October AquitAine. home of scientific excellence. Not to be sold separately

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1 October 2011 AquitAine home of scientific excellence Supplement Not to be sold separately

2 L AQUITAINE : France s number 1 Region for investment in research and innovation. The Region has actively pursued an ambitious investment strategy, allocating 10% of the regional budget to research and innovation, in other words, 130 million euros annually. THE REGION AQUITAINE IS MASSIVELY INVESTING IN RESEARCH: Construction and funding of key scientific facilities: Neurocampus, Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin (ISVV), Petawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA)... Call for research proposals: Funding totalling 16 million euros is allocated to over 120 projects each year. THE REGION AQUITAINE BACKS INNOVATION IN BUSINESS - funding for bodies that perform an interface role and promote technological development - funding for corporate R and D and innovation-focused projects - funding to help businesses recruit highly-skilled personnel THE REGION AQUITAINE - HELPING INDUSTRIES WITH REAL POTENTIAL: Funding for regional competitiveness clusters (Aerospace Valley, Route des lasers, Xylofutur, Avenia) Developing regional clusters and centres of excellence (Cluster Glisse, Creahd, health cluster, Inno Vin, wind power, solar cluster and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle clusters, health ICT cluster ) Pôle Développement Economique et Emploi +33 (0) Crédits photos : Alban Gilbert

3 Volume 2 of La Recherche may not be sold separately from Volume 1(LR N 456). Volume 2 of the periodical La Recherche was developed with the support of the Aquitaine Region and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund). SOPHIA PUBLICATIONS 74, Avenue du Maine Paris, France Tel: Editorial To speak directly to any member of the editorial staff, call +33 (0) , followed by the four digits after their name. Editor in chief: Aline Richard Volume 2 editor: Franck Barnu Design and production of Volume 2: A noir, +33 (0) Editorial assistant for Volume 2: Sophie Jarreau-Demange Production: Christophe Perrusson (13 78) Advertising Sales Manager and non-media advertising: Caroline Nourry (13 96) Administration and Finance Manager: Dounia Ammor (13 73) Subscriber management: Isabelle Parez La Recherche is published by Sophia Publications, a subsidiary of Financière Tallandier CEO and Managing Editor: Philippe Clerget Executive advisor: Jean-Michel Ghidaglia Photographic credits. Cover: CEA/Philippe Labéguerie, Guillaume Bonnaud, Alban Gilbert, Fluofarma, Airbus SAS - P. 4-5: Alban Gilbert - P. 6: Aquitaine Regional Council - P. 7: Alban Gilbert - P. 8: IECB, D.R. - P. 9: Francois Guenet, Fotolia/ nfrpictures, Fluofarma - P. 10: Alphanov/Alban Gilbert - P. 11: Aquitaine Region - P. 12: CEA/ Philippe Labéguerie - P. 13: Christian Fleury, Aquitaine Region, CEA/Philippe Labéguerie - P. 14: Alban Gilbert - P.: Fotolia/Christophe Morgado, Compositadour - P. 17: Chaire Akerma/ Région Aquitaine, Alban Gilbert - P. 18: Guillaume Bonnaud - P. 20: Epictura - P. 21: Benoit Alain/Burdin - P. 22: Alban Gilbert - P. 23: Alban Gilbert, Romain Cintract - P. 24: Airbus SAS - P. 25: Paul Fudal/Inria Flowers - P. 26: Fly-n-Sense, Photosani/ Fotolia.com The headlines, headings, textual material and captions were written by the editorial team. The law of 11 March 1957 prohibits copies or reproductions for collective use. Any representation or reproduction in whole or in part without the consent of the author or his successors or assigns, is unlawful (article L of the Intellectual Property Code). Permission to photocopy any material must be obtained through the Centre Français d exploitation du droit de copie (CFC), 20 rue des Grands Augustins, Paris, France. Tel: +33 (0) Fax: +33 (0) ). The editor has the right to reject any material that seems contrary to the moral and material interests of the publication. Volume 2 of La Recherche Joint Committee: 0909 K85863 ISSN Imprimerie Canale, Via Liguria 24, Borgaro, Torino (Italy). Legal deposit on publication SOPHIA PUBLICATIONS. PRINTED IN ITALY. Interview Alain Rousset, President of the Aquitaine Region We cannot simply wait for godsends Health High level research is bearing fruit Bordeaux, capital of neurosciences The IECB combines chemistry and biology An institute for the prevention of sudden death A superb toolkit The pharmaceutical industry says thank you Optics CONTENTS The laser is brilliant! The optics focusses on the Centre The megajoule laser and Petal: a very non-standard machine The laser highway: a formidable pool of companies Chemistry and Materials Cutting to the chase on cutting edge materials Canoe puts nanos materials within reach of businesses LCTS and exceptional composites Compositadour robotises composites Two green clusters ripen in Aquitaine Polymers of excellence Humanities and Social Sciences From archaeology to... innovation The archaeological sciences unite Research on the Africas extends its scope The Gretha focuses on innovation Naturals Resources The search for excellence for exceptional resources Œnology at the highest level Epoc studies the coast with a magnifying glass Xylofutur: a forestry competitivity cluster STIC Information and Communication Science and Technology Featuring health and embedded systems The three musketeers of ICT Aquitaine drones in swarms An ICT health cluster

4 Interview AlAIn Rousset PResident of the AquitAine ReGion We cannot simply wait for godsends > Alain Rousset, in his role as President of the Aquitaine region, explains his reasons for having promoted an active research policy for the past ten years. You are now the region of France that allocates the largest part of its budget to research. When did this deliberate policy begin? Alain Rousset. In fact each year we spend more than 10% of the regional budget on research, higher education and technology transfer, amounting to more than 130 million euros in This has been steadily increasing since The first major initiative was the creation of the European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, which now welcomes top teams from around the world. Since then we have supported the creation of several institutes and research centres, encouraged clusters of laboratories, and put in place technology transfer mechanisms... To do this we have had considerable assistance from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), who helped to provide considerable agreed finance for these activities. We shall continue to put in lots of effort. I believe in the virtue of perseverance in the realms of public policy. It is essential in research, where one-off initiatives have no effect. Effort must be sustained. What was the motivation for this policy? A. R. Aquitaine has a number of historical advantages: its vineyards, forests, the coast and, for historical reasons, an established and powerful military industrial complex, far from the German border. That is not enough. We cannot simply wait for godsends. An anecdote. Just before my election to the Regional Council in 1998, I met some wine producers. They alerted me to the fact that oenological research was about to move to Montpellier. This justified the Region creating the Institute of Vine and Wine Sciences (ISVV, Institut des sciences de la vigne et du vin), which is a standard-bearer for the region. Today we must strive for excellence. This is exactly what we do in well-defined areas. These are both the traditional ones, which have for many years been Aquitaine s strength, and also important growth areas which are new to us, such as lasers, health or, more recently, drones. Therefore we are conducting a systemic policy in matters of research, teaching and technology transfer. It will enable large companies to put down deep roots in Aquitaine, assist the development of SMEs and give birth to new businesses. Such start-ups are already very numerous, particular in the fields of lasers and health. Regional development is at stake. What are your relationships with industry? A. R. We are fortunate in having many large companies here, such as Thales, Snecma Propulsion Solide [Safran], Turbomeca, Arkema, etc. We have established win-win collaborations with them. The Region significantly helps boost their R&D, thanks to its excellent research facilities. In return, they undertake to make use of public research, and especially to participate in technology transfers to local SMEs. For example, Snecma Propulsion Solide is one of the trustees of the Thermostructural Composites Laboratory (Laboratoire des com- 4 - n 456/octobeR 2011/LA RecheRche - AquitAine ReGion

