UNIVERSIDAD TECNICA DE MANABI CAREER OF LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS GRADUATING THESIS IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE DEGREE OF: LICENCIADOS MAJOR: ENGLISH

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1 UNIVERSIDAD TECNICA DE MANABI Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias de la Educación CAREER OF LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS GRADUATING THESIS IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE DEGREE OF: LICENCIADOS MAJOR: ENGLISH MODALITY: COMMUNITARIAN WORK THEME: " IMPLEMENTATION AND TRAINING ON THE HANDLING OF DIDACTIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES AS BASIC AID FOR LEARNING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT THE GENERAL BASIC SCHOOL "CARMEN MARÍA BENALCAZAR" IN THE CANTON EL CARMEN AUTHORS Calvopiña Vera Mariuxy Liliana Chumo Zambrano Yuri Jennifer Moreira Zambrano Aura Monserrate Vera López Dayse Esdrina EL CARMEN MANABÍ ECUADOR 2011 LIC. SILVIO LOOR GARCIA DIRECTOR OF THESIS 1

2 DEDICATION There is not anything impossible because yesterday dreams are today hopes and they can become in fact tomorrow. I dedicate this thesis work to my husband Derly and to my son Johan for their unconditional love and their constant support which gave me enthusiasm to complete my proposal goal. Mariuxi Calvopiña 2

3 DEDICATION Each failure supposes a chapter more in the history of our lives and a lesson that helps us to grow and to be better for the future. I dedicate this thesis to my parents (+) that taught me to face the setbacks without never losing the dignity, neither to faint in the intent. To my sister Sonia who was the economic and emotional support in my life. Aura Moreira 3

4 DEDICATION The success begins with the man's will. I dedicate this thesis to my mother Nelly, for her understanding, and help, her love like mother and father knowing wisely to seek advice. Being my comfort in the hours of sadness and with self-confidence accompanied toward the execution of my proposed objectives. Yuri Chumo 4

5 DEDICATION Only the knowledge is able to liberate the individual from the chains of the ignorance and elevates it to a world of better possibilities. I dedicate this thesis work to my children Lénita, Andreína and José Jr. They pushed to my objectives, complement my happiness and the essential part in all that I intended, giving me their support to reach my ideals. Showing this way example so that I could achieve my traced goals. To my husband José Elías to be the emotional support in my life. Dayse 5

6 THANKS This project was possible thanks to the collaboration of people who love the development and advancement of education, people to whom we recorded our largest and most sincere thanks. to Ing. Silvio Loor Garcia, Director of this work, our sincere thanks for the successful conduction of this community work. To the authorities, parents, teachers and students of the" Escuela Carmen María Benalcázar", who allowed and made possible this successful community project. To each and every one of the people who in one way or another contributed to the development of this project Portoviejo, March The authors 6

7 CERTIFICATION Lic. Silvio Loor García, certifies that the present graduating thesis titled, Implementation and training on the handling of didactic and technological resources as basic aid for learning the English language at the general basic school "CARMEN MARÍA BENALCAZAR" was carried out by: Calvopiña Vera Mariuxy Liliana, Chumo Zambrano Yuri Jennifer, Moreira Zambrano Aura Monserrate, Vera López Dayse Esdrina, under my supervision: LIC. SILVIO LOOR GARCIA THESIS DIRECTOR Portoviejo, marzo

8 CERTIFICATION The members of the Tribunal of Revision and Evaluation of the present titled investigation work: Implementation and training on the handling of didactic and technological resources as basic aid for learning the English language at the general basic school "CARMEN MARÍA BENALCAZAR", elaborated by Calvopiña Vera Mariuxy Liliana, Chumo Zambrano Yuri Jennifer, Moreira Zambrano Aura Monserrate, and Vera López Dayse Esdrina, of the Career of Languages and Linguistics, certify that we have analyzed jointly with the Thesis Director, Lcdo. Silvio Loor García, and we have been able to check that fulfills the requirements demanded by the regulation as much in the form as in the context. Therby we sign the present certification. Ing. Silvio Loor García THESIS DIRECTOR.... Lcda. Viviana Gómez de Zevallos TRIBUNAL MEMBER.. Lcdo. Rafael Cando Tapia TRIBUNAL MEMBER. Lcdo. Joel Loor Ponce TRIBUNAL MEMBER 8

9 DECLARATION The undersigned declare that the ideas, approaches and results of the present work that was made under the Modality of Community Development are of their exclusive responsibility. The authors. Calvopiña Vera Mariuxy Liliana.. Chumo Zambrano Yuri Jennifer. Moreira Zambrano Aura Monserrate... Vera López Dayse Esdrina 9

