1 Could your security vulnerabilities cause network gridlock? A discussion paper for Transportation Information Technology leaders and executives
2 2 THE NEED FOR SECURITY IN THE TRANSPORT ECO-SYSTEM Transportation forms an integral part of a nation s critical infrastructure; preserving the integrity, confidentiality and availability of information and services is a leading priority for every transport organisation. It has never been more so with the advent of intelligent transport systems and services (ITS). Connected cars, connected aircraft, automation of passenger journey information, self-service airports, all powered by the adoption of new technologies such as the internet of things which enables tracking of passenger and freight movements. The adoption of these services is underpinned by changes in infrastructure and the greater adoption of new technologies including cloud computing and shared services; but the potential risk to the business increases. Lloyd s Risk Index 2013 Global CXO survey 1 cites cyber security risks as one of the top three priorities on boardroom agendas - failure to identify vulnerabilities and validate the effectiveness of security controls could compromise both the business and entire transport network. The collision of physical and cyber attacks are real threats for which organisations should be prepared and ask the following questions: how prepared is your organisation, could it withstand a cyber attack? how secure are your company processes? how secure are your suppliers and partners cyber security defences? We address these and other questions as we examine the impact of the connected world and subsequent risks in the transport sector. 1 Lloyd s Risk Index based on a global survey of over 500 C-suite and board level executives conducted by Ipsos MORI for Lloyd s during April and May
3 3 TRANSPORTATION TODAY Everyone wants to feel safe when they re travelling, whether it s by road, rail, sea, air or simply on foot. A host of organisations, including government, transport operators and providers are working to ensure this happens and we re right there with them. Moving people and goods is critical to the success of any modern society and means we need intelligence to be built into transport systems to minimise risk whilst maintaining freedom of movement. The customer experience and customer journey are fundamental to the success of many in the sector - at a basic level, the combination of customer experience and risk mitigation policy involves the use of cameras, scanners and other devices to detect and screen objects and people, whilst at a higher level, it also involves carrying out security evaluations, dependent upon the risk profile and risk appetite of the organisation. This paper reflects on the new realities of transportation security and risks. Incidents and events are being reported almost every day which compel businesses to approach transport security as more than a single element of the global networks that move people and goods. Once a routine component of modern transportation, cyber and physical security now represents a vital necessity and an urgent priority. Can you afford for your organisation to be the breach in the transport eco-system? The aim of this paper is to provide insight, thought and analysis for executives and decision makers around the world who view the transportation system s security as a critical element in today s world. CGI in Security CGI helps clients assess the cyber threats and risks, protect the business and operate with confidence. And we do this with a business-focused approach to security. CGI experts work on high-intensity engagements with military and intelligence nerve centres and high-profile multi-national defence programmes, defending government networks, critical infrastructure and corporate intellectual property against 43 million sophisticated attack incidents per day. We have deployed and supported 9,000 plus biometrics systems and devices at a 100 plus worldwide locations, delivering over 4 million biometrics enrolments each year for the U.S. military. We are one of the few providers worldwide with three accredited security certification facilities located in Canada, the U.S. and the UK including our world-class CGI Federal Cyber Innovation Lab. Our nine Security Operations Centers continuously identify and deploy the best solutions to maintain a state-of-the-art infrastructure.