5 Interview posites thermostructuraux). The company is actively involved in collective action we have put in place to pass on knowledge to SMEs about these specialised high-end aircraft composites. Such sharing of knowledge will help these companies to master advanced technologies and position themselves not as mere subcontractors, but as real co-contractors. Is this your answer to building a network of medium-sized companies in Aquitaine? A. R. Such companies, with a few thousand employees, are one of the great strengths of Germany, but are sorely lacking in France. Our technology transfer initiatives have a specific AlAin Rousset Alain Rousset, 60, is currently serving his third term as President of the Aquitaine Regional Council. Elected in 1998 and then in 2004, the current Regional Assembly restated its confidence in him at the outcome of the 2010 regional elections. Since 2004 Alain Rousset has also been president of the Association of French regions and, since 1989, chairman of the Bordeaux-Unitec technopole at Pessac, which he co-founded in aim of helping SMEs to grow and reach this critical size. But that is not the only reason. There are many other reasons lack of capital, in particular that hinder this development and about which we haven t done enough... After more than ten years of effort in developing research in Aquitaine, what most delights you? A. R. Unquestionably, I am very pleased that, as part of our investment in the future, almost all of the top laboratories and equipment manufacturers established in the region are those to which the Regional Council has given strong support. The institute for excellence in lowcarbon energy (IEED, Institut d excellence énergies décarbonées) is just one of our winners. My other source of satisfaction is having successfully built bridges between research and industry. I now see that there is real dynamism in the research throughout the region. It has shrugged off its torpor. It is no longer content to exploit the godsends mentioned above and has set its sights on the future. And what makes you grit your teeth? A. R. The government s launching a policy of investing for the future is good and as a consequence we have reaped the benefits of that. However, I regret that, in this context, the decisions on which projects to pursue are made without consulting the regions. The government cannot just create a competition between regional research facilities. I think there needs to be a more strategic outlook, basing these calls for projects on a clear industrial policy a policy that has yet to be defined. And yes, I look enviously at the German Länder or even the Spanish regions, which have coordinated policies that are completely unlike ours...p AquitAine ReGion - LA RecheRche/octobeR 2011/n 456-5

6 Health high level research is bearing fruit the decision was taken ten years ago, to become a centre of excellence in health and the results that have been achieved have gone beyond research. More than ten start-ups, springing from laboratories in Aquitaine, have seen the light of day. Among them, Fluofarma (Page 9) is already working with major pharmaceutical companies as an indispensable partner in the development of new drugs. Research in neurosciences has for many years, been one of the region s strong points. It will be further strengthened by the nearby Neurocampus establishment (Page 7). Here, in brand new buildings mainly financed by the Region, a set of strong Aquitaine skills will be brought together. This fact alone will mean that it will eventually be home to some 500 to 600 top researchers making Bordeaux one of the world capitals of research and technology transfer in this area. Cardiology is another area of excellence, particularly through Professor Ha issaguerre s (Page 8) world-renowned work on heart arrhythmia. It will soon result soon in a teaching hospital institute (selected by Investments for the Future) dedicated to the study of heart rhythm and cardiac modelling, whose experience is unparalleled in the world. Two other organisations show the work that has been put into structuring the region s potential. The European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, IECB, Institut européen de chimie et de biologie, (Page 8), founded in 1998, conducts research projects on the interface between chemistry and biology. The Centre for Functional Genomics, CGF, Centre de génomique fonctionnelle, (Page 9) in Bordeaux has at its disposal six regional science and technology platforms, making an impressive arsenal of technology available to laboratories and companies to meet all their analytic requirements. Finally, recent awards include those for two Labex laboratories of excellence: Brain for work on the brain, and Trail for translational imaging, as well as for two Equipex equipment of excellence facilities: Optopath (neurosciences and addiction) and Phenovirt (neurosciences and virtual reality). Microscope imaging. Aquitaine has a distinguished reputation for cardiology and neurosciences research. 6 - n 456/october 2011/La recherche - aquitaine region