10 INDEX PAGES 1. Physical location of the project Foundation Justification Objectives General objective Specific objectives 7 5. Referential Frame 8 CHAPTER I 5.1 TEACHING AIDS AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MEDIA FUNCTIONS OF THE MEDIA DESCRIPTION OF THE MEDIA. 5.2 DIDACTIC RESOURCES NEW TECHNOLOGIES: CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER LEARNING TECHNIQUES LEARNING DIFFICULTY MATERIAL USED ON AUDIOVISUAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING LEARNING 6. Beneficiaries Methodology Methods Techniques Instruments Population and sample Used resources Presentation, analysis and interpretation of results Survey to professors Survey to students Testing of objectives Conclusions and recommendations Sustainability and supportability. 73 REFERENCES: 1. Budget Chronogram Bibliography Annexes 79 10

11 SUMMARY This investigative work was about the Implementation and training on the handling of didactic and technological resources as basic aid for learning the English language at the general basic school "CARMEN MARÍA BENALCAZAR", canton El Carmen, period The principal objectives of this investigation were : To Implement and to empower the management of teaching resources and technology as basic support for English language learning students in the General Basic School "Carmen Maria Benalcazar" through the implementation of resources and training activities for teachers, based on this were state down the following specific objectives to implement a classroom with audiovisual equipment and means to improve teaching and learning process, to carryout training in the management of teaching resources and existing technology, and to Encourage teachers to update their teaching methodology. Once applied the different instruments for the gathering of information and installed the different technological equipments, and carried out the training to the teachers of the it is concluded that the General Basic School "Carmen Maria Benalcazar, now has a classroom made suitable for teaching learning of the English language; that 11

12 students and teachers feel more motivated toward the learning and teaching of the English language, what permits increasing the level of knowledge referring to this subject; consequently t is possible to educate students in a high-level way, so much in academic knowledge like in moral values and that professors they are qualified on the equipments use. RESUMEN Este trabajo de investigacion se basó en la implementacion y el entrenamiento en el manejo de recursos didácticos y tecnológicos como ayuda básica para aprender inglés en el escuela general básica "Carmen María Benalcazar", del Canton El Carmen en el periodo Los objetivos principales de esta investigación fueron: implementar y enseñar el manejo de recursos y tecnología como soporte básico para el Inglés en los estudiantes escuela general basica "Carmen María Benalcazar" a través de la puesta en funcionamiento de recursos y actividades de entrenamiento para profesores, sobre la base de esto se plantearon los siguientes objetivos específicos: implementar un aula con equipo audiovisual y medios para mejorar la enseñanza y aprendizaje como proceso, dar entrenamiento para llevar en la dirección correcta los recursos de enseñanza y tecnología existente, y animar profesores a actualizar su metodología de enseñanza. 12

13 Una vez conseguido e instalados los instrumentos diferentes y recogida la información y llevar el entrenamiento a los profesores se ha llegado a la conclusión de que: la Escuela General Basica "Carmen María Benalcazar, ahora tiene un aula de lenguaje; donde los estudiantes y profesores tienen mas motivacion hacia el aprender y la enseñanza de Inglés, lo que permite incrementar el nivel de conocimientos haciendo referencia a este tema; por consiguiente es possible educar a estudiantes en una mejor manera e idónea para realizar un proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje del Inglés de alto nivel, tanto en conocimientos académicos como en valores morales y por lo que los catedráticos estan capacitados sobre los equipos que usan. 13

14 1. PHYSICAL LOCATION The province of Manabí is located in central coastal region whose population exceeds 2,200,000 inhabitants has an area of 18,878.8 km2 formed by 24 cantons divided politically. 1.1 MACRO - LOCATION. MAP OF MANABI PROVINCE El Canton Carmen is considered the Manabí Golden Gate has 80,537,000 inhabitants, 42,337 in rural areas and 38,200 in urban areas. It is divided into two urban parishes (December 4 and El Carmen) 2 rural (Wilfrido Loor and San Pedro de Suma). 1

15 El Carmen is geographically located northwest of the province of Manabi bounded to the north by the provinces of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas the south by the province of Pichincha and Guayas province to the east by the provinces of Los Ríos and Santo Domingo Tsáchilas and to the west by the cantons Chone, Flavio Alfaro. 2.2 MICRO LOCATION This project has been made in the basic general school "Carmen Maria Benalcazar", which is located in the town of El Carmen, El Carmen parish Lotización Carmenses en lucha" Road to Chone, Juan Montalvo street, Area 257 (corner). It has a population of 436 students. 2

16 Its infrastructure consists of 7 classrooms, playground and recreation, besides regular education is provided compensatory education for people who have not had the opportunity to attend a formal education center, its operation is considered to disappear by government policies. It has a hectare of land with basic services of potable water, electricity, telephone, as health services has a block of latrines, toilets with drainage or septic tanks, it is crossed by a natural spring water, but it is 90% contaminated with sanitary discharges. 3