4 4 CGI in Transport CGI works with transport and logistics companies to drive efficiencies, launch innovative offerings and enhance the overall passenger experience. We currently work with over 200 clients providing end-to-end IT transport and logistics services, from consulting to full IT outsourcing, along with specialised IT and security services. During our 30 years working in the sector we have: Implemented automatic gate check in for Lufthansa Operated PCI DSS compliant service for Shell Fuel cards Delivered physical security at Gatwick Airport Handled PCI for the Transport for London Barclays Bike Hire scheme Helped implement the first biometric border control in Europe Conducted security and penetration testing for rail infrastructure owners Provided security management services to BMW Provided software that helps manage 10 airports in Portugal CGI s transport security solutions are designed to deliver clarity to the complex task of protecting passengers, cargo and high risk assets from those intent on doing harm. We work alongside the world s government, military, law enforcement and security services, and face to face with the aviation, maritime, rail industries and public authorities to: Deliver best passenger experience Increase value and efficiencies Protect and enhance reputation Build a strong environmental Health and Safety programme underpinning security requirements Review compliance and governance Examine the security measures of organisations within their wider eco-system Embrace and deploy new technologies such as cloud and mobile apps mindful of the security risk and business impacts Ensure privacy of data of employees, customers and clients Review cost of reputation and cost of money Examine reputational risks and loss of customer loyalty Examine financial cost of crisis management Assess threat levels Examine the countermeasures in place, and Recommend strategies to deal with these threats Provide predictive analytics of threat vectors and countermeasures Provide 24/7/365 monitoring Protect and ensure continuity of operations Security is one of our areas of special expertise we ve carried out more than 60% of UK government security evaluations and provide top-level security solutions for governments and commercial organisations worldwide. In transport we have a track record that spans over three decades where we have supported transportation organisations globally with both operational efficiencies and security improvements. It s this kind of experience that makes us uniquely placed to provide safety and security solutions for the transport sector.
5 5 TRENDS AND RISK FACTORS THE CONNECTED FUTURE OF TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT IS ALREADY HERE. ARE WE READY? Technological advances have delivered automated self-drive cars, connected aircraft and driverless trains, but human acceptance of the reliability and legislation of these technologies delays their widespread adoption. Securing the supply chain and its component parts is a balancing act between cost efficiencies, new technology and compliance. CSOs, CIOs and organisations are discovering this as the threat from cyber and physical attack increases. Improving the passenger experience should not result in a lowering of risk factors. However it is key to recognise that threats and risks no longer just come from individual hackers looking for vulnerable websites, backdoors or compromised software. Every day, headlines report the depths that organisations and organised crime will go to, to gain control of information from targeted attacks. It is estimated that targeted attackers are on average able to operate for some 416 days within an organisation prior to detection 2. These targeted attacks on corporations have widespread consequences on brand, reputation and operational processes. For example Sony lost 6% market share overnight as consumers lost trust when Sony suffered a security breach with the loss of customer sensitive information. The majority of global organisations are likely to have suffered some form of data loss, whilst data breaches have cost organisations multiple millions. Could a public transport organisation recover from such a loss of reputation even if the safety of the network were preserved? Airport scare at Los Angeles In April 2013 passengers at the Los Angeles airport were subjected to flight boards displaying Emergency Leave the Terminal for five minutes. What was initially thought to be a hacking attack, airport officials later explained was an airline contractor with authorised access who had accidently caused the override of the screens. KLM website attacked At 11:00 on 18 April 2013, KLM s website started to experience issues. Online check-in, ticket booking and other information services were nonoperational. A Denial of Service attack was the cause and it wasn t until two days later on 20th April before services started to return to normality. 2 Mandiant M-Trends 2012: https://www.mandiant.com/news/release/ mandiant-releases-annual-threat-report-on-advanced-targeted-attacks/