7 Bordeaux, capital of neurosciences centre of excellence in the neurosci- for many years Aquitaine has been a ences. The idea behind the Neurocampus project is to use that know-how to take us a step further and make Bordeaux one of the world capitals of research and technology transfer in this area, explains Pier Vincenzo Piazza. Director of Research at the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale), he is leading this ambitious project initiated by the Regional Council together with the University of Bordeaux Segalen. When the project is completed in late 2013, Neurocampus will have over 15,000 square metres of buildings housing three large institutes. They will cover the full spectrum of research in the neurosciences, from basic research in physics and chemistry right up to the patients bedsides, including specific research on the pathology of brain diseases. Above all, this dedicated research organisation aims to attract the best national and international researchers to Bordeaux. Fully one-third of the f70 million for this project is earmarked for supporting researchers and their teams. We believe that Neurocampus will ultimately house some 500 to 600 top researchers, says Pier Vincenzo Piazza. The aim is to find new treatments for major diseases such as Alzheimer s, Parkinson s, multiple sclerosis, depression, strokes, etc. three components making up a single unit The Magendie Neurocentre, where Pier Vincenzo Piazza is also the director, is one of the three component parts of the future Neurocampus. Devoted entirely to physiological and pathophysiological research aimed at understanding the brain disease, this INSERM research centre was created in 2007 by bringing together the institution s various research units. In a sense it is the prototype or test bed for the Neurocampus project. It has already demonstrated that such a high-level institute has the powerful ability to attract researchers. Its numbers have increased from 89 in 2007 to over 160 today, including teams recruited from outside France. The building where they work is in the course of renovation and extension. This will be completed by the end of By the end of 2013 two other institutes will >the ambitious neurocampus project will put the region at the forefront of global research on the brain. Brain By name, Brainy By nature In addition to Neurocampus, the Brain project (BRAIN, Bordeaux Région Aquitaine Initiative pour les Neurosciences) has achieved Labex laboratory excellence (LABEX, Laboratoire d excellence) status. The aim of this Labex is to establish a multidisciplinary consortium of researchers, taking their lead from renowned scientists, to meet the greatest challenges in neuroscience research. Brain, which will be funded to the tune of several hundred thousand euros a year over ten years, will draw on the expertise of its teams and partners, in particular the Neurocampus institutes. Health also be installed in brand new premises and will complete the Magendie Neurocentre, to form the renowned Neurocampus. The first, set up the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS, Centre national de la recherche scientifique) and Bordeaux Segalen University, is the very recent Interdisciplinary Neurosciences Institute (IINS, Institut interdisciplinaire en neuroscien ces), directed by Daniel Choquet, who is also the coordinator at Labex Brain. It first saw the light of day in January Its aim is the integration of physics, chemistry and biology in the service of neurobiology. a magnet for businesses The Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases (IMN - l Institut des maladies neurodégénératives) was founded at the same time and is the third and final pillar of Neurocampus. It, too, is affiliated with the CNRS and Bordeaux Segalen University. Under the leadership of Erwan Bézard, research director at the CNRS, it also started in January It combines basic, preclinical and clinical research in neurodegenerative diseases, with the aim of developing new therapeutic strategies using vertical and translational approaches. The translational component of the project is physically backed by Bordeaux s main hospital (CHU, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire) in order to maximize patient enrolment in clinical studies. Research excellence, which is Neurocampus primary motivation, is not the only aim of this cluster. It also intends to exploit its research results and be a magnet for businesses, either through developing existing businesses or creating start-ups. It also has another project, in conjunction with Labex Brain (see sidebar): the creation of an International School of Neurosciences for continuing education, accessible to researchers and clinicians working in the neurosciences. p aquitaine region - La recherche/october 2011/n 456-7

8 Health An institute for the prevention of sudden death This electron microscope is one of the IECB s numerous items of equipment. The IECB combines chemistry and biology everyone is talking about it... The European Institute of Chemistry and Biology (IECB) has made interdisciplinarity its raison d etre. It is entirely dedicated to conducting research projects at the interface between chemistry and biology, mainly in the field of health, says Jean-Jacques Toulme, its director. Co-funded by the Region, the Départment de Gironde, the Bordeaux Urban Community and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the institute, established in 1998, has already achieved international recognition. In particular, it has a technology platform dedicated to advanced structural biology. It has extensive equipment (NMR, mass spectrometers electron microscopes, etc) which allow it to work on three-dimensional representations of molecules of biomedical interest. Since 2008 is has been located at the Centre for Functional Genomics at Bordeaux (page 9).. tendering for research positions The IECB, under the auspices of the CNRS, the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the University of Bordeaux, has unique expertise. Every year, via its scientific council, it recruits researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds using a tendering process. The lucky ones to be chosen one to two per year are then assigned full responsibility for their own project, for a period of six to ten years. Six teams have already come to the end of their projects. But these researchers are continuing to work in the region, though they are no longer part of the IECB. All are now working in various research laboratories in Aquitaine. p Professor Michel Haïssaguerre Dedicated to the study of heart rhythm and cardiac modelling, the institute will strive to develop preventive treatments to fight against the harmful effects of atrial fibrillation. thanks to Michel Haïssaguerre, we now know what causes adult sudden death which, he reminds us, causes 350,000 deaths a year in Europe, the same number caused by breast, lung and colon cancer put together. He has identified the cells responsible for ventricular fibrillation, the cause of this fatal disorder. Together with his team at Bordeaux Segalen University, Professor Haïssaguerre, head of the cardiac arrhythmia department at the CHU in Bordeaux has also identified the cells responsible for atrial fibrillation (atria), the indirect cause of many strokes. In both cases, fibrillation produces a kind of electrical storm which panics the heartbeat. This work earned him the prestigious Louis- Jeantet prize in 2010 and a nomination to the French Académie des sciences. Today, he is starting out on a new adventure. As part of the investment for the future, we are building a teaching hospital institute dedicated to the study of heart rhythm and cardiac modelling (Liryc) in Pessac, near the Technology Platform for Biomedical Innovation (PTIB, Plateforme technologique d innovation biomédicale) at Xavier- Arnozan Hospital. Its aim: to understand the detail of the molecular processes associated with ventricular fibrillation so as to develop preventive treatments. In the case of atrial fibrillation, which we know can be treated by the ablation of the cells that produce the disorder, we will seek to develop drugs to replace the current cumbersome and expensive process. The Liryc institute, which the Professor will direct, will have a unique set of skills. We will be working in the areas of electrophysiology, with highly specialised techniques such as optical mapping, in cardiac imaging using, in particular, a very powerful MRI scanner, and in cardiac modelling and signal processing. We aim to attract the best researchers in the world. Some have already expressed interest... p 8 - n 456/october 2011/La recherche - aquitaine region

9 Health A superb toolkit there was a time when every laboratory working in the life sciences could acquire the equipment it needed for its research. Since the decoding of the genome at the turn of the century, things have changed. Analysis now requires a battery of heavy equipment and that means very expensive equipment out of the financial reach of most laboratories. The Centre for Functional Genomics (CGF, Centre de génomique fonctionnelle) in Bordeaux is the answer to the problem. Since 2002 it has gradually brought together all the region s functional technology platforms. Today there are six, mostly housed in a 3,000 square metre building, built in 2006 under the Regional Council s project management. It thus provides research laboratories, teaching hospitals and private companies with an impressive arsenal of technology and the engineers and technicians to manage it. Proven economies of scale The CGF covers every analytic need. It has facilities for DNA and RNA, proteomics (proteins), metabolomics (small molecules), macromolecules (polymers) etc. As many as 21 million euros have been invested in equipment since This consolidation allows for very significant economies of scale, allowing us, in turn, to invest in new equipment, says Dominique Rolin, the Centre s Director. Ever imaginable tool can be found there. Two of them are particularly noteworthy A double beam laser imaging system, the first one in Europe, offers higher resolution than the theoretical maximum. And a comprehensive set of tools, from NMR to mass spectroscopy, for the study of the metabolome. p Positioning a sample in the Centre for Functional Genomics spectrometer. a labex for imaging The Trail laboratory of excellence (Labex), led by the University of Bordeaux, is designed to facilitate inter-and multidisciplinary research in medical imaging, from methodology all the way through to clinical application. It will strengthen research in MRI and nuclear medicine being carried out by teams working in Bordeaux. In addition, it will lead to local teams combining to use a single technical platform in a medical imaging institute. Fluofarma determines those molecules that have the greatest potential to becoming drugs. The pharmaceutical industry says thank you the giants of the pharmaceutical industry are continuously identifying myriads of molecules that might have some therapeutic effect. Many are called but (very) few are chosen. How to sort them? How to eliminate those that have no future as early as possible and dedicate effort to the most promising? This is a key question for industry. The answer lies within Fluofarma, a Pessac startup resulting from of the work of researchers in Aquitaine. Pier Vincenzo Piazza, François Ichas and Francesca de Giorgi, all three from INSERM, patented a new process which is the reason behind the company founded in 2003, explains Jean-Baptiste Pin, Managing Director of Fluofarma. The start-up has developed novel methods for screening based on cell biology, using fluorescence to visualise the effect of a molecule on living cells hence its name. It is thus able to determine which are the most effective molecules. It goes still further by studying the molecules mechanisms of action and even in determining their toxicity. Fluofarma numbers large pharmaceutical companies among its clients; more than forty of them have already called upon its skills. They entrust it either with specific analytic work, carried out within Fluofarma, or ask it to carry out developments in such a way that they can then integrate these into their own laboratories. p aquitaine region - La recherche/october 2011/n 456-9

