1 Pan African Conference of Directors General of National Schools of Administration Rabat, Morocco, February, 2014 Public Administration Training in Africa: A framework for collaboration between national schools of administration Sofiane SAHRAOUI, PhD Senior Advisor Institute of Public Administration, Bahrain 25 February 2014
2 Current Environment/Imperatives of of PA The new Weberian State (Misau) and dominance of new public management (NPM) has led to an increased professionalization of the field; Higher efficiency requirements in the management of Government resources; Enforcing legality & regulations; Scarcity of public resources implying a greater accountability of money invested in PA training; Greater role of international and professional organizations in creating standards around the field of PA training and rise of accreditation as a quality assurance requirement for PA training delivery; Training does not lead to performance (Uganda); Devolution to local governance; Ethical & Integrity standards; Neutrality of the administration (Tunisia)
3 The Training Value Chain
4 Collaboration/Harmonization Framework Limits of harmonization (Oum) Levels of harmonization 1. Policy level through the harmonization of training policies across participating countries/institutions. 2. Needs assessment level through common methods/frameworks for the identification of training needs in PA. 3. Development level through a collaborative model of program and training development; 4. Delivery level trough joint training activities and other forms of delivery collaboration; 5. IT/Infrastructure level through open and collaborative platforms for program delivery; 6. Assessment and research level through joint and collaborative efforts to assess the ROI (return on investment) on trainings on one hand and evidence-based policy making on the other hand; 7. Quality assurance of training; 8. Collaboration strategy and Knowledge portal
5 Policy-level Collaboration Collaboration between NSA s in Sub-Saharan Africa is the weak link (Niger) Example of policy areas Integrating training within career plans Professionalization of public administration jobs Organization and governance of PA training Training budgets & regulations IP development and sharing of PA training across public administration Framework for discussing the harmonization of training policies between NSA s Civil service bodies PA training is not restricted to graduate education but also spans vocational training
6 Policy-level Collaboration Enabling Environment: Organization with direct and indirect leverage effect on training policies Regionally: CAFRAD, ACBF, AAPAM, CAMPS Globally: UNPAN, OECD, and IASIA Take the initiative for reforms (Uganda)
7 Policy-level Collaboration Good Practice Examples: CAFRAD S Pan African Conference of Directors General of National Schools of Administration CAFRAD S International High level Strategic and policy conference for Ministers/Heads of Public/ Civil Service from African, Arab and Latin American Countries.
8 Needs Assessment Level Collaboration Identifying the needs as core to harmonization and collaboration (Morocco) Competency frameworks and/or PA qualifications frameworks at the central administration and local government levels ensures the mobility of programmes, trainers, and even trainees Opportunity for a shared development of training programs
9 Needs Assessment Level Collaboration Enabling Environment: Professionalization of PA administration and rise of accreditation in the PA field are gradually leading to conversion in PA curricula. Collaboration on common competency standards (subject descriptors in qualification frameworks) are best developed by regional organizations like the AAPAM
10 Needs Assessment Level Collaboration Good Practice Example: JOINT MASTER OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT BY BIPA/ENA/IMPGT Program targets public sector professionals in the Arabian Gulf region Competency model is being developed based on the aggregate requirements in the region A joint team of BIPA/ENA/IMPGT will visit all Gulf countries to identify and validate requirements for the Masters
11 Training Development Collaboration Level High-end programmes can be co-developed or shared within IP-sharing agreements Co-development is dependent on the adoption of a common methodology for training development Prerequisites including: IP regimes in effect among the collaborating parties; Harmonized competency frameworks; Systems of accountancy that enable the co-investment in development resources and the sharing of dividends
12 Training Development Collaboration Level Value-added programs Leadership programs Public finance Government PR and protocol Advanced HR topics Managing government projects Customer service in the public sector Etc.
13 Training Development Collaboration Level Enabling Environment: NSA s network synergy effects come to play plentifully AAPAM, IASIA ACBF could play a key role in the development of collaborative training programs as it has already funded collaborative programs in Eastern Africa Meeting of NSA s DG remains the most direct and most effective forum to push through such collaborations
14 Training Development Collaboration Level Good Practice: ReSPA (Regional School of Public Administration) ReSPA is an international organisation which has been entrusted with the mission of boosting regional cooperation in the field of public administration in the Western Balkans ReSPA is conducting annually the Capacity Needs Analysis in cooperation with respective National training institutions, EU Integration Institutions etc., to identify administrative capacity needs that are effectively addressed at the regional level
15 Training Delivery Collaboration Exchange of trainers/faculty Program of visitorship for faculty and trainees Joint organization and delivery of training by two or more NSA s in conjunction with a bigger event (e.g. AAPAM Conference)
16 Training Delivery Collaboration Enabling Environment: Many PA events are accompanied with workshops and trainings that are jointly held by several parties ASTD conference A number of multi-lateral organizations can be sought for funding and support (UNDP, World Bank, OECD, AU, etc.)
