Which Course Delivery Mode Do Students Currently Prefer: Face-to-Face, Pure Online or Hybrid? Barry Freeman, Ed.D, Bergen Community College.

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1 Which Course Delivery Mode Do Students Currently Prefer: Face-to-Face, Pure Online or Hybrid? Barry Freeman, Ed.D, Bergen Community College Abstract The use of online education in higher education has grown dramatically during the past decade. Hybrid courses, a variant of online courses, are a relatively new teaching format. Typically, one-half of a hybrid course is composed of traditional face-to-face class meetings, with the remaining half conducted online. I designed and conducted a survey to measure student preferences for taking hybrid courses as well as courses offered in the two more widely used course delivery formats: traditional face-to-face classes, and pure online classes. The survey data collected indicates the level of student preference for each of the three course delivery formats. The survey data also documents the specific reasons why students like or dislike each of these three teaching formats, and recommends that colleges offer more hybrid courses. I also offer several pedagogical suggestions to help faculty maximize the effectiveness of hybrid courses. Introduction This exploration and survey of three different course delivery formats at Bergen Community College (BCC) was initiated for several reasons. First, during the past four years, I have taught the same course - Marketing Principles in each of three different course delivery modes. Specifically, I have taught Marketing Principles in the traditional face-to-face format, the pure online format, and also as a hybrid course (which is half online and half in-class). After several years, I began to notice that students taking my course in these different course delivery formats seemed to experience different levels of persistence and overall accomplishment. I also began to sense that students with different learning abilities preferred to take my marketing course in one of the three teaching formats. Furthermore, as the availability and use of online teaching has grown, and as more students have become familiar with both the online and hybrid formats, I began to believe that in recent years, the type of students enrolling in these three different course delivery formats has apparently been changing. 1

2 When I was accepted to attend the Mid-Career Fellowship Program at Princeton University for the academic year, I decided to conduct an original student survey about online education to satisfy the program s requirement that I produce a significant fellowship research project. My original student survey was conducted at BCC, my home institution, which is located in Paramus, New Jersey. The BCC Office of Institutional Research determined that 1,422 students enrolled in the Spring 2014 semester had taken one or more courses in each of the three different course delivery formats. My survey is based on responses from the 191 students (13 percent) who completed and returned the survey questionnaire. The data I collected measured their preferences, as well as their self-described likes and dislikes for each of the three teaching delivery formats. Analysis of this data has yielded a set of findings that should provide community college administrators with a keener understanding of how students currently feel about taking courses in each of these delivery modes. The survey findings also indicate students current level of preference for each teaching format. Hopefully, these findings will help increase the effectiveness of scheduling online and hybrid courses, so they more positively support student success. I wish to note that my survey is a modest, one-semester project, which is somewhat limited in scope. This study does not consider student learning styles or attempt to measure levels of student achievement. These matters should definitely be the subject of future research. As a final introductory comment, I note that while this study is only based on Community College students, I believe its findings may also be applicable to four-year college students. However, this assumption also needs to be validated by future research. An Overview of the History of Online Education 2

3 Before describing my survey and reporting on its findings, I believe it would be helpful to provide the reader with a few basic facts about the history of online education, and its rapid growth during the past decade. First, most people do not realize that the roots of distance education are at least 160 years old with the earliest programs being correspondence schools (Simonson, 2009). The next stage in the development of online education began with commercial television offerings like Sunrise Semester and Continental Classroom in the 1950s and then expanded with the introduction on public broadcasting of tele-courses in the 1970s and 1980s. (Dirr, 1999). In the 1970s, computer-based learning courses were launched at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. (Hiltz, 1990). As the internet popularized, correspondence schools like University of Phoenix became highly interested in virtual education, setting up a name for itself in (Farrell 1999). In 1996, WebCT, the online web-based education system, was developed at the University of British Columbia. In 1997, Blackboard, one of the current leading internet-based education support systems, was founded. From the year 2000 onward, hundreds, and then thousands of colleges and universities, began to effectively deliver online courses to their students, utilizing WebCT, Blackboard, and many other locally developed Internet education delivery systems. In 2006, Blackboard purchased WebCT. The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation has documented the dynamic growth of online education in the United States during the past decade. Sloan hired national research firms to carefully conduct tracking studies. The most current report, Grade Change - Tracking Online Education in the United States, documents higher education s attitudes about and participation in Online Education. Professor Elaine Allen, UCSF and Dr. Jeff Seaman, Ph.D. working for the Babson Survey Research Group, are the authors of this most recent report. They collected data from over 2,800 institutions in fall 2012, and their report was published in January This report 3