17 1. FOUNDATION Education is one of the main bases for the development of peoples, the canton El Carmen and surrounding areas have a student population that is growing day after day which needs to continue with a scientific, technical and human with meaningful learning. The Unesco considers four fundamental knowledge to improve the quality of education, these ideas are: To know know, to know-how, and knowing how to be and how to live, but you need to understand that globalization has taken over most areas, then becomes important proper management of teaching resources as an essential means to acquire knowledge. The education system seen as an important subject and English Language is part of the curricula, for this reason it is considered that the management of teaching resources to support the basic for English language learning, schoolteachers have difficulties in practice thereof. It should be noted that in many cases the students have failed in the English Language by the lack of practice and in many cases due to lack of proper management of teaching resources to enable them listening, writing, reading, English Language and specifically practice with knowledgeable people in the language. This work is aimed at implementing and training of schoolteachers of Basic General School "Carmen María Benalcázar" to properly manage educational and technological resources of the institution and in many cases to create the educational resources necessary to motivate classes and improve the teaching of learning. The realization of this project has provided a huge social service as schoolteachers improve their knowledge, develop skills and abilities in the management of educational resources. This project will generate training 4

18 schoolteachers to increase high-level educational resources to promote meaningful learning that lasts throughout life. 2.1 DIAGNOSIS OF COMMUNITY The institution being national has a majority of students from disrupted homes (single mothers, migrants, parents divorced or separated) parents rely on children to perform heavy work or send them to the streets to perform business tasks(newspaper boys, shoe shiners, prepared food sellers) to supplement the family budget, ie all work at home. Students at the school have an average health for scarce economic resources and the disintegrated family. The reality of the institution is itin infrastructure has 7 classrooms, the floors are packed cement, the walls are plastered and painted, it has no laboratories of any kind, a sports field, teaching resources it has only the basics such as blackboards acrylic signs, with drawings about the government. Bi-personal benches, desks, chairs, and proper lighting. There are 6 schoolteachers under contract and 7 schoolteachers as plant staff which is consistent with the policy of extinction of these educational institutions. It has the basic services of electricity, piped water, and sewage disposal for subversion, solid waste disposal is done through the collectors who spend time by the sector. This school is poor but it has very helpful inhabitants who are always ready for any need. These lands were of Benalcazar Hermosa family, such that it was for other purposes but was invaded by low-income people caused the Ministry of Education and Culture shall appoint these lands as a school which later would be a state school. The school was created in 1995 as a private. 5

19 2.2 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS Problems or needs identified by interviews and surveys of schoolteachers, authorities, students and parents are as follows. Lack of classrooms. Lack of training in the management of teaching resources and technology Few economic resources Des updated methods and techniques Lack of schoolteachers. Deterioration of the administrative infrastructure Inadequate restrooms Lack of communication within the institution Low coverage of basic services Lack of value practice by students 3.3 PRIORIZATION OF PROBLEMS Definition of problems and prioritization 6

20 IMPACT SCALE PROBLEMS MAGNITUD IMPACT TOTAL PROBLEMS Lack of classrooms. X X 8 2 Lack of training in the management of teaching resources and technology x x 8 3 Few economic resources X X 6 4 No updated methods and techniques X X 6 5 Lack of schoolteachers. X x 6 6 Deterioration of the administrative X X 6 infrastructure 7 Inadequate restrooms X X 6 8 Lack of communication within the X X 6 institution 9 Low coverage of basic services x x 6 10 Lack of value practice by students PRIORIZED PROBLEM: "LACK OF CLASSROOMS AND FEW TEACHING RESOURCES AND LACK OF TRAINING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR SCHOOL SCHOOLTEACHERS IN GENERAL BASIC" CARMEN MARIA BENALCAZAR " 7

21 3. JUSTIFICATIONS Given the lack of training of schoolteachers of Basic General School "Carmen Maria Benalcazar" in the use of educational resources where there is not motivation and improved academic performance and unwillingness to use teaching resources and technology has made human beings have an individualistic behavior, not very participatory working together, affecting the development of their own, family and community, reflected in failing the year by students because the lack of motivation. Based on the above it is considered necessary that schoolteachers in the school "Carmen Maria Benalcazar" are trained in the use of audiovisual teaching resources in the area of English to improve their performance in front of school development. It Is the reason that graduates from College of Philosophy and Science of Education are responsible for English specialty transfer of knowledge. Significant knowledge of the techniques, methods and resources for academic planning depends on the mode of teaching is essential so that schoolteachers can update and enhance new research strategies. The realization of this project will provide a huge social service as schoolteachers improve their knowledge, develop skills and abilities in the management of educational resources. This project will generate training schoolteachers to increase high-level educational resources to promote meaningful learning that lasts throughout life. 8

22 4. OBJECTIVES 4.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE To Implement and to empower the management of teaching resources and technology as basic support for English language learning students in the General Basic School "Carmen Maria Benalcazar" through the implementation of resources and training activities for schoolteachers. 4.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES To carry out a participative diagnoses about the problems that the students face at the Escuela General Básica Carmen María Benalcázar To Implement a classroom with modern and technological didactic teaching resources to improve teaching and learning process. To carry out training about the management of modern and technological didactic teaching resources. To Encourage schoolteachers to update their teaching methodology. 9