10 Optics the laser is brilliant! the decision, in 1996, to locate the extraordinary Mégajoule Laser for nuclear simulation in Aquitaine triggered the development of optics research excellence in the region. It promoted the creation of advanced laboratories such as Celia, a centre for training in laser skills, the Pyla business cluster, the Laser Highway (Page 13) and, more recently, Alphanov, a unique centre for technology transfer between academic laboratories and businesses. Not to mention Petal (Page 12), another project linked to the Mégajoule Laser; this is an extremely powerful laser dedicated to research on civil power generation. This boom has made the region an internationally recognised centre of research on very high power lasers. But, along the way, Aquitaine has also developed strong skills in all areas of laser applications, from metrology to health, and has witnessed the flowering of start-ups in this area. Regional support for the development of optics has been key. Since 1997 no less than d114 million has been devoted to research, technology transfer, training, establishing business parks, etc. And that is only the start. The Region has already moved up a gear. It has created a very ambitious project to create a large optics centre (Page 11), bringing together the region s research, technology transfer and training. And, with its dual expertise in the fields of health and lasers, has laid the groundwork for a biophotonics industry. Optical bench at Alphanov. The region is a globally recognised centre for research on high power lasers n 456/octobER 2011/La REchERchE - aquitaine REGion

11 The optics focusses on the Centre Optics announcement: on January 1, 2011, a new optics research laboratory in Aquitaine came into being: LP2N. The photonics digital and nanosciences laboratory (LP2N, Laboratoire photonique, numérique et nanosciences) is a joint research unit shared by the Institute of Optics Graduate School (IOGS, also known as the Institute of Optics in Palaiseau, Essonne), the University of Bordeaux 1 and the CNRS. It is headed by Philippe Bouyer, research director at the CNRS. Its activities centre on nanophotonics, biophotonics, matter waves and information processing. LP2N covers a wide field of research, from the most fundamental, such as the study of optical and quantum mechanical phenomena at the microscopic scale, up to projects intended to be transferred to industry, such as instrumentation, including virtual reality, nanomicroscopy or the development of new optical or quantum materials. The birth of such a unit marks a milestone. It will significantly strengthen the region s strong skills in optics research, already shown by laboratories that include the Aquitaine Wave and Materials Laboratory (Loma, Laboratoire ondes et matière d Aquitaine) and the High Power Laser Applications Centre (Celia, Centre lasers intenses et applications). > the future optics centre will bring together education, research and technology transfer and will, in particular, act as an outpost of the institute of optics in Palaiseau. AlphAnOv AwArd winners As in previous years, 2011 saw several of the Alphanov technology transfer unit s young colts featuring amongst the winners in the national competition for the creation of innovative technology companies. The µquans organisation, which is developing a new generation of scientific instruments based on the use of atoms trapped, cooled and manipulated by laser. The Teranov Project aims to extend current infrared vision systems into the terahertz frequency band. Novae, which aims to develop innovative optical fibre laser sources emitting a broad spectrum in the mid-infrared band. a training-research-business start-up continuum However, LP2N is only the tip of a very ambitious program planned by the Region: the creation of the Bordeaux Optics Centre. A building of some 19,000 square metres. As from 2012, it will house not only the completely new laboratory, but also a leading optical engineering school, a technology transfer centre, a continuous professional development unit and even a reception area for business start-ups. This will create a training-research-business start-up continuum. It has two aims: to promote research and technology transfer in topics in which the region specialises; and to increase Aquitaine s national and international attractiveness. The engineering school that will be based here is none other than the Higher School of Optics (IOGS, Institut d Optique Graduate School) better known as SupOptique. From 2012 this Bordeaux outpost of the prestigious Palaiseaubased establishment will train about one hundred engineers each year (from their second year onwards; students spend their first year in Palaiseau), as well as those studying for masters degrees and doctorates. The Optics Centre will be host to more than two hundred and fifty people from IOGS alone. A technology amplifier The Alphanov technology transfer unit, also based at the centre, has about twenty five staff. It is currently based on the campus of the University of Bordeaux-1. Created in 2007 following the setting up of Aquitaine s Laser Road business cluster, Alphanov aims to be a technology amplifier servicing innovative projects. Here researchers, engineers and specialists from laboratories, SMEs and large industrial groups all work together. It has expertise in: laser machining and micromachining, laser sources and instrumentation, especially fibre lasers, developments in optics and imaging, terahertz applications and medical applications. Next to Alphanov, christened a technological research centre since February 2008, can be found Pyla (platform for the training of laser applications in a controlled environment), a continuous professional development unit for the future Optics Centre. Pyla was established by the universities of Bordeaux-1 and Bordeaux-2, together with CEA-Cesta and Thales Mégajoule (representing the industrial contractors working on Laser Mégajoule).p aquitaine REGion - La REchERchE/octobER 2011/n