4 documents how online education has continued to grow, both in terms of the number of students taking online courses and in the importance colleges now place in online courses. As of fall 2012, their report states that 7.1 million or 33.5 percent of all college students attending degree-granting institutions have taken one or more online courses. Furthermore, while college enrollment increased by only 1.2 percent versus the previous year, enrollment in online classes grew over five times faster. Currently, 6.1 percent of enrolled college students took one or more online courses in fall 2012, versus the previous year. Supporting the increased use of online education is the fact that a growing majority of chief academic officers rate the learning outcomes from online education to be as good as, or better than those for face-to-face instruction. (Allen & Seaman, 2014). The fact that college faculty have become increasingly adept at delivering online course content during the past decade has probably contributed to its growth. Furthermore, it also appears that increasing numbers of students have accepted and now welcome the opportunity to take a portion of their college courses via the online course delivery format. The Survey Methodology Utilized For This Project The BCC Office of Institutional Research (Ms. Tonia Mcoy and Mr. Jesse Jacondin) utilized the college s Datatel software system to field my survey. They determined that 1,422 of BCC s approximately 15,500 matriculated students had taken at least one college course in all three teaching modes in the spring semester of On February 28, 2014, these 1,422 students were electronically sent the fourteen question survey questionnaire that I created for this research project. A copy of the complete survey questionnaire -- together with the raw data it collected -- is attached to this report as Appendix A. Survey Monkey was the software system used to administer the survey and to tabulate the student responses that were collected. 4

5 On March 12, all 1,422 students were sent a reminder to encourage them to complete and submit their questionnaire if they had not already done so. Two weeks after the initial mailing, 191 of the 1,422 eligible students completed and returned their questionnaire to the BCC Office of Institutional Research. Thus, the survey s data collection phase ended on March 15, The 191 returned questionnaires represent a response rate of 13 percent, which Institutional Research indicates is somewhat higher than usual. The following findings, and their conclusions, are based on the responses received from these 191 students. Summary of the Survey s Major Findings Among the 153 students who answered the key question about which teaching format they would prefer to take their next course in Fifty-six percent chose traditional face-to-face, 28 percent preferred hybrid and 17 percent preferred pure online. Traditional Face-to-Face is the Most Preferred Format While online education has grown dramatically in recent years, traditional face-to-face classes are still the most preferred teaching format among the students who participated in this survey. This finding is further supported by the fact that 43 percent of the students gave their highest, strongly agree rating to the statement: face-to-face interaction in the classroom is important to me. Additionally, 40 percent of all the students in the survey said they strongly agree with the statement I learn best in a face-to-face classroom format. In the section of the questionnaire where students were asked to submit their own thoughts about each course delivery format, 78 students, whose first choice format was taking face-to-face classes, responded with comments about why they like taking classes in this teaching format. Student comment #12 is a representative comment made by these students: 5

6 I prefer the face-to-face because I prefer the classroom setting. I learn better that way. At home I get distracted and tend to put things off. In a classroom I feel more on top of my work. I can speak to the professor directly instead of using . Another student, Comment #26, expressed a similar thought, but then expanded this thought to include comparative comments about the two other teaching formats. These additional comments indicate that some students put more importance on the selection of their overall class schedule than choosing to take a specific course in a particular delivery format: I like face-to-face courses because you have the chance to interact with other students and to ask questions if something is not clear. It is easier. But I also like a hybrid course because it is the combination of online and face-to-face. You just do not do Moodle or online sources, you spend time with classmates and the professor. The online course is fine. I choose it if I do not find face-to-face class or the schedule does not work according to my work schedule or other classes. While the student who made Comment #45 clearly prefers taking classes in the traditional face-to-face format, he/she will take either online or hybrid classes when course scheduling issues make this essential: For me, face to face is the first choice because it is quick to getting responses from professors if I have any questions. I like face-to-face learning better because I understand the material well in some subjects like math or science. I would take all face-to-face courses because I understand the material better. The only reason I can't do this is because of class timings, when they don't match. Another factor that contributes to the high level of preference for the traditional face-to-face teaching format is probably the fact that students in this survey believe that face-to-face courses are easier than hybrid or online courses. Table 1 below indicates that students rated face-to-face as the easiest of the three formats: 6