23 5. REFERENCE FRAMEWORK 10

24 CHAPTER TEACHING AIDS AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES. Given that any material can be used in certain circumstances, as a resource to facilitate teaching and learning processes (for example, some stones can work the notions of major and minor with preschoolers), but considering that not all materials used in education have been created with a didactic intent, we distinguish the concepts of teaching tool and educational resource. Didactic material is teaching or any material produced with the intention of facilitating the teaching and learning. For example, a textbook or a multimedia program that allows chemical formulation practices. Educational resource is any material that in a given educational context, to be used with a didactic or to facilitate the development of training activities. Educational resources that can be used in teaching and learning situation may or may not teaching aids. o A video to learn what are the volcanoes and their dynamics will be a teaching (teaching aims), however a video to a report in National Geographic about volcanoes in the world despite it can be used as an educational resource is not in itself teaching material (only intended to inform.) 1 1 Helen Coppen, (1982) Utilización didáctica de los medios audiovisuales. Editorial Anaya/2, Madrid 11

25 5.1.1 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MEDIA. In analyzing the teaching aids, and without going into pragmatic and organizational aspects that make up its contextual use in each situation, we can identify the following elements: - The system of symbols (textual, iconic, sound) used. In the case of a video are almost always images, voices, music and texts. - The material content (software), composed of semantic elements of content, its structure, the didactic elements that are used (introduction to advance organizers, underline, questions, application exercises, summaries, etc.),as presentation and style. In short: information and proposed activity. - The technological platform (hardware) that supports and acts as a mediation tool to access the material. In the case of a video will support such a tape and the instrument to access the content will be the recorder. - The environment of communication with the user, which produces certain types of mediation in the teaching and learning (interaction that generates, facilitates pragmatic). If a particular medium is immersed in an environment of higher learning, can increase its functionality to take advantage of some features from that environment. 12

26 5.1.2 FUNCTIONS OF THE MEDIA. According as used in the teaching and learning, teaching aids and educational resources in general can perform various functions, among them stand out as common as follows: - Provide information. Virtually all the information provided explicitly teaching aids, books, videos, software... - To guide the learning of students, instruct. Help organize information, to relate knowledge to create new knowledge and apply... It's what makes a textbook for example. - Exercise skills training. For example, a computer program that requires a certain psychomotor response to its users. - To motivate, to arise and maintain interest. A good educational material should always be motivating for students. - Assess the knowledge and skills you have, as do questions of textbooks or software. Correcting students' mistakes sometimes made explicitly (as in the case of multimedia who monitor the actions of the users) and in other cases it is implicit because it is the student who realizes his errors (as happens for example when interacting with a simulation) 13

27 - Provide simulations that provide environments for observation, exploration and experimentation. For example, a flight simulator computer, which helps to understand how to pilot a plane 2. - Provide environment for expression and creation. This is the case of word processors or computer graphics publishers DESCRIPTION OF THE MEDIA. The poster It is a communication system made to say something and to understand at first sight. Must be conspicuous, clear, original ideas and to draw attention. It must be understood quickly. The elements that compose a poster must include: Picture: photos, collage, drawings Word Color And it is used in Use advertising: advertising campaigns or awareness. Use teaching: To teach, to educate. Use Decorative: Decorating the classroom. In protest: to protest something or to make a banner. 2 Herbert E. Scuorzo (1970) Manual práctico de medios audiovisuales. Editorial Kapelusz, Buenos Aires. 14

28 The poster can be used in many areas such as in: Spanish language : we use the resource of the lineup when we see the issue of advertising, offering for the children to make a poster about a particular product, then exposing it to the class. Drawing: be proposed to the children to make a sign of social protest and then expose it before the whole class. English: You can make posters with children, with basic vocabulary words, so that in addition to decorating the classroom with classroom phrases, words, provide some assistance in the future, including: hello!, can you spell it?, May I go to the bathroom? Math: We would do the same as in English. Posters would realize the most important concepts and worth remembering. In conclusion I would like to point out that the poster is a resource we can use in all subjects, as well as expensive a resource that kids love them, allowing them to be creative, and teach their work to the rest of the class, that makes them feel special. The teacher most often has to be aware of the type of sign post children and do control the comments from colleagues, so that they cannot offend or discourage the child who is exhibiting. The Slideshow Audiovisuals are in that integrates the image, provided by a slideshow with a soundtrack. The image-sound perfect coordination is achieved by a synchronization unit which emits pulses, previously established, relevant for the passage of the image. Sometimes, the slide assembly is replaced by authentic sound track, due to not 15

