STRUCTURED FINANCE RATING CRITERIA 2015

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1 STRUCTURED FINANCE RATING CRITERIA 2015

2 1. Introduction Credit quality of the collateral The structure designed Qualitative risks on the Securitization Fund Sensitivity Definition of Default 5 2. Methodology Collateral analysis Cash flows modelling Qualitative factors Sensitivity analysis Review and monitoring 8 3. Rating Symbols and Definitions Structured finance product s Credit rating scale 9 4. Annex. axesor s idealized PD table 10 2

3 1. Introduction The structured finance instrument s rating, as it happens with other financial products or entities, refers to creditworthiness or solvency of instrument. The rating must be considered as a dynamic element in continuous review and predictive character, because it is based on future default probabilities. The structured finance instrument payments will depend mainly on the underlying portfolio asset s payments as well as those structural improvements designed to protect the instrument bonds payments. Therefore, the bonds credit risk will be linked not only to the counterparty risk of the Securitization Fund s financial agents, also and especially to the collateral assets quality and their structure. The rating of a structured finance instrument depends on 4 items: The credit quality of the underlying portfolio. The securitization fund s structure, based on credit enhancements that have been incorporated into the Fund (subordinated bonds, reserve fund, swap...). Other qualitative risks on the Securitization Fund: risks associated with the quality of the agents involved in the securitization, sovereign risk, operational risk... The sensitivity of the above factors to variations in market variables. 1.1 Credit quality of the collateral The portfolio credit risk analysis is the first step to issue the rating for securitizations. This is a credit quality s estimate of the collateral, in order to properly and accurately estimates the cash flows (including default scenarios) from such assets. The securitization bond rating s dependence to the collateral credit risk requires the design of a number of conservative assumptions about some basic elements that determine the behavior of the portfolio s cash flows. These assumptions are divided into 3 groups: early repayments assumptions, non-performing loans assumptions and recoveries assumptions. Additionally the main characteristics of the portfolio are analyzed in order to adjust the methodological approach. Some of the most important characteristics are: the granularity/concentration of the portfolio, if the collateral are static or changes over the time or the type of the assets included in the portfolio. 1.2 The structure designed The structure of the Securitization Fund is analyzed with the final goal of determining the waterfall of the bonds payments from the estimated portfolio cash flows. The great structural diversity in the securitization funds implies that every evaluation requires an ad hoc structure s analysis. The reserve fund, possible swaps, the definition of different risk levels for the bonds and the introduction of any other credit enhancement are essential to determine the credit risk of each bond and ultimately, grant the credit rating. 3

4 1.3 Qualitative risks on the Securitization Fund The sovereign risk or default risk due to the fact of being collateralized by assets of a specific country or legally circumscribed to this country. The commingling risk: arising from maintaining on the servicer the funds paid by the securitized loans during the period which lies between the payment of principal and interest by the debtor and the cash flow distribution of assets from the accounts of the servicer to the fund s accounts. Legal risk: risk derived from the true sale of assets to the fund. The presence of different economic agents when structuring a Securitization Fund makes it necessary to consider the counterparty risk of these agents. Risks related to the origination, monitoring and recovery procedures of the originator. Other risks. 1.4 Sensitivity A sensitivity analysis of the assumptions will be made for the key parameters in the rating, in order to determine the rating s stability. This analysis is based on changes in macroeconomic factors, correlations or other idiosyncratic elements of the portfolio that may affect the default probability of the assets that are part of the originator s portfolio, in the early repayment rates or in the recovery rate; and those who can influence other structural improvements of the Fund. 4

5 1.5 Definition of Default A bond associated to a structured finance instrument is considered default if it has breached a payment of interest or principal as defined in the prospectus on each payment date or by its legal maturity. 2. Methodology 2.1 Collateral analysis The analysis of the underlying assets allows to estimate portfolio s future cash flows, key element for calculating payments of the structure finance instrument. The intrinsic characteristics of each loan determine its own credit risk or its own amortization calendar, but also potential recoveries in case of falling into arrears. For the initial estimation of the cash flows, a detailed analysis of the portfolio is performed, in which its most relevant characteristics will be examined through distribution charts that allow the analyst to draw initial conclusions. Aspects such as portolio granularity (which may severly affect the risk of payment of the bonds), variability of casuistry among loans (reference interest rates, amortization ), debtors concentration, debtors solvency or collateral value over outstanding loan value are key elements to properly model the securitization. Another aspect that is initially assessed is the static/dynamic nature of the fund s assets. In ABS or RMBS for example, the collateral of the transaction will be mainly static, so the analysis performed by the analyst will focus on current portfolio information. In case the securitization s structure is opened through the assets (as ABCP used to be), analysis will not only contemplate current conditions of the portfolio but also possible variations that may take place in its future composition. Portfolio analysis has the ultimate goal of calculating the future cash flows deriving from each asset, categorized by their amortization profile, possible early amortization from the debtor, probability of default at each point in time (influenced by existing correlations between portfolio assets), estimated recoveries and risk exposure at default. In order to determine the loss distribution of the portfolio, it is essential to establish a projected model that takes into account the variables mentioned above. Historical information and loan-by-loan data, both provided by the originator, as well as debtor information collected by axesor, will be the main input to estimate the cash flows, although other public market information or from other transactions rated by axesor or other rating agencies may be a source of information to effectively calibrate the estimations. 2.2 Cash flows modelling The portfolio s flow depends on factors mentioned in the previous section. Projection of loan flows per calendar Early amortization rate Estimation of NPL Flows of recoveries With the implementation of the early amortization, non-performing loans, and amortization per calendar recoveries model, a profile of the portfolio amortization will be obtained, as well as the interest flows of assets. 5