7 Table 1: Students Who Rated Each Teaching Format As Either Easy or Very Easy Teaching Format Percent Face-to-Face 45 Hybrid 32 Pure Online 22 Another key reason why students prefer to take face-to-face classes is that they report getting better grades in face-to-face classes than in online or hybrid classes. Roughly half of all students interviewed agreed with the statement: I tend to get better grades in face-to-face classes than online classes. Table 2 shows student ratings for both levels of agreement: Table 2: Student Ratings for the Statement: I get better grades in face-to-face classes Rating Percent Strongly agree 28 Agree 21 Total 49 The Hybrid Format As more students discover and experience taking courses in the hybrid format, this course delivery mode is growing in popularity. As previously indicated, more students (28 percent) now indicate that taking hybrid Courses is their first choice -- versus students who said their first preference was taking courses in the pure online format (17 percent). In addition, it is noteworthy that while only 28 percent of the 154 survey students rated hybrid as their first course delivery preference, 61 percent of all the survey students strongly agree or agree with the 7

8 statement: I wish BCC offered more hybrid courses. Among the group of students who made hybrid their first choice delivery format, 40 submitted written comments to explain why this format is their first choice. Student comment #6 is typical: I prefer this format because work is submitted online at anytime, so long as it is before the due date. All lecture materials are also available at any time. It is nice to have these advantages and also get face to face lectures for clarification on class assignments/lectures, and to get to know the person who is grading you. There is nothing I dislike about this format. Student comment #10 provides additional reasons that are specific benefits, which many students seek when they take courses in the hybrid delivery format: I chose the hybrid format as my first choice. I prefer on campus learning. I fear strictly online courses to be difficult, since one has to communicate oneself clearly in writing as compared to speaking and explaining in person. Hybrid courses combine face-to-face and online compartments together. I get to go to a class only once a week, plus the one perspective. It is time-wise flexible which I love about it. Since there is an off-line lecture, it is also convenient to reach out to the professor and get coherent answers. Students Who Prefer the Pure Online Format Even though more students in this research prefer to take courses in the face-to-face and hybrid formats, 17 percent of the students interviewed stated that pure online courses were their most preferred course delivery format. Furthermore, this smaller group of students appears to strongly prefer the online delivery mode. From the data collected, as well as their individual statements, Online courses are preferred by students who want to continue participating in other significant life activities such as parenting, business travel, full-time employment, etc. It is interesting to note that these students prefer pure online courses even though most of the students in this research survey believe that taking these courses is harder than taking courses in either the hybrid or the face-to-face teaching formats. When students were asked, Which one teaching format is easier or harder than the others? they rated pure online as the hardest format. 8

9 Table 3: Students Who Rated Each Teaching Format as Hard Rated Teaching Format As Hard Percent Pure Online 35 Hybrid 16 Face-to-Face 6 These data indicate that nearly six times as many students in this survey reported that pure online courses are harder to take than classes offered in the face-to-face format. In spite of the acknowledged difficulty of taking online courses, these online students are so eager to be able to schedule their college course work around their parenting, business, and travel related responsibilities, that they are ready, willing and able to complete school work totally on their own. Online student comment #8 shown below, which was given in response to the question Why do you want to take a course in the online format? is representative of what students who strongly prefer to take pure online courses believe: With online I can work at my pace, and most of the time the professors already have a set system in place for us to work efficiently. I don t feel overwhelmed and instead I work at my own pace. I don t have too much information thrown at me at once to understand, and I ll usually have something to look back on in case I need reassurance. Most of the classes I took online I have been successful at and I prefer this method. I ve mastered it and would continue it. Another student, Online Comment #10, expressed a variety of practical reasons why he and many other students prefer to take pure online courses. It is clear that this course delivery format provides students many practical advantages. Because I would rather spend my time studying and doing my schoolwork rather than having to spend an hour a day in the car going to class, 4-5 days a week. Plus, it s cheaper on the school, less classroom space, heat, A/C, and the teacher doesn t have to travel either. And during the winter months, you don t have to worry about having the school closed 9