29 having a synchronization unit. In these the sound is taxed on cassette and the slide step is manual, trying to adapt to the soundtrack. The slide may comprise different objectives, such as visualization process, narrative of events bibliography. But it serves especially as a motivator and triggering its cargo aesthetic emotions. The process can be used didactically to motivate students in search of information, text, images, music and the depth on the issues, and to promote sensitivity and aesthetic sense. The slides can be used in many subjects. Literature: You can make children act out a story or a play. And based on his work made the scenery on a slide and choose the music they like English: after studying the issue of family, children can make different slides with members of his family and set a track that suits the different slides. This work would be advisable to do so in groups. History: make a slide show that has a day or a kind of story based on a particular period of history (Middle Ages, Stone Age, etc...). Of course the students should also perform audio, with music and vocals, this makes the work more rewarding. In my opinion, the slide is a resource that needs too much time for preparation, and can be very expensive. And with young children would be too long to prepare or even too complicated, that this resource, you get more out with older people. This resource can be used by the teacher, especially as a complement to explanations of concepts that follow a process or a story like someone's life, a historical event or a natural process. The Overhead Projector The overhead, also called "Periscope projector" or "power board" is a device equipped with a light bulb, an optical prism that projects the image on the screen and a special flat lens that is placed on the drawing made transparent acetate. Projects a magnified image of the original on a screen or wall, located behind the teacher or the person using it, hence the name most common overhead projector. 16

30 The projector is designed for the teacher to give his explanation without having to give back to their listeners. You can view the contents of its acetate on the same overhead and signal right there without turning back. The overhead is very good resource to supplement the explanations, an explanation supported by an outline of the subject, clarifies and orders the student's ideas, helping you take better notes and especially to see clearly the important points of the explanation. A conceptual framework or a drawing in which are reflected the most important issue, it helps you see at a glance, the most important explanation. 3 Radio A device that collects radio waves emitted by one. The radio transmitter in a device that produces and sends signal carrier waves and sounds. Make the classroom in daily activities for the child. Bringing the children radio. Avoid the fear of public speaking. Increase vocabulary and expressions Develop creativity Be able to improvise without fear of being wrong. They are motivated when searching for material and writing the news, because they're motivated by the simple fact they be the protagonists and the center of attention of others. Radio is a resource that can be used in the classroom in all subjects. In literature we can work the radio separating children into groups and giving each 3 Libro Blanco Para La Reforma del Sistema Educativo. Minis terio de Educación y Ciencia. 17

31 group a shortlist for you to prepare in an hour. Knowing that then have to expose their companions in a radio program. Therefore, the students guided by the teacher, will have to prepare interviews on the subject, announcements related to the time when the subject stands to explain, conduct discussions, etc Speaking on the subject this resource could be used to help children learn to speak in public. Would divide the class into groups and each group prepared a radio program in a different formula (a musical group, other group news, the other an evening program, etc.) And then present it to the rest of his teammates. In mathematics could also be used to make a quiz program problems where children have a specific time to respond properly. In conclusion I would comment that radio is a great resource for absolutely every subject, because it causes children to develop imagination, improve the way of expressing himself, not afraid to speak in public. I also think that the resource is very motivating because students feel the focus and also their colleagues are going to recognize their hard work. It is a very inexpensive and easy to implement in the classroom since it only requires the imagination to recreate the atmosphere of the radio. Comics or cartoons It is a narrative sequence formed by bullets or tables that depict figures and written text. A comic and a cartoon are the same 4 The components are the development of the imaginative and relationship with the group's ideas. The comic has these parts: 4 ibidem 18

32 Cartoons Texts Balloons Mounting Structures Gestures Onomatopoeia In the comic all facial changes, movements and gestures are stereotyped, such as good-looking and bad. Onomatopoeia are words that express a noise, usually placed in the center of the bullet and come from English verbs. The balloons and snacks is where most of the text conveys the comic verbal, can be of different ways. Each sandwich is only part of a bullet, but it depends on each artist. Insert the understanding of a mass media closely linked with the environment of the kids. Be a channel of artistic development and creativity. Empower young children develop motor aspects required in the process of literacy learning. Like almost all the resources that we know the comic can be used in all subjects. It is a resource that relies heavily on the imagination of the teacher. In English, we can use to do a comic book has been read, of course the text should be in English. In drawing, it can be used to make an advertising campaign on something, a perfume, cream, shoes, etc. It may also be used to express a protest, racism, xenophobia, etc. In history, you can divide the children into groups and propose to make a comic about a specific time, eg from the Middle Ages. The teacher for each group will help 19