12 the numbers 1,8 mégajoule LMJ is designed to deliver an immense amount of energy nearly 2,000,000 joules in a 10 nanosecond (10 billionths of a second) pulse. 1,000 joules is the energy used by a child weighing 30 kg to climb a flight of stairs three metres high. 1 picosecond Is one thousandth of a nanosecond. This is the length of the pulses generated by Petal. It will deliver only 3,000 joules, but the short pulses generate a phenomenal power, of the order of a petawatt (1015 watts), which creates very different phenomena from those of LMJ and thus enables different types of experiments to be carried out. Optics The megajoule laser and Petal A very non-standard machine C olossal! Exceptional! Words fail when it comes to describing this unique European machine. Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is currently being constructed at Barp, between Bordeaux and Arcachon. There is only one other like it in America. And if one includes the ambitious Petal (Petawatt Aquitaine Laser), which has recently been linked to LMJ, one can definitely say that Aquitaine is at the leading edge of research into very high power lasers. LMJ, led by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, Commissariat à l énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives) is primarily for military purposes. It will have from 20% to 30% of its operating time devoted to civil research. Its main purpose is to recreate a mini -nuclear reaction in the laboratory to validate digital simulation tools. The simulation is, in fact, the only way to continue nuclear weapons research since real tests are banned. To do this, LMJ s laser beams indirectly generate phenomena to dramatically compress a small bead filled with deuterium and tritium (two isotopes of hydrogen) in the centre of a cylindrical cavity a few millimetres in size. This will create a plasma at a temperature of over 100 million degrees and a pressure of about 1,000 billion bars, which will trigger the desired nuclear reaction. Petal: lmj s civil partner In order to create this reaction, no less than very high power laser beams are needed; these have been designed at Aquitaine s Centre for Scientific and Technical Studies (CSTA, Centre d études scientifiques et techniques d Aquitaine), CEA s Aquitaine-based laboratory. From now until they are all installed, researchers will not be short of work since, by the end of 2014, the first sixteen beams will come into operation. Their power alone will be enough to conduct original experiments in matter physics and astrophysics research. Civil research has, in fact, already been running for a long time. The LMJ programme started with the development of four prototype beams, the Laser Integration Line (LIL). Designed to validate the technological design decisions made for LMJ, it has at the same time been used for a large number of experiments. In parallel with LMJ, Petal is a project funded by The aluminium sphere in which the fusion experiments will be carried out weighs 140 tonnes and measures 10 metres in diameter. the Aquitaine Region, the Ministry of Research and the European Union. This very high power laser is fully devoted to civil research applications, especially power generation, astrophysics and the study of matter. Its technology, developed in Aquitaine, is different from LMJ s. It produces pulses ten thousand times shorter. This ultrafast laser, though less powerful than LMJ, will accelerate particles to produce beams of relativistic electrons and protons. What we are exploring here is a wholly new physics, explains says Guy Schurtz, researcher at the High Power Laser Applications Centre (Celia, Centre lasers intenses et applications), a joint research unit of the University Bordeaux-1, the CEA and the CNRS. Petal, currently being integrated with LMJ, will direct its beam at the same target as LMJ s lasers from the end of This linking of an ultra-fast laser (Petal) and a very high-energy laser (LMJ) significantly expands the range of experiments. Particularly in the field of power generation, it opens the way to nuclear fusion by inertial confinement. An alternative laser in the ITER program uses magnetic confinement to create nuclear fusion, a source of energy. For this, LMJ will generate energy less than that required for defence applications to compress the deuterium tritium mixture; the additional Petal laser pulse will trigger ignition and thus the fusion reactions. p 12 - n 456/octobER 2011/La REchERchE - aquitaine REGion

13 Optics three QuestiOns to > Jean-Claude Kieffer, Professor and holder of the Chair in Ultrafast Photonics at the National Institute of Scientific Research in Quebec (INRS, Institut national de recherche scientifique de Québec) Arcachon LABORATORY COMPANY ASTRIUM SNECMA PROPULSION SOLIDE THALES ACTEON SATELEC - ISIS MPP - SEIV AQUITAINE ISP SYSTEM - ASTF - LUXENER - PHOTONIS SERTA ASD EDIT LASER - PROCONCEPT - PRODITEC SERMA TECHNOLOGIES - i2s - POLYRISE CITE DE LA PHOTONIQUE : EOLITE SYSTEMS - CORDOUAN TECHNOLOGIES VISION INNOVATION CENTER - INNOPTICS - IMAGINE OPTIC - OPHTIMALIA AMPLITUDE SYSTEMES - AZUR LIGHT SYSTEMS - POLYRISE - THERPHO - LASER 3S Le Barp Bordeaux SCOPTIQUE - OXYMETAL CNRS, Université de Bordeaux IINS - INSERM - CELIA - LMP - IPB LOMA - LP2N - ICMCB - CRPP ALPHANOV - EDF - PULSCAN CRESILAS NOVALASE ES TECHNOLOGY CEA CESTA (LIL, LMJ, PETAL) LASERIS : ILP CILAS - SAGEM - QUANTEL - GERAC - EOSOL Bordeaux FRANCE Aquitaine region WHAT PROJECT ARE YOU MANAGING FOR THE REGIONAL COUNCIL? J.-C. K. The Region wants to develop the field of optical lasers in health. Its president asked me in 2010 to set out the strategy to make us leaders in this field. HOW FAR HAVE YOU GOT THIS YEAR? J.-C. K. It seems to me that the region has a strong position in high average power lasers. In the medium term, this will lead us to think about imaging applications such as the production of radioisotopes and X-ray sources for radiography. Looking further ahead, proton therapy, with sources of protons accelerated by a femtosecond laser appears to be an extremely promising way forward. WHERE ARE WE TODAY? J.-C. K. We are considering the possibility of setting up industrial consortia and how to install platforms on clinical or preclinical sites. The Laser Highway, between Bordeaux and Arcachon, brings together many companies and research centres. The laser highway A formidable pool of companies the aim of the Laser Highway business cluster is to assert itself as the industrial hub for innovative optical and laser technologies. From a research point of view, this is based on the many excellent laboratories that have grown and multiplied since the launch of Laser Mégajoule in In all that means more than 600 researchers! From a training point of view, the regional infrastructure will soon benefit from the addition of the large Optics Centre (see page 11). From smes to large companies From an industrial point of view, the cluster has assembled an incredible pool of companies, more than seventy in all. Roughly speaking, most lie on the road from Bordeaux to Arcachon, not forgetting Barp, the site of the famous Laser Mégajoule. Generally speaking, approximately one third of these manufacture optical components of one sort or another. The remaining two thirds are OEMs or system integrators that integrate optical sources and optical components into their products. The great strength of the Aquitaine optics sector is that it includes such a wide variety of businesses. Innovative SMEs operating in leading technologies (Amplitude Systems, I2S, EOLITE Systems, etc.) on the one hand, and large market leaders (EADS Astrium, Thales, Cilas, Snecma, etc.) on the other. Finally, clusters of SMEs responding to the need to make their way in a world of global markets. Three such clusters have emerged recently: Globaq draws together five companies who are all experts in the maintenance of complex systems (SEIV Aquitaine, CMA- Cermeca, Aqmo, Saca and Duffau). They have positioned themselves around the maintenance of the Laser Integration Line, Laser Mégajoule s prototype. AIG (the Inter Aquitaine Group) brings together I2S, Coverplant, ECI, Micro and Novalase, specialising in test and measurement benches. Finally, EOLITE Systems, Amplitude Systems, Novalase and I2S have partnered in the manufacture and quality control of solar cells using crystalline silicon and thin film technology. p A focussing holographic lattice, part of Laser Mégajoule. aquitaine REGion - La REchERchE/octobER 2011/n