6 6 Car hacking tricks revealed at Vegas hacking conference At Defcon 21 Charlie Miller, a security engineer at Twitter, and Chris Valasek, director of security intelligence at IOActive, released their homegrown tools to hack into computerised features of a 2010 Toyota Prius and a 2010 Ford Escape. They demonstrated how easy it is to disarm the car alarm systems and control other GSM and cell-connected devices. They were able to achieve this by a direct attack, by hooking a laptop to the ECU communications network and injecting rogue signals into it included disabling the brakes while the car was in motion, jerking the steering wheel, accelerating, killing the engine, yanking the seat belt, displaying bogus speedometer and fuel gauge readings, turning on and off the car s lights, and blasting the horn. The researchers also found a way to achieve persistent attacks by modifying the ECU firmware to send rogue signals even when they were no longer physically connected to the control units. All of these needed direct access to the vehicle to work. However, in 2011 another research group from the Centre for Automotive Embedded Systems Security found that they could execute a wide range of remote attacks using the vehicles CD or USB player, Bluetooth and cellular radio. What if these direct and remote methods were successful when combined? WHAT DOES THIS IMPLY FOR BUSINESSES? Organisations that are not reviewing and updating their risk profile of vulnerabilities could be subject to reputational damage or worse. They need to consider the probability and impacts of an incident or attack on their infrastructure and services - will they be able to effectively manage and survive a crisis? Consider how many minutes it takes for: a malfunctioning baggage system to interrupt the smooth functioning of a busy international airport the closure of an arterial road system to create traffic jams; act of terrorism or violence to create a crisis situation or the almost instantaneous loss of customer loyalty, brand and reputation. Organisations that are unable to articulate the impact to the business, the probability of the occurrence of threats and a mitigation strategy are not addressing the impact to their brand and the bottom line. THE IMPACT ON THE STREET Our transportation systems are becoming more connected. We already see widespread adoption of real-time passenger information services and mobile ticketing. Data is being released under Government s open data initiatives to allow third party developers access to mash data together, providing predictive analytics, around consumer choices, freight patterns and much more. However this is just the beginning of the connectivity which will prevail. As mobile device applications develop and the advent of the internet of things becomes a reality, a security strategy of isolation is no longer relevant. For example, until recently it was irrelevant and considered unnecessary to worry about the safety of allowing over-the-air updates to a vehicle. Cars today are already becoming connected, it is predicted that by 2030 autonomous vehicles will be commonplace on our roads. With the imminent range of connected vehicles hitting production lines, transport authorities are starting to think about how our traffic management operations centres can gain greater insight into the movement of traffic and the influence of that movement. For example; the control of vehicles to reduce emissions around a hospital where a hotspot has formed; the automatic re-direction of cars when an accident has occurred; the automatic reduction of car speeds during periods of heavy traffic. Personalised micro-navigation requests could be made to drivers routing systems to control this and many more applications in development. However imagine the disruption if this was maliciously compromised, by a disgruntled employee or a terrorist.
7 7 An intelligent connected world of transport The infrastructure upon which we run our transportation is becoming more intelligent and connected, and signalling systems are turning digital and autonomous: this is truly where the physical and cyber worlds collide. WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD FOR US? Rate of of urbanisation urbanization Projected average rate of change in urban population size. 2/3 of the planet by % by 2050 Transport of people and goods How things are set to change Fewer people will maintain a car which is used for only 5% of its life and stays parked for 95% People will want to get from A to B and will worry less about the mode of getting there Journey will become multimodal - walking, trains, car shares will all be valid options Data and applications and personal identity will become the new tools of choice for journey
8 8 Bay Area Rapid Transit targeted by hackers In August 2011 the Anonymous Hacking group attacked San Francisco s Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) website, mybart.org. The attack came after BART blocked cell phone service to stop a protest the previous week. Hackers defaced the site with Anonymous logos and released personal contact information of at least 2,400 of the site s users including names, passwords, s, addresses and phone numbers. Infrastructure vulnerability exposed In 2008 a teenager derailed a tram in Łódz, Poland injuring 12 people by using a modified remote control to switch points. The ageing rail infrastructure used an infrared control system which wasn t secured in any manner. PHYSICAL WORLD AND CYBER WORLD COLLISION The collision of the physical and cyber worlds brings new challenges to securing the transportation sector including the customer