# Parenteral Dosage of Drugs

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1 Chapter 11 Parenteral Dosage of Drugs

2 Parenteral Route of administration other than gastrointestinal Intramuscular (IM) Subcutaneous (SC) Intradermal (ID) IV

3 Parenteral Most medications prepared in liquid form and packaged in dose vials Ampules or prefilled syringes Injectable drugs measured in syringes

4 Injectable Solutions IM maximum dosage: Average 150 lb adult = 3 ml Maximum for deltoid site = 2 ml Children age 6 to 12 years = 2 ml Children birth to age 5 years = 1 ml

5 Solving Parenteral Dosage Problems Apply same three steps used when calculating oral dosages

6 Remember 1. Convert All units of measurement must be in same system and all units must be in same size 2. Think Estimate logical amount

7 Remember 3. Calculate Set up ratio between dosage on hand and desired dosage Dosage on hand Amount on hand Dosage desired X Amount desired

8 Rules Parenteral dosages Round amount to be administered to tenths if amount greater than 1 ml Measure in 3 ml syringe Measure amounts less than 1 ml rounded to hundredths and all amounts less than 0.5 ml in 1 ml syringe

9 Rules Parenteral dosages Amounts of 0.5 ml to 1 ml calculated in tenths can be accurately measured in either 1 ml or 3 ml syringe

10 Example One Order: Cleocin 150 mg IM every 12 h Available: Cleocin 300 mg per 2 ml How many ml are needed for each dose?

11 Example One 1. Convert No conversion necessary 2. Think Estimate giving less than 2 ml Actually want to give 150 mg, which is half of 300 mg and half of 2 ml, or 1 ml Calculate to double-check estimate

12 Example One 3. Calculate Dosage on hand Amount on hand Dosage desired X Amount desired

13 Example One 3. Calculate Cross-multiply Simplify 300 mg 150 mg 2 ml X ml 300 X = X X 1 ml

14 Example One 1 ml needs to be given intramuscularly every 12 hours Select 3 ml syringe Measure 1 ml of Cleocin 300 mg per 2 ml from vial

15 Example Two Order: Robinul 150 mcg IM stat Available: Robinul 0.2 mg per ml How many ml are needed for each dose?

16 Example Two 1. Convert Equivalent: 1 mg = 1,000 mcg 0.2 mg = = 200 mcg

17 Example Two 2. Think Give less than 1 ml but more than 0.5 ml Avoid being fooled into thinking 0.2 mg is less than 150 mcg 0.2 mg is more than 150 mcg 0.2 mg = 200 mcg

18 Example Two 3. Calculate Cross-multiply Simplify 200 mcg 150 mcg 1 ml X ml 200 X = X X 0.75 ml

19 Example Two 0.75 ml of Robinul needs to be given immediately Select 1 ml syringe Measure 0.75 ml of Robinul 0.2 mg per ml May need to change needles Due to IM injection

20 Guidelines for Syringe Selection Standard doses more than 1 ml Round to tenths and measure in 3 ml syringe 3 ml syringe calibrated to 0.1 ml increments 1.53 ml rounded to 1.5 ml Drawn up in 3 ml syringe

21 Guidelines for Syringe Selection Small (less than 1 ml), critical care, or children s doses Round to hundredths and measure in 1 ml syringe 1 ml syringe calibrated in 0.01 ml increments ml rounded to 0.26 ml Drawn up in 1 ml syringe

22 Guidelines for Syringe Selection Amounts of 0.5 to 1 ml calculated in tenths Can be accurately measured in either 1 ml or 3 ml syringe

23 Insulin Supply dosage of insulin is 100 units per ml Abbreviated on label as U-100 Syringe must also be U-100 Delmar/Cengage Learning

24 Insulin Also available as 500 units per ml U-500 Used only in special circumstances Use extreme caution when administering Accidental overdose may result in irreversible insulin shock or death U-500 insulin syringe not available Use 1 ml syringe