33 children to make the comic. If each group makes a different era, the end of the course can make a comic book with all periods of history. Internet Transmission is more important today, it has a global coverage with millions of users online and we allow communication between computers in a simple, fast and economical. It allows us to jump over obstacles Interacting with people Internet can be used in all subjects, and today there are many educational games that are applicable in all subjects. There is no specific age to begin with that resource, as many school children use this resource, but always with programs tailored to them. There are infinite possibilities on the web, you can send them to read a particular page or make a job, giving you the pages where you can find information, also you can give a search engine and a concept to find and they try to reach a conclusion for themselves. There are thousands of pages of English, translators, pages that teach you how to write either a sentence, we can find many web pages that relate to education. We can also introduce our students and chat and meet people from other countries and therefore different cultures and ways of thinking. Another good activity would be to express your opinion in a forum and see the answers that has led to the following week. Internet also offers contests for all schools and in different areas and this can motivate a lot of children of any age. Just to say that the Internet is one of the best resources that currently exist in education, but also one of the most expensive, and that the teacher must be very careful of what students see and read on the net and create in them a critical attitude to all information presented to them before. 20

34 Educational Press The adaptation of the press or articles on it, the school environment as a means of knowledge and depth topic and content. It is important in the classroom to introduce the important aspects of child development as: o Because we approach the society. We give the students or the need to decide for themselves. By bringing the press by students who are interested in doing it. o Students develop a critical sense to what they read. They make it alive or learning and reading. o The student develops his own style as well as writing and vocabulary. This resource can be used in all subjects, and so children can compare their lives with real examples, for example, in history, prehistory can then go to the museum and the kids do an essay comparing the who have studied and what they have seen. Also can lead them to a movie in English, and they tell us the differences in teaching English and film (accent, tone, pause) You may bring a newspaper and pick a story about religion and compare it with we are seeing in the classroom. Television and video These are media which transmit audio and video messages. Television whatever with a schedule that gives the same for all viewers, and video is a tape where we previously recorded in the future what we see, these recordings we can see on television. Mainly used the video, a video camera to record the activities of students and watching them later. Television can be used to record video with a program of interest to a subject, such as a documentary. Another way to use it is that students in groups, explained through a video interview the various topics of a subject. 21

35 Slide Photographic images are transparent so they can be recognized in all the principles of photography. They are mounted in special frames of cardboard or plastic in which, in turn, must report the contents thereof. For observation is necessary projection. Slide The protector consists mainly of a light source and an optical system. The light passes through the slide and projects an inverted image of it on the screen. High definition is achieved with this system is the cause of the high quality, both in the sharpness of the lines as in the color fidelity. The slide as didactic material is excellent in describing structures of all kinds, due to the quality and image size, so it is a very suitable for the study of art and natural science. The slides, projected in sequenced series can be applied to the explanation of processes of any kind. It is not only useful for the presentation of information, but can review and activities: creative, observation, reconnaissance, etc. And also evaluated. Especially used as a supplement to the explanations, for example when explaining art, students observe a slide of the sites they are studying helps them to remember them, making fun and interesting explanation. Furthermore, this method enables high fidelity color and shapes, and sometimes even feasible to project almost natural size, which will provide students with an image very close to reality wing. The activity of making slides in class is fun and entertaining, can be used in addition to an explanation or review of a topic. After the explanation of a subject, especially history or a natural process, we ask you students to summarize these events or processes in a slideshow. With that students internalize and especially arranged everything he learned in his mind. Explaining the story through slides, can be very motivating and fun, especially for young children, to which a long explanation can be boring, whereas if you complement the explanation to show, you can memorize better. In conclusion I think 22

36 the slide is a good resource for learning about all subjects related to history, art, natural processes and all that knowledge that can be told through a story. 23

37 CHAPTER LEARNING TECHNIQUES There are several instructional techniques for helping students with learning disabilities, memory or transmission of information. Between them is the direct instruction method that is based on a systematic curriculum with a very structured and tailored plan in which students actively participate frequently and another method is based on providing the student with specific learning strategies such as the improve their ability to memorize or develop their ability to solve problems. Schoolteachers can also help their students to work around certain individual learning problems, for example. A teacher may allow a student with retention problems using a tape recorder to dictate notes and record explanations of class. It is alleged that a particular theory of motivation is "totally useless" and another is the only rations that means ignoring the evidence and may deprive students of variety, which is the best in learning and life. Another factor influencing learning is the process of cognitive tasks and that is why schoolteachers should take the time to carefully assess the work of the students, modify the difficulty of the tasks and an opportunity to correct, should apply techniques and methods to encourage students to set specific and realistic goals. Schoolteachers should monitor the differences between the objectives and performance. In order to prevent the planned objectives. 5 5 Rosalía Elena Aranda Redruello (1980) Actividades extraescolares para la edad infantil. Editorial Escuela Española, S.A., Madrid 24

38 5.2.1 LEARNING DIFFICULTY No one sign that shows that a person has a learning difficulty. Experts seek a noticeable difference between the current school progress and the level of progress that could be achieved, given his intelligence or ability. There are also some indications that could mean that the child has a learning difficulty. These are included below. Most of them are with the tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be found in elementary school. It is likely that the student does not exhibit all these signs, or even most of them. However, if the child exhibits several of these difficulties, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning difficulty. When the student has a learning difficulty, he or she: may have trouble learning the alphabet, to rhyme words or connecting letters with their sounds; You can make mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often; may not understand what they read; may have trouble with spelling; May have messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly; You struggle to express their ideas in writing; You can learn language late and have a limited vocabulary; May have trouble remembering the sounds of letters or hear small differences between words; May have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm; may have trouble following directions; 25