experience, passenger journey and treatment of our freight. These require greater consideration as to the impact of threats on infrastructure and processes calling for deeper attention on the means of attack, their consequences, requiring a visionary thinking to risk mitigation, its impacts and organisational development. The greatest risk that transportation organisations are bracing themselves for is the combination of both physical and cyber attacks on their infrastructure; this is the highest risk factor that many are working to control within corporate risk registers. The explosion of social media applications, on-line technologies and self- service user terminals provide an avenue for increased risk. The resulting risk mitigation matrix needs to take into consideration, aspects of the following: THREATS AND MOTIVATIONS Deliberate and planned: protester, terrorist, criminal, malicious, disgruntled passenger, employee or third party Deliberate and spontaneous: opportunistic criminal, disgruntled passenger, ex-employee or third party Malicious and non-specific : malware, hacking, spoofing Malicious and specific: targeted attack at corporate, industry sector or eco-system Environmental: weather, power loss, hand of god Accidental: unintended consequences MEANS OF ATTACK Physical access Interfaces Cyber-attacks: internet-borne malware Wi-Fi Denial of service Lock out
9 9 POTENTIAL IMPACT Impact on information, confidentiality, integrity or availability Loss of ICT (information and communications technology) Interrupted operations resulting in delays, cancellations Impairment of passenger/freight experience Damage to reputation and brand Incorrect freight, passengers, transport at wrong destinations causing security breaches Crisis management scenarios need to consider not only attacks to the direct organisational infrastructure but also to the wider transportation system. Incidents such as the volcanic ash cloud, fires on airport runways and high speed passenger train crashes demonstrate the need for immediate and effective handling. But when does an incident manifest itself into a crisis? And how do organisations manage events both within and out of their sphere of control? As we highlighted earlier, Mandiant 3 have reported that hackers could be within an organisation s infrastructure for up to 416 days before detection. In order to mitigate risks this needs to be reduced to almost instant recognition. If you secure your environment how can you be assured that your competitors and third party suppliers have also secured their vulnerabilities? 3 Mandiant M-Trends 2012: https://www.mandiant.com/news/release/ mandiant-releases-annual-threat-report-on-advanced-targeted-attacks/
10 10 THE THREATS THAT LOOM WHEN THE PHYSICAL AND CYBER WORLDS COLLIDEg Threat/Motivation Planned attack Protester, terrorist, criminal, malicious, disgruntled passenger/ employee/third party Means of attack Interfaces Threat/Motivation Spontaneous attack Opportunistic criminal, disgruntled passenger/ ex-employee/third party Threat/Motivation Disgruntled third party Threat/Motivation Malicious/general Malware, hacking, spoofing Means of attack Cyber-attacks: internet-borne malware Potential impact Interrupted operations resulting in delays, cancellations Threat/Motivation Accidental Unintended consequences Threat/Motivation Environmental Weather, power loss
11 11 Means of attack Lock out Means of attack Collision of physical and cyber attack Potential impact Loss of ICT (information and communications technology) Threat/Motivation Deliberate attack Specific or targeted attack at corporate, industry or eco-system Means of attack Denial of service Potential impact Damage to reputation and brand Means of attack Wi-fi Potential impact Impairment of passenger/freight experience Means of attack Physical access Threat/Motivation Disgruntled employee Potential impact Impact on information, confidentiality, integrity or availability Means of attack Third party compromises
12 12 The world s biggest ITS project Saudi Arabia has a population of 27 million and suffers 18 fatal accidents daily, five times the per capita rate in Europe. The ATVAM (Automated Traffic Violations Administering and Monitoring) programme covers all eight of the kingdom s major cities and addresses the need to improve road safety, improve law enforcement and security, and reduce congestion through better traffic management. The kingdom has been divided into three regions, reporting into the CGI programme management. The programme provides several thousand roadside systems, split between number plate detectors, intelligent surveillance, and fixed and mobile speed and red light cameras. A dozen command and control centres bring together the security and traffic management functions, and attention to process violations. This is a perfect example of the ITS industry demonstrating that it can rise to the challenge of coping with the harsh and unpredictable conditions in Saudi Arabia to make its systems work there as effectively as they do elsewhere in the world, and to raise the bar globally in terms of true system integration. PREVENTION - SECURING AND ASSURING Risk probability and risk treatment provide organisations with risk mitigation frameworks. It provides assurance for today s risks as well as tomorrow s. From connected cars to last mile parcel