17 Training Delivery Collaboration Good Practice: ACBF Public Sector Management Training Program PSMTP Delivered through four institutes of higher learning in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration; Africa University, Mutare, Zimbabwe; Ecole Nationale d Administration and Université Omar Bongo, Gabon; and Ecole Nationale d Administration, Senegal. The PSMTP successfully addressed the need for highly trained managers to be capable of responding to the increasingly complex demands of the implementation of the new and emerging development frameworks
18 IT-based Collaborative Platforms Collaborative training platforms can be shared and accessed from anywhere With learning platforms premised on open standards, NSA s can share e-learning resources at will. The development of the platform can be a collaborative effort premised on the existing of an IP exchange regime between the participating institutions and on a system of accountancy to fund the maintenance of the IT platform The development of e-learning resources can be done within the framework of collaborative development
19 IT-based Collaborative Platforms Enabling Environment: Connectivity is key for e-collaboration Organizations like the OECD, UNDP, and UNESCO have funded similar platforms. The ACBF or the African Development Bank can contribute resources to establishing a similar platform to connect African NSA s
20 IT-based Collaborative Platforms Good Practice: OECD-MENA Partnership (DL4iPS Project) DL4iPS (Distance Learning for innovative Public Sector) is an international program within the framework of the OECD-MENA partnership, aimed at gathering on a single platform pre-existing high quality e learning courses for civil servants that are useful to support public sector modernization in MENA countries. SSPA (Italy s NSA) is the primary implementer of the initiative. One course in Arabic on conflict management will be made available for free by BIPA and the second course in English on public procurement will be made available by SSPA.
21 Training Assessment and Research Collaboration Scientific support for training Policy Research on training: How to organize the training function in the public sector? What are the best governance modes for public sector training? How to ensure proper return on investment on PA training? What types of curricula to develop? What are the required professions in the public sector? What is the impact of current training policies on the professional development of public servants? To train whom, what, and by whom? (Sudan)
22 Training Assessment and Research Collaboration Training assessment research: During times of budget contraction and stringent accountability for public funding, making the case for the return on investment of PA training is ever more critical. Studies and research about the return on investment of public sector training can be shared between NSA s. NSA s can further collaborate on the harmonization of their assessment systems. Training assessment is not difficult? (Musau)
23 Training Assessment and Research Collaboration Enabling Environment: It is difficult for NSA s, unless they are part of universities, to have access to researchers and the requisite research infrastructure Research is not well developed at ENAM which is trying to collaborate with universities (Cameroon) Motivation to do research (Morocco) Departments and schools of public administration within universities have very limited leverage on public policies for training as a result of the historical divide between academe and the world of practice, namely administration Accessibility of data (Etienne) Limited absorption capacity of public administration for research results Research is costly for any single country (Niger)
24 Training Assessment and Research Collaboration Good Practice Example: MENAPAR MENAPAR (Middle East & North Africa Public Administration Research) is a study group of IIAS (International Institute of Administrative Sciences) and is a network of organizations (networks) that are active in the scholarship/practice of Public Administration in the MENA.
25 Training Assessment and Research Collaboration Good Practice Example: MENAPAR MENAPAR will promote evidence-based policy and decision-making in public administration through: developing thinking and a research culture about strategic issues in Public Administration; building research capacities within public administration; building a network and harnessing the collective efforts of its members.
26 Training Assessment and Research Collaboration Good Practice Example: MENAPAR Strategic Objectives of MENAPAR 1. Promote a research culture and research capacities in the region s public sectors; 2. Develop research about public administration, public policies, and good governance in the region; 3. Form a network of PA-related institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, 4. Organize colloquia, forums, seminars, conferences and other types of meetings about PA issues in the region, with broad participation and co-sponsorship by other organizations, both regional and external to the MENA; 5. Suggest strategies to develop capacities and expertise in the areas of public policies and governance;
27 Quality Assurance of Training Harmonization of training policies, development and delivery is dependent upon an overarching quality assurance framework Increase the mobility of public servants across administrations and countries African NSA s can harmonize their quality assurance by adopting similar standards Adopting standards does not mean necessarily pursuing accreditation and certification with external agencies Intellectual abuse/molest NSA s can collaborate within a joint strategy of QA for PA training
28 Quality Assurance of Training Enabling Environment: ACBF or the AfDB, would be the ideal conduits for building African NSA s capacity in QA for PA training. They could for instance organize training and certification on ISO1015.
29 Quality Assurance of Training Good Practice Concept: The ISO 10015:2000 (based on the well-known 9000 series) is specially designed for training, and contains guidelines for the development, implementation and improvement of training systems
30 Sustainable Collaboration: Comprehensive Level The main challenge in developing collaborations between African NSA s is communication and sustainability A clear and formalized strategy that integrates the axes of collaboration that the NSA wishes to pursue A communication platform or portal to provide the knowledge support for the different collaborations. Many NSA s do not have formalized strategies let alone strategies of collaborations. They can already collaborate at this level on joint capacity building for strategy development
31 Sustainable Collaboration: Comprehensive Level Good Practice Example: IIAS Knowledge Portal The knowledge portal of the IIAS is a communication platform on major issues of governance and the modern problems of governance (performance, innovation, leadership and administration in crisis times, etc.). This is an information tool that allows participants to keep abreast of all developments and reforms in recent months in public administration.
32 Conclusion Framework for training collaboration between African NSA s Not exhaustive in its inventory of collaboration modes or practices Key recommendations: Collaborations have to be planned strategically and implemented within the regular operations of NSA s Sustainability depends on a knowledge platform that will create the necessary critical mass of people and knowledge around the different collaborations AFRICA HAS TO TRUST AFRICA This work can be further extended by developing strategic templates around the different collaborations
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