10 Student preference for pure online courses is further confirmed by the finding that 46 percent of all 154 students indicated they either Strongly agree or Agree with the statement: I wish BCC offered more online courses. While pure online courses are not the most popular, the dedicated group of students that count on them want them to continue to be available. Student Respondent Demographics Demographic & Background Data And Additional Detailed Survey Findings Student demographic data suggests that the students interviewed in this survey are typical community college students. Of the 191 students in this survey, more were female (73 percent) than male (27 percent), although this is a greater gender difference than in the general community college population. Roughly two-thirds (65 percent) of the survey students were in the year age group, which is considered to be the traditional college age cohort. As is typical of community college students today, 71 percent of the survey s students indicated they were currently employed. Of these employed students, roughly half (52 percent) worked less than 30 hours a week, primarily in part-time jobs. Another 35 percent of this survey s student participants worked full time jobs of between hours per week. A minority of students (12 percent) claimed to work more than 40 hours per week. This employment data is typical of community college students. Student Credit Hours Taken The majority of the students in this survey (52 percent) were taking 12 to 15 credit hours. More than one-third of them (35 percent) indicated they were enrolled in fewer courses, specifically 11 or fewer credit hours. Only a small number of the survey students (13 percent) were taking more than 15 credit hours at the time this survey was conducted in spring, Grade Point Averages 10

11 Regrettably, the grade point average (GPA) data submitted by the students in this survey appears to be inflated. Specifically, only 53 percent of the survey s 191 students admitted they had a GPA that was lower than 3.5. However, BCC Institutional Research advises that the correct number for BCC students that have a GPA lower than 3.5 is really 80 percent. Complete comparative data is noted in the chart below: Table 4: GPA Data for Survey Students vs. All BCC Students Percent Having a High Percent Having a Low No Response GPA: 3.5 or higher GPA: below Survey Students All BCC Students In view of this situation, it seems that many students falsely reported having higher GPA s. Since all survey forms were anonymously submitted, we are unable to determine the accurate college GPA of the survey s student participants. Because of this situation, the planned tabulation of students preferred learning mode, analyzed by high GPA students vs. low GPA students, was not meaningful, and was omitted from this report. However, the possibility exists that some online and hybrid students may actually have higher GPAs than the average BCC student. It is suggested that his matter be considered in future research, using accurate GPA data. Number of Courses Taken in the Different Learning Modes Student participants were specifically asked how many courses they had taken in each of the three teaching modes. As might be anticipated, face-to-face courses were the most frequently taken. Sixty-three (63) percent of the students had taken six or more traditional, face-to-face classes at the time of this survey. 11

12 Students had taken fewer online and hybrid courses than face-to-face courses. However, 66 percent of the respondents had taken either one or two online courses, and 85 percent of the students had taken either one or two hybrid courses. Thus, at the time of this survey, the students in this survey had taken more hybrid courses than pure online courses. This fact is consistent with previously presented survey findings. Conclusions and Personal Observations First, the reader is reminded that all student respondents in this survey took at least one BCC course in each of the three different course delivery formats. Thus, these student respondents had personal experience taking courses in each teaching format. This range of personal experience is reflected in the students detailed comments and supports the conclusion that their indicated course mode preferences accurately reflect their honest opinions. More than half the students (56 percent) still prefer to take classes in the traditional, face-to-face format. Based on their individual comments, a substantial number of these students -- probably those who are less well prepared for college feel that the traditional classroom is a safer, easier place for them to learn. While not specifically studied in this current study, the author believes that the initial popularity of online courses when they were first offered, about a decade ago particularly among students who initially thought they were an easy way to earn course credits without attending class -- has clearly diminished. This opinion is supported by the fact that a majority of students in this current survey view face-to-face classes as the easiest course delivery format. They also view pure online courses as the most difficult. Only 17 percent of the students in this survey selected pure online courses as their preferred teaching format. Thus, pure online is the least preferred teaching format among all three course delivery modes. However, the small cohort of students who prefer pure online 12