14 Chemistry and Materials cutting to the chase on cutting edge materials the region has, in recent years, made a very significant effort in the field of materials. Not all materials. But not just any, either. With its history in the area of aeronautics, space and defence, Aquitaine has chosen to focus its research on three families of highly advanced materials: nanomaterials and organic electronics, organic processes and composites, and high temperature composites. Strong attention is also being paid to ecodesign-recycling-recovery aspects and component maintenance, repair and measurement. This strategy relies on the presence of numerous laboratories of excellence and large industrial groups such as Arkema, EADS Astrium, Snecma Propulsion Solid, and SMEs such as Epsilon Composite. This has recently led to the creation of innovative technology platforms such as Canoe (Page 15) or Compositadour (Page 16). The emphasis placed on research, aligned with the region s important aeronautical and emergent wind power sectors, goes hand in hand with a genuine desire to enhance the competitiveness of the region s SMEs. There is strong evidence of this in the activities carried out to ensure that SMEs benefit from the knowledge gained through thermostructural composites research. And through Canoe s technology transfer activities. Last but not least, the training aspect is an integral part of the project. The training course structure has four levels initial, continuing, apprenticeship, accreditation in order to match it to the new jobs resulting from these advanced materials.this qualifies the region as a centre of excellence in the application of advanced materials, both academically and industrially. Manufacturing composite materials for the aerospace industry at Composites Aquitaine n 456/october 2011/La recherche - aquitaine region

15 Canoe puts nanos materials within reach of businesses Chemistry and Materials the Task: technology transfer. The Product: nanostructured materials and organic electronics. The Company: Canoe, on behalf of the Aquitaine Nanomaterials and Organic Electronics Innovation Consortium. This organisation, supported by the Polytechnic Institute of Bordeaux, was established in 2009 at the initiative of the Regional Council, to transfer research results to industry to support them in their research and development (R& D) and to help start-ups to develop. Many areas are affected by these materials manufacturing technologies which include nanomaterials: technical and smart textiles, transportation, solar power, wind power, lighting and, of course, aviation. > the technology transfer unit created by the regional council draws on the expertise of the laboratories in aquitaine. iprem: Materials and the environment The Institute of Analytical Sciences and Physical Chemistry for the Environment and Materials (IPREM, Institut des sciences analytiques et de physico-chimie pour l environnement et les matériaux) in Pau, coordinates research in analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, physics and polymer chemistry and microbiology, etc. In addition to its skills in the field of polymers at the laboratory of the University of Pau and the Adour region, one of its four teams is studying the fate of contaminants released into the environment and seeks to understand how biological communities respond to the presence of pollutants in ecosystems. research in all directions Canoe builds on the skills of laboratories in Aquitaine. And they abound. The Organic Polymer Chemistry Laboratory (LCPO, Laboratoire de chimie des polymères organiques) brings together experts in the field of polymers. The Institute of Analytical Sciences and Physical Chemistry for the Environment and Materials (IPREM, Institut des sciences analytiques et de physico-chimie pour l environnement et les matériaux), Pau (see sidebar), including work on the chemistry of these materials. The Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry at Bordeaux (ICMCB, Institut de chimie de la matière condensée de Bordeaux) aims to design, prepare, package and characterise materials to localise, manage and optimise specific functions. The keywords mechanical and engineering are to be found in the laboratory of the Institute of Mechanical Engineering in Bordeaux (I2M, Institut de mécanique et d ingénierie). The laboratory for the Integration of Materials and System (IMS, l Intégration du matériau au système) is dedicated to the modelling and shaping of materials for the development of components and microsystems. The Paul-Pascal Research Centre specialises in the science of soft matter and the Institute for Molecular Sciences (ISM, Institut des sciences moléculaires) in nanomaterials and functional materials. This list is not exhaustive! In 2012, Canoe will occupy 3,500 square metres on the campus of the National School of Chemistry, Biology and Physics at Bordeaux, making an array of services available to companies to help them carry out their R&D in the field of advanced materials. It is home to an area dedicated to the handling of nanomaterials under the strictest security conditions. assisting a start-up Among the tools that are already operational are pilot production lines to help companies integrate nanomaterials into their products. Among them, a spinning platform that offers two technologies for the creation of smart textiles. The first technology, unique in France, is a multifilament fibre coagulation spinner. The other, using melt spinning, is for the manufacture of fibres by extruding a mixture of thermoplastic polymers and functional nanofillers; these fibres have outstanding mechanical properties. When it comes to start-ups, Canoe s mission is to provide a breeding ground for the emergence of young start-ups, or, in other words... dedicated areas where they can focus on the development of their products. We will provide technical assistance to their innovation activities and provide them with all our human and material resources, working with them as they develop, says Patrice Gaillard, head of Canoe. The buildings that will host Canoe have not yet been completed, which, in itself, points to a second stage. Patrice Gaillard explains There are, in Aquitaine, significant resources in the field of materials, such as the Compositadour platform, non-destructive testing facilities or the production of large structural parts made from composite materials, to name just a few. Our goal is to organise all these activities so as to give them a common direction and greater visibility both nationally and internationally. p aquitaine region - La recherche/october 2011/n