39 You may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar; may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or can not think of the word you need to write or talk; You can not follow social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may get too close to the person who listens; May confuse math symbols and misread numbers; It may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third), or You may not know where to begin a task or how to go from there MATERIAL USED ON AUDIOVISUAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING LEARNING As has long been insisting from the makers of the educational system, the speed with which to multiply the knowledge, the dizzying transformation of knowledge into information, the need for it to function quickly strategically in complex and little to anticipate them, makes need a new approach to teaching / learning strategies including new and new tools that provide new technologies. It provides, therefore, the need to handle the new codes for the training of our students as citizens of a modern, multicultural society. According to these principles is easy to highlight the importance of projects that integrate English language as a communication tool, and the management and use of new technologies such as access and information processing. 7 Traditionally, in teaching English it has been using the new technologies of information and communication. Always felt that they help us more direct 6 ibidem 7 Definición de aprendizaje significativo. Disponible en: 26

40 knowledge of the civilizations of the English-speaking countries through audiovisual documents list the lifestyles and customs, communication systems, etc. and secondly, help us in our classrooms include greater diversification of resources to help motivate and encourage students within the communicative approach to English. The nuclear target revolves around the concern to verify whether or not there are significant differences in motivation and student learning under the use or not of the audiovisual media in the classroom and in particular in the case of overhead (image) and video (moving image) 8. 8 Aprendizaje-Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Disponible en: 27

41 CHAPTER DIDACTIC RESOURCES. - Conventional materials: - Forms (texts): books, photocopies, newspapers, documents... - Didactic boards: slate, franelogram... - Handing Materials: to cut papers, graphics boards... - Games: architectures, board games... - Laboratory materials... - Audiovisual materials: - fixed and proyectables Images (pictures): slides, pictures... - Sound (audio) materials: cassettes, disks, radio programs... - Audiovisual (videotape) materials: audiovisual assemblies, movies, videotapes, television programs NEW TECHNOLOGIES: - computer program (CD or on-line) educational: video games, author's languages, learning activities, presentations multimedia, encyclopedias, animations and interactive simulations. 28

42 - Telematic services: pages web, weblogs, virtual tours, webquest, hunts of the treasure, electronic mail, chats, forums, didactic units and on-line courses... So that a didactic material is effective in the achievement of some learnings, it is not enough which it is about a "good material", neither it is necessary that it is a material of last technology. When we select educational resources to use in our educational work, besides their objective quality we must consider their specific characteristics (contents, activities, tutoring.) are in consonance with curricular certain aspects of our educational context in what measure: - The educational objectives that we seek to achieve. We must consider the material can help us to it in what measure 9. - The contents that will be using the material should be according to the contents of the subject that we are working with our students. - The characteristics of the students that will use them: capacities, styles cognitive, interests, previous knowledge, experience and abilities required for the use of these materials... All didactic material requires its users to have some certain prerequisites. - The characteristics of the context (physical, curricular...) in the one that we develop our work and where we plan to use the didactic material that we are selecting. Perhaps a very unfavorable context can advise not to use a material, for good that this is; for example if it is about a multimedia program and there are few computers or the maintenance of the computer classroom is faulty. 9 Educar: Comunidades Virtuales de Aprendizaje Colaborativo. Disponible en: 29

43 - The didactic strategies that we can design considering the use of the material. These strategies contemplate: the sequence of the contents, the group of activities that can be intended to the students, the methodology associated to each one, the educational resources that can be used, etc. This way, the selection of the materials to use with the students will always be carried out in a contextualized way in the mark of the design of an educational concrete intervention, considering all these aspects and keeping in mind the curricular elements that impact on them. The careful revision in the possible ways of using the material will allow to design learning activities and didactic efficient methodologies that assure the effectiveness in the achievement of the foreseen learning. 30

44 10 Each didactic means, according to their structural elements offers some concrete benefits and it opens certain possibilities use in the mark of some activities of learning that, in function of the context, they can allow significant advantages in front of the use of other alternative means. To be able to determine advantages of another means, we should always consider since the application context, for example, a material multimedia hipertextual is not "per herself" better than a conventional book. The use of didactic resources with the students always supposes risks: that finally all are not available, that the necessary machines don't work, that they are not as good 10 Definición de aprendizaje significativo. Disponible en: 31