delivery our transport and logistics systems need to be robust and defended. In similar engagements with organisations such as British Airways, a large UK rail operator and others, we have identified the core components of the service and ensured that every area is tested for vulnerabilities. In addition we have undertaken cyber risk assessments, using the cyber intelligence gleaned from our global Security Operation Centres and applied it to the external cyber vulnerabilities of each organisation. Our methodology and approach has been developed over more than 30 years. Our specialist Penetration Testing Team founded the CESG CHECK scheme; we currently have a green light status. The team comprises highly skilled security consultants who specialise in penetration/vulnerability testing and includes CESG CHECK approved team leaders, and team members. OUR PRIMARY OBJECTIVES FOR SECURITY ASSURANCE: To demonstrate, to the highest level of assurance possible, that a system is either susceptible or not susceptible to particular security weaknesses To provide clear recommendations for vulnerability mitigation that are straightforward to implement and tailored to the system s requirements To validate the solution and identify the weakest security link To ensure the security of the underlying software using CGI s IPR (intellectual property rights) solution SilverKite.
13 13 CGI selected for multiple-award Indefinite Delivery/ Indefinite Quality for technical, acquisition, and business support services with the Department of Homeland Security The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) awarded CGI an indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (ID/IQ) contract for Technical, Acquisition and Business Support Services (TABSS). TABSS plays a pivotal role in enabling effective support for the planning and administration of programmes, projects and major acquisitions key to advancing DHS s goals and securing the nation. NS gets control over its entire passenger information chain CGI helped Dutch Railway operator, NS orchestrate its efforts to proactively manage its information chain. By doing this they were able to resolve issues before they turn into problems, have one common image on the health of the entire chain, zoom in on specific elements in the chain and solve incidents and problems faster. CGI will compete for task orders to provide missioncritical engineering, programme management and technical services to support the entire acquisition lifecycle from initiation through research, development, production, deployment, operations, upgrade and disposal of essential DHS programmes and assets. Our domain expertise and next-generation solutions enhance DHS s mission capability and improve cost effectiveness across the agency.
14 14 BMW s gets one of Europe s biggest Identity management systems that is also among the top 50 systems of its kind, worldwide More than 1,000 of BMW s applications which supported a user base of 280,000 employees, dealers and suppliers were based on multiple platforms and used different processes and systems. Over time and with increasing business demands these systems became unsustainably complex with correspondingly high support and maintenance costs. BMW looked to CGI to help them meet their evolving security needs and comply with changes in international law. We designed and developed BMW s new ID management systems (IdAS). It integrated formerly disparate management and provisioning processes and automated BMW s need for flexibility, security and speed. IdAS was successfully launched in BMW customers now get more information from dealers as the dealers have direct access to BMW s information systems. TRAVEL, TRANSPORT, AND SECURITY UNDERSTANDING TRUSTED PROJECT RESOURCES AND PROVEN EXPERIENCE WITHIN THE TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SECTOR We have worked in the Transport and Logistics sectors for over three decades, with organisations that include major airports, for example London Heathrow, Gatwick Airport, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and Aeroportos de Portugal. Other key clients with whom we have a close association in the aviation sector include CAA and airlines such as Air Canada, Lufthansa, Air France/KLM, and Finnair. In rail we work with organisations such as Via Rail, ProRail, Network Rail, Queensland Rail, Deutsche Bahn and STM and AMT in Montreal. We provide services to car manufacturers such as BMW, KIA, Ford, Toyota, Jaguar and Land Rover and aircraft manufacturers like Rolls Royce, Bombardier and Airbus. We work with the Transport Ministries of national governments, such as those in Sweden, Finland and Netherlands and transport authorities such as Transport for London, Transport for Greater Manchester, Translink in Vancouver and caltrans. LEADING SECURITY PARTNER We apply many years of security expertise to our decades of travel and transport knowledge to deliver a class-leading security capability. We are trusted with the security needs of governments and blue chip organisations across the world. For over three decades, we have enabled our customers to operate securely across the private and public sectors globally, with a business-focused approach to security. Our integrated team of over 1,200 security professionals delivers to customers locally but leveraging global capability.