13 courses strongly prefer them and would like the college to offer more of them. Comments made by students who successfully complete pure online courses tend to indicate that these students are more highly motivated, probably because many of them are more mature, and involved with parenting, full-time employment and other significant life commitments. Students who prefer hybrid courses see them as halfway between face-to-face and pure online providing them with some of the advantages of online and some of the advantages of face-to-face. Many more students are willing to take courses in the hybrid format than in the pure online format. Based on what appears to be growing student interest in taking hybrid courses, consideration should be given to offering more of these courses in the future. In the fall 2013 semester, BCC offered 225 online courses and only 78 hybrid courses. During the past four years I taught half a dozen hybrid courses. This has made me aware of the fact that many students often do not participate fully in both key components of a hybrid course. I have repeatedly found that some students, who are active participants in the classroom component of a hybrid, may fall behind with the hybrid s online discussions and activities. I have also found that other hybrid students, who probably had previously taken several pure online courses, were very active in the online component of the hybrid course but did not speak up in the hybrid s classroom component. Indeed, some of these online-oriented students missed many of the face-to-face classroom meetings. Student comment #35 (from the group of students that preferred hybrid) commented on this specific issue. This particular student is more comfortable with the in-class component than the online component: I don t like the hybrid classes because if I m going to meet face to face, it makes me think I don t need to check up online, so I miss all the assignments that are due online. In view of this phenomenon, I strongly recommend that instructors using the hybrid format be certain to allocate a separate portion of 13

14 the total course grade to Online Participation and another portion to In-class Participation. Furthermore, the requirement to have students fully participate in both primary components of a hybrid course should be highlighted in the course outline and emphasized at the first class meeting. I believe that the dynamic overall growth of online education during the past decade is almost certain continue into the next decade, and that increased use of the hybrid teaching format is likely to account for a significant portion of this future growth. References Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2014, January). Grade change: Tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from Dirr, P. J. (1999). Distance and virtual learning in the United States. In Farrell, G. M. (Ed.), The Development of virtual education: A global perspective (pp ). Vancouver, CA: Commonwealth of Learning. Farrell, G. M. (1999). The development of virtual education: A global perspective. Vancouver, CA: Commonwealth of Learning. Hiltz, S. (1990). Evaluating the virtual classroom. In Harasim, L. (Ed.) Online education: Perspectives on a new environment (pp ). New York, NY: Praeger. Simonson, M. (2009). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (4 th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 14

15 Appendix A Survey Questionnaire & Raw Data 1. Are you Male or Female? Answer Options Response Response Percent Count Male 26.5% 50 Female 73.5% 139 answered question 189 skipped question 2 2. What is your age? Answer Options Response Response Percent Count Under % % % % % or older 1.6% 3 answered question 190 skipped question 1 3. Are you currently employed? Answer Options Response Response Percent Count Yes 70.9% 134 No 29.1% 55 answered question 189 skipped question 2 4. If you are employed, how many hours do you work a week? Answer Options Response Response Percent Count Less than 30 hours a week 52.2% to 40 hours a week 35.5% 49 More than 40 hours a week 12.3% 17 answered question 138 skipped question 53 15

16 5. How many credit hours are you taking this semester? Answer Options Response Response Percent Count 11 or less credit hours 35.3% to 15 credit hours 51.6% 98 More than 15 credit hours 13.2% 25 answered question 190 skipped question 1 6. What is your current GPA? Answer Options Response Response Percent Count Less than % to % to % 96 Over % 74 I Don't Know 7.4% 14 answered question 190 skipped question 1 7. Including the courses you are taking this semester, about how many of your courses have been: Answer Options Face-to-Face courses? Online courses? Hybrid courses? 10 (5.3%) 78 (45.3%) 92 (56.8%) 18 (9.6%) 36 (20.9%) 45 (27.8%) %) 23 (13.4%) 10 (6.2%) 11 (5.9%) 21 (12.2%) 10 (6.2%) Response Count (5.3%) (63.3%) (2.3%) (5.8%) (0.0%) (3.1%) answered question 191 skipped question 0 8. Assume you want to enroll in a course that is offered in all three formats (Face-to- Face, Online, or Hybrid). If you could choose to take the course in any format, which format would be your first choice? Second choice? Third choice? Rank them below. Answer Options Face-to-Face 85 (55.6%) 45 (29.4%) 23 (15.0%) 153 Online 26 (17.0%) 31 (20.3%) 96 (62.7%) 153 Hybrid 42 (27.6%) 77 (50.7%) 33 (21.7%) 152 Response Count 16

