# BARIUM EXTRACTION POTENTIAL BY MUSTARD, SUNFLOWER AND CASTOR BEAN

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3 Barium extraction potential by plants 61 Table 1 - Orthogonal polynomial regression results for barium in the species evaluated. Specie Sum of Squares l Sum of Squares error (1) F calc shoots barium concentration Sunflower Mustard Castor bean shoots barium accumulation Sunflower Mustard Castor bean (1) if F calc > 5.99 (F 1,6,95% ) linear trend is significant. SS l = [1T 2 1T ] 2 / 3(1 2 + ( 1 ) = (T 2 T / 6 SS dl = [1T 2 + 1T 2T 1 ] 2 / [ ( 2 ]3=(T 2 + T 2T 1 / 6 where the mean of square (MS) will be given by the SS divided by 1 and F can be calculated as: F calc = (MS l or MS di ) / MS error and compared to the tabulated values of F 1,6,95%. The phytoextraction potential of species was be evaluated by the transference factor (T), defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and its total concentration in the soil (Accioly & Siqueira, 2). The desirable values for phytoaccumulating plants are above 1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Shoots dry matter (g per pot) Figure 1 - Effects of increasing Ba applied to the soil (, 15 and 3 mg kg 1 ) on average shoot dry weight of three species cultivated for 47 days. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of mean values for each treatment. No toxicity symptoms were observed in shoots for the species tested during the experiment. Ba did not affect the development of the plants since there was no difference between dry matter productions in soil with or without Ba for each species (Figure 1), when compared using t test (p <.5). Also based on these results effects on plant growth that might be caused by the sulphate salt can be discarded. In spite of no effect of Ba toxicity on plant growth was observed, the t test comparisons confirmed that sunflower had a higher dry matter production than castor bean or mustard and that mustard had a higher dry matter production than castor bean. Sunflower dry matter was 161% and 71% higher than castor bean and mustard productions, respectively. This higher production could result in a concordant higher accumulation of Ba by sunflower if the concentrations of Ba were equal among the species. For the N, P, Mg, Ca, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and B concentrations in the plants tissues (data not tabulated), no differences between treated or not treated plants with Ba were found, an indication that the addition of Ba to the soil, at the levels studied, imparted in no change in nutrient accumulation by plants, although examples of imbalances between Ca or K and Ba or deficiency of S in the presence of elevated contents of Ba were reported (Chaudry et al., 1997; Llugany et al., 2). The analysis by orthogonal polynomial regression, at the significance level adopted, showed a difference among Ba levels for sunflower and mustard, with a linear trend (Figure 2). However, the same trend did not occur for castor bean, with low accumulation occurring in soils treated with Ba (Table 1). No deviation of linearity was observed for the species tested. Thus, the former two are more promising as good phytoaccumulating plants in the remediation of areas contaminated with this metal, as its maximum accumulation was not reached in the present study. The highest concentration of Ba was obtained for sunflower, with 21.3 mg kg 1, followed by mustard (19.4 mg kg 1 ), and castor bean (1.6 mg kg 1 ). The three plant species evaluated presented distinct behavior under Ba stress (Figure 3). The analysis by orthogonal polynomial regression showed a similar result to that of Barium concentrations in shoots, with differences among Ba levels for sunflower and

4 62 Coscione & Berton mustard, (a linear trend) and it was not significant for accumulation of barium in castor bean (Table 1). Decreasing capacity of Ba accumulation was: sunflower> mustard> castor bean. The larger accumulation was in sunflower, at the rate of 3 mg kg 1 of Ba added to the soil. At this contaminant level the sunflower also presented a Ba content 5% higher than mustard ac- 1 Shoots Ba concentration (mg kg ) Figure 2 - Effects of increasing Ba applied to the soil on average shoot Ba concentration of three species cultivated for 47 days. Shoots Ba accumulation (mg per pot) Figure 3 - Effects of increasing Ba applied to the soil on average Ba accumulation of three species cultivated for 47 days. cumulated in shoots, in addition to the larger dry matter production. A small response, corresponding to a small increase in Ba shoots accumulation, was observed for castor bean, with the increase of soil contamination. The highest transference factor (T) values here were.71;.113, and.75, for castor bean, mustard, and sunflower, respectively, under the application of 15 mg kg 1 of Ba. Those values suggest that the three species evaluated are not suited for Ba accumulation. In nature, Ba content of soils is around 1 to 3 mg kg 1 (Pais & Jones Jr., 1998). The Environmental Agency of the State of São Paulo (Cetesb) has recently set Ba contamination standard values in agricultural lands for São Paulo State, Brazil, adopting 15 and 3 mg kg 1 as alert and intervention values, respectively (Cetesb, 25). In spite of that, concentrations of 2 mg kg 1 have already been reported as toxic to plants (Pais & Jones Jr., 1998). Chaudry et al (1977), using 5, 1 and 2 mg kg 1 of Ba, added as Ba(NO 3, observed accumulation on shoots and decrease in productions of bush beans and barley. Deleterious effects on root system seem to occur at very low concentrations of free Ba cation in solutions, as reported for hydroponics (Llugany et al., 2). In the present study Ba was applied to soil as BaSO 4 (barite) considering the contamination caused by petroleum perforation mud and the possibility of solubilization from this source as reported elsewhere indicating that Ba may not be as immobile as expected (Baldi et al., 1996; Carbonell et al., 1999). However, since toxicity and accumulation Ba is dependent on its availability in the soil, it was also evaluated in the soil material from the pots experiment. The CaCl 2 extraction, probably corresponding to Ba soluble in soil, presented a small increase in soils treated with barium sulphate (Table 2). Such low val- Table 2 - Amounts of Ba extracted from the soil by CaCl 2 and ion exchange resin methods, after the harvesting of three plant species cultivated for 47 days. Data presented is the average of three replicates. Ba added mg kg mg kg 1 of soil CaCl 2 extraction Ion exchange resin extraction

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