6 The Monte Carlo methodology is used for simulating different scenarios with the aim of getting a flow distribution which reflects the payment capacity of the portfolio and determines if it is possible to repay bonds of the Securitization Fund and its interests, taking into account its structure. The underlying assets payment behavior is the basis of the payment waterfall for paying securitizations in each due date and determines, to a large extent, the probability of bonds default. However, the distribution of the inflows across the different outflows of the bonds can affect their rating, given that the structure and improvements in existing credits in the Fund can impact on the credit quality. The analysis of the structure is the final element for the determination of the portfolio flows towards bonds. Elements such as the bonds payment frequency, reference rate, possible liquidity mismatches between assets and bonds, existence of grace periods or improvements in existing credits are essential to determine the default risk of the bonds. All the structural improvements included in the structure finance instrument are analyzed, some of the most common are: Subordination of bonds. The existence of tranches with different payments priority reduces more senior tranches risks. This credit enhancement is added as one more element of bonds payments modelling, including the implementation of the cash flow waterfall to the flows modelling. Regarding the subordination of bonds, the different triggers which are defined in the structure will be taken into account. In particular, the trigger of sequential amortization, that restricts the amortization by pro rata of bonds with different priority, and the interest trigger, which protects the payment of the bonds principal with higher priority over the interests payments, will be included in the modelling and will be an additional element that will define the bonds payment waterfall. The activation of the triggers will depend on each scenario considered and the moment of time. The simulation model allows the trigger activation according to the expected definition and the outstanding NPL in each moment of time of each scenario, altering the payment priority waterfall according to such possible activation. Excess of spread. The difference between the loans weighted average interest rate and the bonds average interest rate. This credit improvement is provided as one more element of the bonds payments modelling. Reserve Fund. Independent fund created, by bonds issuance or by loans generally granted by the originator of the Secularization Fund, in order to cover losses. It also acts as a mechanism to mitigate liquidity risk. This credit improvement is provided as one more element of the bonds payments modelling, taking into account the theoretical and modelled amortization. Overcollateralization. Even if unusual in Europe in securitization of corporate and freelance loans, the Fund can have an asset transfer value bigger than the issuance volume; the difference between the emitted volume and the assets value is the overcollateralization. This credit enhancement is incorporated as another element of the modelling of bonds payment. Swaps. Interest rate swaps (or Exchange rate swaps) will be given the value if they can be established in the Fund. The credit improvement is incorporated by modelling both side payments of the swap, taking into account the result as more (or less) available funds in each payment date. In case of the existence of a swap, the counterparty s quality and the triggers specified in the contract will be verified, in order to establish the requirements for the substitution of the counterparty if it is necessary to do so, as described in point 5 when speaking about the Fund s counterparties. 6

7 Default trigger. A default credit in a securitization fund defined as the one that is in default for certain months and the obligation of amortizing the bonds amount is a common definition in certain European jurisdictions. This trigger protects the bonds with more seniority due to the fact that it speeds up the amortization of the classes with more payment priority, but it can also induce to a default in a given moment. 2.3 Qualitative factors While quantitative elements analyzed so far determine the rating of the securitization bonds from the payments waterfall under each scenario and its distribution, there are elements of risk associated with certain qualitative factors that can have an effect on the payments waterfall or the final rating of the bonds. In fact, some qualitative elements can determine for themselves the impossibility of providing a rating for a securitized bond. The main qualitative risks that are included into assigning the rating are the following: Counterpart risk. The extent to which the failure by any counterparty involved in the rating process may represent a risk for investors should be assessed. In order to do this, the risk of all counterparties involved in the Fund is examined; especially of the servicer of the operation, of the swap counterparty (if any) and of the paying agent. To the extent possible, into the quantitative model are introduced the measurable elements of counterparty risk itself. Failure to measure quantitatively the risk, mitigation thereof occurs through other qualitative mechanisms. Commingling risk. A particular case of counterparty risk is the risk of commingling and its treatment, in this case could be done through introduction into the flow model through the assumption that should the originator go bankrupt, asset flows up to one month will be lost. This stress is performed early in the life of the Fund and its aim is to test that the structure endures the loss caused by this risk. Operational risk. The performance of a securitization transaction depends not only on the credit quality of the underlying loan portfolio, but also on other factors such as the requirement of a timely and effective action of the various parties (originator, servicer, analysts, management), and that these parties knowhow and experience about the policies, processes and practices in play. Particularly, the deficits identified in the origination, monitoring and recovery procedures and policies may affect the modelling assumptions and sensitivity scenarios. Legal risk. Legal risk refers essentially, but is not limited to, the risk derived from the actual transfer or "true sale" of assets to the fund. The legal opinions of the operation will be examined to ensure that there is a "true sale" in the transfer of assets to the Fund. Additionally from the analysis of the "true sale" other regulatory risks to be studied ad hoc for each operation may exist. These risks may affect both in the originating funds rating as well as, in the case it is an unexpected risk (as a regulatory change affecting the bonds default probability), in the outstanding funds. Sovereign risk. Sovereign risk will not be taken as an independent qualitative risk for the qualification and will not be taken into account as bond rating cap. Sovereign risk will be taken as risk arising from the macroeconomic conditions in the country and, therefore, is already considered in the macro scenarios performed. 2.4 Sensitivity analysis Once the transaction is qualified, a series of sensitivity analyzes will be performed in order to predict the stability of the rating. 7