25 Insulin Critical to be accurate Nurses must understand and correctly interpret insulin order and label Must select correct syringe

26 Insulin Action and Times Insulin Onset Peak Duration Rapid-acting (lispro, aspart, glulisine) 5 to 15 minutes 45 to 75 minutes 2 to 4 hours Short-acting (regular) 30 minutes 2 to 4 hours 5 to 8 hours Intermediate-acting (NPH) 2 hours 6 to 10 hours 18 to 24 hours Long-acting (detemir, glargine) 2 hours Up to 24 hours

27 Premixed Combination Insulin Combination of short-acting and intermediateacting insulin mixed in one vial Read label carefully to understand each type of insulin and concentration included in combination

28 Interpreting the Insulin Order Order must include: Brand-name, generic name, and action time Supply dosage (concentration) and number of units Route of administration and time frequency Example: Novolin N NPH U-100 insulin 24 units, SC, 30 minutes before breakfast daily

29 Insulin Sliding Scale Purpose: To cover or correct elevation in patient s blood glucose level Order: Humulin R U-100 insulin SC based on glucose reading at 1600

30 Insulin Sliding Scale Insulin Dose Glucose Reading* No coverage Glucose less than units 160 to units 221 to units 281 to units 341 to 400 * If greater than 400, hold insulin and call MD stat If glucose is 250, how many units of Humulin R U-100 insulin should be administered?

31 Rules for Measuring Insulin in an Insulin Syringe Measure U-100 insulin in U-100 insulin syringe only Use U-100 insulin syringes only to measure U-100 insulin Measure U-500 insulin in 1 ml syringe Two nurses must check insulin dosage before administration to patient

32 Measuring U-500 Insulin in a 1 ml Syringe Order: Humulin R U-500 regular insulin 280 units SC stat Available: Humulin R U-500 regular insulin How many ml are needed?

33 Measuring U-500 Insulin in a 1 ml Syringe 1. Convert Recall that U-500 equals 500 units per ml 2. Think There are 500 units in 1 ml 280 units is slightly more than half Estimate giving a little more than 0.5 ml Calculate to determine exact amount

34 Measuring U-500 Insulin in a 1 ml 3. Calculate Cross-multiply Simplify Syringe 500 units 280 units 1 ml X ml 500 X = X X 0.56 ml

35 Measuring U-500 Insulin in a 1 ml Syringe 0.56 ml needs to be given immediately Draw up 0.56 ml of Humulin R U-500 regular insulin in 1 ml syringe

36 Combination Insulin Dosing Two types of insulin prescribed to be administered at same time Usually rapid- or short-acting and intermediate-acting insulin ordered for same time

37 Combination Insulin Dosing If compatible, both insulins can be drawn up into same syringe Check manufacturer recommendation Long-acting insulins cannot be mixed in syringe with another insulin E.g., detemir, glargine

38 Combination Insulin Dosing Example order: Novolin N NPH U-100 insulin 40 units and Novolin R U- 100 insulin 12 units SC before breakfast daily First determine total number of units needed and choose correct insulin syringe = total of 52 units Need standard U-100 insulin syringe

39 Preparing Combination Insulin Dose Follow clear-to-cloudy rule Draw up clear insulin (regular) first Then draw up cloudy (NPH) insulin Roll vial of cloudy insulin in hands to mix before beginning procedure

40 Procedure for Combining Two Insulins in the Same Syringe 1. Draw back and inject 40 units of air into NPH insulin vial Withdraw needle 2. Draw back and inject 12 units of air into regular insulin vial Leave needle in vial

41 Procedure for Combining Two Insulins in the Same Syringe 3. Turn vial of U-100 regular insulin up-sidedown and draw out insulin to 12-unit mark 4. Insert needle into NPH insulin vial and withdraw insulin to 52-unit mark

42 Insulin: Avoiding Errors Check dosage with two nurses When combination dosages prepared, two nurses must verify each process step

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