16 Chemistry and Materials LCTS and exceptional composites incredibly light, a very long lifetime, extreme resistance to thermal shock and corrosion, operationally perfect, stable mechanical properties at temperatures up to about 3,000 C thermostructural composites have exceptional characteristics. They make it the ma terial of choice for military, space and aviation applications. Wherever the parts must operate at temperatures above Thermostructural composites are a must in the most demanding applications. 1,000 C Snecma Propulsion Solid (SPS), part of the SAFRAN Group, is a leading expert in these high-end fibre and matrix based composites in carbon or ceramics. Not surprisingly then, the company is to be found alongside the CNRS, University Bordeaux-1 and the CEA, as one of the su p- ervisors of the Thermostructural Composites Laboratory (LCTS, Laboratoire des composites thermostructuraux), a joint research unit based in Pessac. a high-performance characterisation service The laboratory s research work focusses exclusively on ceramic composite materials for applications in extreme conditions. In particular the LCTS works on four main themes: ageing, the oxidation/corrosion of thermostructures, process development to create new ways of synthesising ceramic and carbon composites, and their thermomechanical behaviour. Very well equipped, thanks particularly to the support of the Region for the purchase of large equipment, the LCTS also offers a characterisation service. It makes available to researchers on the Bordeaux campus the most efficient means of characterising ceramic composites on all scales, from centimetre to angstrom. p 130 researchers and 32 engineers collaborate at Labex Amadeus (Advanced Materials by Design). Research topics: organic electronics, metamaterials and biomaterials. On the Compositadour platform, the robot includes a laser heating system for working on thermoplastics. Compositadour robotises composites there s no shortage of work at Compositadour. This technical platform, located in Bayonne, was set up in December It aims to become a centre of excellence in production processes for making composite parts. And it already has some good results to its credit, such as a proof of concept trial and support for an innovative production process developed by EADS Composites Aquitaine for structural parts of the future A350 XWB Airbus. Today, the platform, which has a dual aim of both training and developing and transferring new processes, is also engaged in another important piece of research for the production of new aircraft structures: the Impala project. It brings together Dassault Aviation, Daher-Socata, EADS Composites Aquitaine, the SME Coriolis Composites, the research laboratories of the Graduate School of Industrial Advanced Technology (ESTIA, École supérieure des technologies industrielles avancées) in Bidart near Biarritz and the GEM (Institut de Récherche en Génie Civil et Mécanique) central school at Nantes. The aim is to develop an entirely robot-controlled placement system for carbon fibres; it will be completely able to work with new materials, especially thermoplastics, explains Francis Sedeilhan, Compositadour s director. This is quite a challenge because the thermoplastics are heated to approximately 400 C, which means that the robot must work in conjunction with a laser heater. It will heat the carbon filaments impregnated with thermoplastic to the desired temperature so that the robot can place the filaments on a mould for the part. If the centre began working in aeronautical applications, that is not its only goal. We aim to work in all areas, from sports equipment through to cars, including wind power, Sedeilhan continues.p 16 - n 456/october 2011/La recherche - aquitaine region

17 Two green clusters ripen in Aquitaine Wind, sun and the region s wish to surround itself with green fields: three good reasons for the creation of two clusters dedicated to renewable energy. The first, Sysolia, brings together regional expertise, of which there is a considerable amount, in the field of solar energy. Aquitaine is the leading French industrial region for photovoltaics and spans the entire production chain, upstream and downstream. The second, Aquitaine Wind Cluster (Clea, Cluster Eolien Aquitain) brings together the region s strengths in wind power, benefiting from the established infrastructure of the port of Bordeaux and the logistical facilities needed to transport large parts. Blades, nacelles, energy storage, electronics, maintenance, specialised consulting firms, insurance and certification, etc. A full range of products and services has grown due to the presence of big names in the industry and innovative companies such as EADS Astrium, Valorem, Valeol, Epsilon Composite, Plastinov, Arkema, Filhet-Allard and others. expert networks and resource centres In both cases, component materials play a key role in the development of new products and the clusters can make use of research work in many laboratories. Thus, Sysolia benefits from an extensive network of experts in organic and hybrid solar photovoltaics at the many regional laboratories and, in particular, the chair of organic electronics at the Organic Polymer Chemistry Laboratory (LCPO, Laboratoire de chimie des polymères organiques), which focuses on replacing silicon with organic materials for the manufacture of photovoltaic cells. In addition to specialised materials laboratories, Clea benefits from the skills of resource centres such as Rescoll (industrial applications of polymers), the Canoe innovation platform (nanostructured materials) and a centre dedicated to the development of large composite components. They provide businesses with a combination of skills and technical resources to develop novel high performance processes and products. p ARCACHON MEETING The third Aquitaine Polymer Conference will be held in Arcachon on 18 th to 21 st October Like the previous two, it will bring together leading international experts who will present their research and discuss new concepts and new avenues of research and innovation. The 2011 meeting is chaired by Georges Hadziioannou, visiting professor of organic polymers for electronics and photovoltaics. Chemistry and Materials Polymers of excellence Georges Hadziioannou, holder of the chair at the LCPO. georges Hadzüoannou was born and grew up in Greece. He received his Ph.D. in physics at Strasbourg, and worked for nearly ten years in the United States, including at IBM. After short periods in Groningen (Netherlands) and Strasbourg, he settled in Pessac in Today he is a visiting professor in organic electronics and photovoltaics at the LCPO. This chair is funded by the Arkema Group, the Aquitaine Regional Council, the GIS AMA (Advanced Materials in Aquitaine), University of Bordeaux-1 and the Polytechnic Institute of Bordeaux. The research group led by Georges Hadzüoannou aims to develop fundamental knowledge of polymer science beyond the current limits, in particular, to design and synthesize chemically new types of functional polymers with, for example, self-assembly properties, and to develop nanostructured materials or devices from simple methods. Work on these new types of polymers finds applications in the field of energy and information technology. On the energy front, researchers are working on the one hand to replace the silicon photovoltaic cell with organic polymers and, on the other, to achieve high efficiency thermoelectric systems to generate electricity from heat. In ICT the work of the team includes the development of inks for electronic paper and non-volatile organic memory using ferromagnetic polymers. The other aim of the chair is, of course, to train high-level specialists, both for academic research and for work in the high-tech industries.p aquitaine region - La recherche/october 2011/n

18 Humanities and Social Sciences from ArCHAeoLoGy to INNoVAtIoN National Museum of Prehistory, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac (Dordogne). Museographic work showcases the scientific approach for understanding the evolution of prehistoric man through objects, industrial and artistic artefacts and graves. some 40% of Aquitaine s researchers work in the areas of the social sciences and the humanities literature, philosophy, linguistics, political science, sociology, etc. An area of Aquitaine s excellence here deserves special attention: archaeology, its rich heritage not least the Lascaux caves has long given rise to high quality research that is recognised internationally. Three major laboratories (Page 19) cover a very broad and comprehensive area, from prehistory to the modern period including early history, antiquity and paleoenvironmental studies. These efforts, hitherto scattered, have recently merged into an archaeological research federation. First step: the creation of a single archaeological sciences organisation. Another area of excellence to be retained is research on Africa, the fruit of long-standing relationships woven by the region with the African continent. Here, the grouping of laboratories has already taken place and has given rise to a joint research unit The Africas in the world (Page 20). The merger of three units was the opportunity to introduce a new dimension to this research work by considerably expanding its fields of study. Finally, in a very different field, the Theoretical and Applied Economics Research Group, GRETHA, Groupe de recherche en économie théorique et appliqué, (Page 20) has now become a major player in research on innovation. That s no surprise in a region that has made innovation one of its priorities n 456/october 2011/La recherche - aquitaine region

