects. The next step for organizations is not only to improve processes but to make them more cost efficient or to adopt more efficient new processes; this is the basis for Lean Six Sigma. Success Using Lean Six Sigma Many companies are adopting Lean Six Sigma and having great success not only in manufacturing but in other industries including service industries. This is due to the fact that Lean looks at the needs of the customer and making the customer happy not only benefits the relationship with that customer but the process used to achieve that will help to increase customer satisfaction for current as well as future customers. A programmable logic controller (PLC) is a designed to perform industrial control operations which can occur on the manufacturing production line. The PLC is a microcomputer which has a central processing unit (CPU) that controls all of the activity that is required of the PLC. The CPU contains the main processor and system memory. The other part of the PLC is the input and output interface system. The interface system allows the PLC to be connected to devices that take measurements to be taken, such as pressure sensors and temperature sensors. As an item moves along the production line, the sensor is triggered and that information is passed via the interface system to the CPU. Material requirements planning (MRP) is a production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based, while it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives: Ensure materials are available for production and products are available for delivery to customers. Maintain the lowest possible material and product levels in store Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities. 4

5 In today's world, the increase in competitive pressure and the advent of new technologies (e.g., Material Requirements Planning, Just-In-Time, and Supply Chain Management) have resulted in a rediscovery of the importance of total quality management, international competitiveness, and Production/Operations Management. The increased awareness of environmental concerns and the desire to preserve out natural resources, particularly energy, have further contributed to the resurgence of interest in these areas. Operations Management concerns the management of the direct resources required to produce the goods and services of an organization. It is the process that allows organizations to achieve their goals through the effective and efficient acquisition and use of resources. Every organization, whether public or private, manufacturing or service, has an operations function. Operations managers also need to consider the mass customization. Mass customization depends on economies of scope, that is, a high variety of products from a single process. Mass customization includes four forms: (1) Mass-customized services (2) Modular production & assemble-to-order (ATO) (3) Fast changeover (4) Postponement of options. Simultaneously, the choice of technology should consider only the net present value, but also the effects on customers, employees, and the environment. A cross-functional strategy is needed to ensure that technological choices are integrated over time and help the firm achieve a competitive another step toward the success of operations management is the process-flow analysis. Operations manager must carefully analyze not only the flowchart, but also materials flow and information flow. In improving the effectiveness or efficiency of productive processes, some or all following process elements might be changed: (1) Raw materials (2) Product design (3) Job design, 5

6 (4) Processing steps used, (5) Management control information, (6) Equipment or tools, and (7) suppliers. Bearing in mind that process analysis can have a wide effect on all parts of the company. To analyze this process flow, a relevant system is selected, and the customers, outputs, inputs, suppliers, boundaries, and transformations are described. Problems Handled by Strategic Supply Chain Management The supply chain management provides solution to a number of problems. These include several things like maintaining data about the numbers and locations of supplier, data related to the warehouses and production plans and so on. At the same time, data related to the customer is also maintained in this process. Important decisions related to the distribution theories are addressed by strategic supply chain management. This sector of management is also responsible to decide payment methodologies as well as the payment terms. 6

7 Development of Supply Chain Management Concepts It has become an important part of every business to compete with the global competitors and supply chain management is an effective method to do so. The recent changes in the business sector of the whole world are due to the effects of globalization. These changes play an important role in the development of the strategic supply chain management. At the same time, the technological advancements, particularly in the field of information and technology are also responsible for the development of supply chain management. Business Challenges- Business leaders today are addressing many challenges and opportunities in today's growingly complex supply chain environments, including: Developing operations and supply chain strategies that improve effectiveness and efficiency of processes, and support innovation across the value chain Leveraging process diagnostics and benchmarking, scenario-based strategies and lean principles to improve operational efficiency Generating savings and improving operational productivity through new strategies and technologies Optimizing all aspects of planning, sourcing, fulfillment and logistics to drive out cost and improve performance Creating an operational foundation for future growth, capacity and flexibility Conclusion- Operations and supply chain management consultants help clients achieve new and sustainable business value by formulating supply chain strategies, managing change and setting direction for new transformations and operational models. Operations and Supply chain Management Process are the Central Arteries within the organization because it produces the planning process for Goods & Services, which are its reason for existent. References- LaLonde, Bernard J. (1997), Supply Chain Management: Myth or Reality? Supply Chain Management Review, 1 Gupta, SurendraM., and Yousef A. Y. Al-Turki. Flexible Kanban System. International Journal of Production & Production Management. (1999): Roger G. Schroeder. (2 ed.) (2003). Operations Management: Contemporary Concepts and Cases.McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Kouvelis, P.; Chambers, C.; Wang, H. (2006): Supply Chain Management Research and Production and Operations Management: Review, Trends, and Opportunities. In: Production and Operations Management, Halldorsson, Arni, Herbert Kotzab & Tage Skjott-Larsen (2003). Inter-organizational theories behind Supply Chain Management discussion and applications, In Seuring, Stefan et al. (eds.), Strategy and Organization in Supply Chains, Physica Verlag. 7

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