15 15 Our solutions integrate consultancy, systems integration and managed services to ensure that the critical people, business process and technology aspects are addressed. Through this we have gained a unique understanding of how the complex security needs of our customers can be met whilst maintaining their business agility, improving their operational excellence, increasing the trust of their customers, suppliers, stakeholders and employees Internationally our security teams support many of the world s leading organisations including Barclaycard, Bombardier, BMW, Carrefour, Czech Post, Daimler Benz, Department of Defence, EADS, Eon, European Space Agency, National Audit Office, Network Rail, Philips, Sagem, SAS, Scania, Shell, SNCF, Scottish and Southern Electric, T-Mobile and Transport for London. We support and assure many critical national infrastructures. Our global methodology supports organisations like Shell as they tackle information risk management for today and tomorrow s technology challenges. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Transport systems are attractive targets for individuals seeking to inflict major disruption and economic damage and instil uncertainty. Transport systems are inherently vulnerable to attack, as they are open systems that gather large numbers of people at predictable times in predictable places. CGI is constantly thinking ahead to the next level of protection. For example, CGI helps secure the Galileo Satellite Navigation Programme. On Galileo, we re providing the security and key management facilities to the Ground Control and Ground Mission segments. We re also addressing the thorny issue of achieving a balance between rigorous security checks, passenger convenience and speed of boarding. We ve pioneered automated and biometric border management, with automatic barriers linked to advanced biometric readers and smartcards. This allows travellers to move quickly and comfortably through airports or between countries without compromising security. Major rail operator gets safer We enhanced a major rail operator s security in four phases: 1. Developed a functional view or rich picture that included the as-is and to-be status of the organisation. 2. Created a cyber threat profile from internal and external data sources. 3. Provided a detailed analysis in specific areas i.e. security policy, telecoms, risk management, security operations, SCADA, signaling systems and major projects and systems. 4. Produced a written report and options paper which laid out the options for the future expansion of organisational s cyber defence. The report was disseminated to the Information Security Team and key stakeholders. A formal review and feedback process was initiated. New information was provided and changes were agreed and implemented in the new version of the report. Biometrics is one of our core capabilities; we re one of the world s most experienced biometric implementers. Our systems are already used at football stadia, shopping malls, and many other places with a high concentration of people or high security demands.
16 CGI GROUP INC. cgi.com/cyber With 69,000 professionals operating in 400 offices in 40 countries, CGI fosters local accountability for client success while bringing global delivery capabilities to clients front doors. Founded in 1976, CGI applies a disciplined delivery approach that has achieved an industry-leading track record of on-time, on-budget projects. Our high-quality business consulting, systems integration and outsourcing services help clients leverage current investments while adopting new technology and business strategies that achieve top and bottom line results. As a demonstration of our commitment, our average client satisfaction score for the past 10 years has measured consistently higher than 9 out of CGI GROUP INC. All rights reserved. This document is protected by international copyright law and may not be reprinted, reproduced, copied or utilised in whole or in part by any means including electronic, mechanical, or other means without the prior written consent of CGI. Whilst reasonable care has been taken by CGI to ensure the information contained herein is reasonably accurate, CGI shall not, under any circumstances be liable for any loss or damage (direct or consequential) suffered by any party as a result of the contents of this publication or the reliance of any party thereon or any inaccuracy or omission therein. The information in this document is therefore provided on an as is basis without warranty and is subject to change without further notice and cannot be construed as a commitment by CGI.
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