19 The archaeological sciences unite Humanities and Social Sciences During the course of Operation Campus, launched in 2008 by the Ministry of Research, eleven areas of excellence were identified in Aquitaine. Among them were the archaeological sciences. Moreover, the three major laboratories working in the field Ausonius, PACEA and CRP2A were all considered to be of world rank. Excellence to the third degree! A major feature of teaching and research in archaeology in Aquitaine was that It covers a very broad and comprehensive area, from prehistory to the modern period including early history, antiquity and paleoenvironmental studies, stresses Henri Duday, research director at the CNRS and specialist in funerary archaeology, one of the major themes in which Bordeaux specialises, as well as research in cave art. Thus, the Ausonius Institute, a joint research unit of the CNRS and the University of Bordeaux-3, is interested in archaeology, the history of Antiquity and the Middle Ages. It has also designed, within Bordeaux-3, a tool unique in Europe for demonstrating the work of archaeologists to the public: the Aquitaine Archaeocentre (Archéopôle) (see sidebar). Bringing the major research centres together The PACEA joint research unit, under the combined supervision of the CNRS, the University of Bordeaux-1 and the Ministry of Culture, brings together two teams: the first of these, PPP (Prehistory, Paleoenvironment, Patrimony), focusses on prehistoric cultures, geoarchaeology, paleontology and zooarchaeology.the second, A3P (Anthropology of Populations Past and Present), deals with human diversity, evolutionary functional anatomy, paleopathology, population history and funerary archaeo-anthropology. Finally, the Centre for Research in Applied Physics (CRP2A, Centre de recherche en physique appliquée), along with centres in Belfort and Orleans, is one of the three locations of a multi-site joint research unit, the Institute for Research on Archaeomaterials (IRAMAT, Institut de recherche sur les archéomatériaux), dedicated to research and training in physics as applied to archaeology. Major research units working at the highest level > the three regional laboratories of excellence cover a huge field, ranging from prehistory up to the present day. this strengthens their ties. archaeology in 3d The Archaeocentre conceals a technological marvel: Archeovision, a 3D technology platform (PFT3D, plate-forme technologique 3D) from the CNRS for heritage and archaeology, accompanied by a hundred-seat virtual reality room. One of the major challenges for the PFT3D is to promote the use of 3D technology as a tool for archaeological research. The PFT3D was officially recognised in 2009 by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research as a digital resource centre for the Extra Large Equipment (TGE, Très Grand Équipement) Adonis programme being run by the CNRS. TGE Adonis is destined for all the social sciences, aiming to facilitate the inclusion of digital inputs to research. and internationally recognised. Who could ask for more? In fact, because of the way it was structured around large units, archaeology in Aquitaine had a slight chink in its armour. Some of its research work was based here at the University of Bordeaux-1, and some at Bordeaux-3. Such decentralisation was inhibiting the growth of the common culture so necessary for the development of research students. Creating a centre of scientific excellence and a federation In 2011 there was agreement that this situation must end. This year has seen the birth, as part of the Investments for the Future programme, of Lascarbx, a laboratory of excellence. A project built cooperatively by the three Bordeaux joint research units in which 150 researchers came together around the theme: How ancient societies used the world: processes and forms of the appropriation of space over the long term. To complete this breaking down of barriers, 2011 also saw the birth of the Federation of Archaeological Sciences of Bordeaux, which combines the three joint research units under the supervision of the CNRS, the Universities of Bordeaux-1 and Bordeaux-3 and the Ministry of Culture. Its mission is to create dialogue between them, especially by organising interdisciplinary seminars. It is also pursuing a far more ambitious goal, long dreamed of by Henri Duday and supported by the Regional Council, of the creation of one organisation covering all of the archaeological sciences. This would bring together under one roof all the strengths of Aquitaine in this field, to give a new impetus and growing visibility worldwide. It is also proposed that a centre for conservation and education should be created, together with the provision of services for a National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP, Institut national de recherches archéologiques préventives). p aquitaine region - La recherche/october 2011/n

20 Humanities and Social Sciences Research on the Africas extends its scope the history of the port of Bordeaux and the region s relationships with the African continent that have been woven over the centuries have long led Aquitaine to assert its pre-eminence in the field of research on African topics. A large number of scientists and laboratories make this an acknowledged fact. But acknowledgement, however, meant that its potential was not being fulfilled because of a scattered and insufficiently well-defined structure. This has led teams from different units to tackle the creation of a new research unit. It aims to create a dialogue between teams from different disciplines history, anthropology, law, sociology, political science, geography, economics and literature, explain its leaders. The new joint research unit was created in January Christened The Africas in the world, this joint unit of the CNRS and the department of Political Sciences at the University of Bordeaux (Sciences Po Bordeaux) results from the merger between the Centre for the Study of Black Africa (CEAN, Centre d étude d Afrique noire) at Sciences Po Bordeaux and the Centre for Research and Study the countries of East Africa (CREPAO, Centre de recherche et d étude sur les pays d Afrique orientale) at the University of Pau and the Adour region, joined by researchers from the Universities of Bordeaux-2 and Bordeaux-2-3. This new unit was also an opportunity to end the separation between black and white Africa, which makes no sense nowadays. This significantly broadens its scope. It now encompasses the entire continent, and also the Caribbean and all those societies which emerged from the Atlantic slave trade, hence its name. In any case the major centre of research and teaching on the Africas, which has its rightful place in Aquitaine, is now set up. p gretha s approach is to define the various aspects of the dynamics of innovation by combining the economic tools used by territories and regions with those used by the industrial economy. Frédéric Gaschet Gretha s work includes a sector by sector analysis of the vine and winemaking. The Gretha focuses on innovation the Theoretical and Applied Economics Research Group (GRETA, Groupe de recherche en économie théorique et appliqué), brings together major research strengths in economics from the University of Bordeaux-4. Its scientific project has three research programmes: first, space and industry, second the environment, welfare and development and, finally, market structures and finance. Within the space and industry programme, innovation is a priority. This topic brings together some fifteen faculty members and ten PhDs, creating a benchmark research team on this topic. It will have an original approach, says Frederic Gaschet, researcher in this multidisciplinary CNRS research team, The programme defines the various aspects of the dynamics of innovation by combining the economic tools used by territories and regions with those used by the industrial economy. Contribution to the eurodite european project Gretha s work is particularly concerned with the economics of science and knowledge obtained through the study of social networks of inventors or science-industry relations. They also investigate the localised dynamics of innovation, with the study of science and technology groupings in the European regions conducted as part of the European EURODITE programme. Engaged in basic research, the Gretha innovation team often finds its research topics within Aquitaine itself. Its work also concentrates the Region s thinking on which innovation strategies to implement. This is the case for the sector by sector analyses concerning the vine, winemaking and forestry. This topic is also part of the project entitled Labex Cote. Gretha is participating in this by undertaking evaluation, modelling and creating public policy models in the area of the sustainable management of natural resources, ecosystems and biodiversity.p 20 - n 456/october 2011/La recherche - aquitaine region

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