8 The sensitivity is performed on the main inputs and assumptions used to determine portfolio flows and the waterfall of bond payments. Particularly, and without it being a closed list, independent sensitivity scenarios will be performed on: The projected interest rate The macroeconomic scenario foreseen. A stressed macroeconomic scenario will be developed, where the trend in GDP is lower than in the baseline scenario. Including assumptions of worst case scenarios based in the past economic crisis. Change in the assets probability of default and the correlations between them. Early redemption assumptions Recoveries estimations Compliance with bond payments under these stress scenarios corroborate the ratings assigned to the bonds. In case the structure does not withstand a sensitivity scenarios set, the initial rating assigned to the bonds will be reviewed, although none of the sensitivity scenarios can be considered as binding to modify the rating. 2.5 Review and monitoring From the time of the rating issuance, continuous monitoring will be performed of the bond quality and the evolution of the underlying portfolio quality and Fund counterparties from public information and information provided by the management of the Fund, the originator or any other participant in it. To conduct regular monitoring of the companies and freelancers securitization bond performance, the monitoring of following elements will be performed: Performance and characteristics of the underlying collateral Related events to the originator, servicer or any other party involved in the transaction. Possible credit enhancements, as well as all factors that affect the structure of the securitization will also be discussed, from legal to operating factors. In particular, emphasis will be placed on reviewing the assets concentration percentages, which may increase significantly depending on the amortized portfolio. Periodically, an analysis will be carried out to verify that the credit enhancements that remain in the fund are sufficient to cover the concentration risk in the portfolio. With respect to counterparty risk, the monitoring process conducted includes a periodic analysis of the situation of the originator, servicer, swap counterparties if any, etc. If any of these parties suffer deterioration in their financial situation so that it cannot meet its contractual obligations, the risk of decreased cash flows for investors increases. Therefore, changes in the financial stability of a company with significant importance in the process of qualifying securitization bonds may involve starting a rating review process. 8

9 3. Rating Symbols and Definitions 3.1 Structured finance product s Credit rating scale Rating Description AAA(sf) Excellent capacity to meet its payment obligations. You can rely on timely payment of financial obligations in the future. AA(sf) Keeps a high level capacity to meet its debt obligations even in the event of changes in the economic environment. A(sf) The bond has a high capacity to meet its credit obligations. However, this rating may deteriorate if there are moderately adverse changes in the economic environment. BBB(sf) Further adequate capacity to meet its financial commitments. However, this capacity is more likely to deteriorate in the medium or long term than at higher levels. BB(sf) Adequate capacity to meet its financial obligations. B(sf) Although the capacity to face the payment obligations is not problematic at present, this capacity could not last for a long time. CCC(sf) Low capacity to meet financial obligations. Favorable economic environment s dependency. CC(sf) There is uncertainty about their capacity to repay financial obligations. High probability of default in any payment. High sensitivity to changes in the economic environment. C(sf) High risk of payments s interruption. D(sf) Very high risk of payments s interruption. Default Default Status. The ratings from AA to CCC can be modified by a plus sign (+) or a minus sign (-) to show its relative positioning within the principal rating categories. 9

10 4. Annex. axesor s idealized PD table axesor relies on its Idealized Probability of Default in order to benchmark the modelling results involved in rating structured finance instruments. Users of this table understand that axesor's assumptions reflected in this table may be modified from time to time. Users understand further that the table is provided purely as an accommodation by axesor, and that such accommodation creates no obligations of any kind on the part of axesor other than those parts of the regulation applicable to European credit rating agencies. 1 year 3 years 5 years 10 years AAA 0,013% 0,099% 0,120% 0,125% AA 0,030% 0,409% 0,729% 0,787% A 0,068% 0,658% 0,975% 1,112% BBB 0,258% 2,027% 4,295% 6,566% BB 1,790% 6,202% 11,471% 19,314% B 3,575% 11,820% 17,492% 24,152% CCC 19,434% 32,646% 40,491% 45,319% CC / Below 41,658% 44,199% 62,055% 63,337% 10

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