17 answered question 153 skipped question Some students think that taking a class in one teaching format is easier or harder than another. How do you personally rate the ease or difficulty of taking: Answer Very Response Very Easy Easy Neutral Hard Options Hard Count Face-to- Face 17 (11.0%) 52 (33.8%) 76 (49.4%) 9 (5.8%) 0 (0.0%) 154 Courses? Hybrid 10 (6.5%) 39 (25.5%) 75 (49.0%) 24 (15.7%) 5 (3.3%) 153 Courses? Online Courses? 8 (5.2%) 26 (17.0%) 47 (30.7%) 54 (35.3%) 18 (11.8%) 153 answered question 154 skipped question Please indicate how you feel about each of the following statements. Answer Options I wish BCC offered more Online courses. I learn best in a Faceto-Face classroom format. I prefer Online classes because they are more convenient than Faceto-Face classes. I wish BCC offered more Hybrid courses. Face-to-Face interaction in the classroom is important to me. I learn best in an Online format. In my experience, Online instructors are just as attentive as Face-to-Face instructors. Strongly Agree 26 (16.9%) 62 (40.3%) 29 (19.1%) 38 (24.7%) 67 (43.2%) 7 (4.5%) 16 (10.4%) Agree 45 (29.2%) 52 (33.8%) 42 (27.6%) 57 (37.0%) 56 (36.1%) 22 (14.3%) 37 (24.0%) Neutral Disagree 55 (35.7%) 32 (20.8%) 39 (25.7%) 36 (23.4%) 26 (16.8%) 60 (39.0%) 42 (27.3%) 17 (11.0%) Strongly Disagree 11 (7.1%) Response Count (3.9%) 2 (1.3%) (16.4%) 14 (9.1%) 3 (1.9%) 48 (31.2%) 34 (22.1%) 17 (11.2%) 9 (5.8%) 3 (1.9%) 17 (11.0%) 25 (16.2%)

18 I tend to get better grades in Face-to-Face classes than Online classes. I learn best in a Hybrid format. 42 (27.6%) 17 (11.1%) 32 (21.1%) 36 (23.5%) 53 (34.9%) 63 (41.2%) 19 (12.5%) 6 (3.9%) (17.0%) (7.2%) 153 answered question 155 skipped question 36 Appendix B Student Submitted Likes & Dislikes The students were asked to think about their first preference and comment truthfully on why that particular mode of instruction was their favorite. Their comments have been transcribed below grouped by first preference. Comments have not been edited for grammar, punctuation, or content. Face-to-Face as First Preference 1. I always find clarity is made easier and much more possible when face-to-face 2. I like to hear face to face lecture and ask professor questions. I would prefer online course to some lecturers. 3. I like to experience the class and learning first hand, and having the professor available for questions at the time I have them. 4. Face to face is easy to learn more and understand the information 5. Make a understand easier with face to face classes 6. I like actually going into the classroom because it gives me a better idea of where I am in relation to the other students and what the professor is expecting of me. 7. Its good 8. I could more understand the details that teached by fact-to-face in the campus. Teachers and classmates are able to help each other in the class. So, it will be my first choice. 9. I want to take this course in this format because it is better understand the topic and it is in present time. In life it is better to see and hear the voice of the lecture. I like to have class in classroom. 10. Prefer face to face classes. 11. This trumps all. However, for individuals like myself time can be a very valuable resource. I would like for more critical late-day courses for full time workers like myself. Maybe you can conduct a survey to gauge how many students require a late-day/night course which is also required for their major. 12. I prefer the face to face because I prefer the classroom setting. I learn better that way, at home I get distracted and tend to put things off. In a classroom I feel more on top of my work, I can speak to the professor directly instead of . 18

19 13. because you receive a better experience and are able to ask questions at the moment once you don't get it 14. face to face ensures better instruction and communication from professor to student. 15. Sometimes you need to be in person to learn certain information. 16. I feel it is easier to handle questions or issues in class much simpler. Also most of my learning is from hearing. 17. I prefer having a teacher that knows me by name and face 18. I like being in front of the instructor 19. I feel like I learn better when I am sitting in a class room by being taught by a teacher. Sometimes with my work schedule it isn't always possible for me to take face-to-face courses. 20. I feel like you can actually learn. 21. Face to Face is better than having an online class. The teacher is intractable to the student, and with the right time it is enjoyable 22. I enjoy having a classroom with the teacher present. It allows for better interaction and understanding of the course material. 23. Allows you to bond with teacher and be able to get help from them personally instead of through Face to face classes are a lot better because you can interact with the professor a lot more better. 25. its easier to understand and have an interaction with professor and other students 26. I like face to face courses because you have the chance to interact with other students and ask questions if something is not clear. I t is easier. But I also like Hybrid course because it is the combination of online and face to face class. You just not just moodle or online sources, you spend time with classmates and the professor. The online course is fine. I choose it if I do not find face to face class or the schedule does not work according to my work schedule or other classes. 27. Face to Face provides much more interaction. 28. I think I learn better in a classroom. 29. face to face helps learn and have a better understanding of the subject. 30. I just like the face to face instruction better. I get immediate answers and explanations. 31. You are in class and you are able to get the help you need from your professor 32. It's much better to have face to face contact with the professor. You can ask questions and have a more clear understanding of the material in my opinion. 33. Face to face is the typical way people take courses. I take three face to face classes and I feel that these classes tend to be easier and the teachers take more interest in the students. 34. The classes are fun and the learning experience is better. 35. Learning in person helps get a better grasp on the subject matter at hand by direct interaction with both the professor and the other students. Simply the interaction of being in a room with others is more stimulating than yourself and a computer screen. 19

20 36. I like this format because I like to see my professor face to face. I like knowing what's going on in class and sometimes online classes, you fall back on work. 37. I prefer face to face. I can actually learn. I haven't learn as well when taking online courses. I like to be able to ask the professor questions when I don't understand something. Definitely not online classes for me 38. better understanding of the material 39. you interact more to your teacher and it help you to understand more the subject. 40. I enjoy the classroom experience, learning from the professor as well as getting feedback from other students in class. When other students don't take classes seriously, it can become frustrating. 41. Face-to-face is always best because you can ask your questions right away in class instead of waiting for an I believe that taking a course face-to-face in a classroom allows the student to understand the subject more and it is easier to ask for help when needed. 43. Face to face classes provide more realistic give and take, feedback and interaction and has components within a group that you cannot achieve through online. Hybrid is good, but you can slack off if you are not careful. I do like online courses, though, it saves wear and tear, and I have no problem with structuring myself to have a positive learning experience. 44. face to face give me chances to ask questions and understand what the class is about 45. For me, face to face is the first choice because it is quick to getting responses from professors if i have any questions. I like face-to-face learning better because i understand the material well in some subjects like math or science. I would take all face-to-face courses because i understand the material better. The only reason i can't take is because of the class timings and they don't match. 46. it is always better to take a class in person. Professor can help with any questions, and you can ask the professor to explain while giving the lecture. 47. I can ask questions & get feedback immediately. I get to know my professor & other people. I get a mixture of assisted learning & learning on my own. 48. I am most comfortable with face to face format because I do not have to work with computer to complete quizes or assignments. The most valuable part of this format is lecture is given to you day by day from the Professor. I am a good listener therefore I believe face to face formats led me to better grades overall. 49. Face to face seems to be the most accurate..we meet at school often, we can ask questions... clarify many things I prefer face-to-face because it helps me learn better. The only con about this format is if it becomes web-enhanced. 51. Although face- to-face format is the oldest format, for certain subjects like computer science, programming, and mathematics it is necessary as these courses involve intense cognitive processes. These courses require interaction between professor and student to overcome roadblocks. Some of these types of interactions cannot be addressed online. 20

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