45 as we thought, that the students get excited with the means but they only use it in playfully way.. Hence, and to reduce these risks, when planning an educational intervention and before beginning a class session in which is planned to use an educational resource it suits to assure three key supports: - The technological support. To assure that everything is to point and working: to revise the hardware, the software, all the materials that will be needed. -The didactic support. Before the session make a revision of the material, and prepare appropriate activities to the students and the curriculum. - The organizational support. To take into account of the readiness of the appropriate spaces and to think the way to distribute the students, the time that the session, the methodology to use (directed, semi directed, free use of the material) 6. BENEFICIARIES The beneficiaries of this project about community work are: Direct: Students and schoolteachers at the Escuela General Básica Carmen María Benalcázar because, being the technological resources a pedagogical tool in the learning process, they will serve as support in the training and formation of the 32

46 schoolteachers and students. So they are consistent with the requirements of field training and employment of the country, and also for schoolteachers because they serve to strengthen the content they work with the students becoming the learning much more innovative. Indirect: Authorities, community and society in general in preparing scientifictechnological, so the students become better in performance, which will be carrying the message of excellence here at the university and in correspondence to the community and society. 7. METHODOLOGY The methodology used, and which was supported in the investigation it was ACTION-PARTICIPATORY, because researchers had to take decisions to effect changes in the reality studied, so to this specific case, it was made the diagnoses in the institution named previously. 7.2 TECHNIQUES Observation through this technique could be detected the problem on the lack of a classroom for presentations and projections in the Career of Language and Linguistics. Interview, addressed to the authorities of the faculty to finish better this research work. 33

47 Survey, to students and schoolteachers to find out the views on the current activities and receive some suggestions about the same. 7.3 INSTRUMENTS Guide for observation applied to the authorities. Questionnaire surveys provide us a closer view from the population that could benefit from this work with their responses and suggestions. Blogs that served to record the most significant points of the research. Tape recorders and DVD-Video. Masonry To carry out our work it was necessary to build up a small wall of m2 before carrying out the facilities for the equipments. Specifications It mixed a Rocafuerte cement sack with fine sand and water to lift the wall, thereby which 100 burritos bricks were used. For the plastered it used fine sand, Rocafuerte cement, water, the mixture was done according to the necessary measures for the preparation. 34

48 Once the material was ready it began to plaster the tract of interior wall. It is necessary to emphasize that this work was carried out by a bricklayer in a period of 2 days. Change of certain parts of the floor It was carried out the respective change of certain wood that was damaged. Specifications: The damaged wood was separated. The new wood is placed. Nail and hammer were used. This work was carried out by a carpenter in one day. Change of certain part of the roof It was used four squares of common ceiling with their respective bars. Specifications The squares of ceiling with their respective bars were placed. This work was carried out by a carpenter in a period of one day. 35

49 Electric facilities The respective necessary electric facilities to install the audiovisual equipments were carried out, considering point of illumination (110 v) and of plug (120 polarized v). The electric facilities were carried out according to the equipment type that was settled. The connection was also made where the plug was located for the fans in the signal place. Specifications Spread of the wires toward the plugs polarized in a total of three. Solid cable #10 for input. The respective plugs were placed. This work was carried out by an electrician in a period of one day. Painting The walls were painted with painting of enamel and rubber, to a height of baseboard of 120 m. while in the superior part of the wall rubber paint was used, in an area of m2. Specifications The walls were painted with rubber beige paint, two hands were given and two gallons were used. The following day it proceeded to paint the walls with beige painting of rubber, until what is the baseboard, to which was given two hands. 36

50 Then the baseboard was painted that is divided by a fringe of green color. Window The cleaning of the windows was made and they wer painted. The dimension of the window is of 1,50 mt. The work was carried out by a painter. Curtains A curtain of 1, 50 mt was placed. This work was carried out by the graduated. Arrangement of the door The door was sanded that it is important part to maintain the security of equipments and furniture installed in the classroom. It proceeded to protect the walls of the classroom to avoid staining them. The dimension of the door is 1,20 x 1,70. Fans The fans were installed in the front part and another in the later part. These equipments are very indispensable to maintain the ventilation of the classroom, to have a warm and normal atmosphere to teach English. Specifications 37

51 This was installed by an electrical technician. Placement of the board It proceeded for the placement of the respective board that has an area of 1,40 of wide x 1,00 of height. Specifications It was used staples to be able to place the board. This work was carried out by the graduated. The floor was cleaned and waxed. Once dried the floor it proceeded to place the wax to obtain the appropriate shine. The cleaning and the waxed of the floor was carried out by the graduated. Use of the carpet. Once waxed the floor the carpet was placed, this work was carried out by the graduated. Desk elaboration To the implementation of the classroom with audiovisual equipments was necessary to change the furniture, that is to say the teacher desk and the students desks with some of better quality and resistance. Content of the desk 38

52 24 seats and 12 tables, locating two seats in each table and a desk for the professor with its respective seat, the elaboration of the tables and desks were carried out by a cabinetmaker. The seats were bought in a warehouse. Television About the audiovisual equipments for the classroom a 20' color television was chosen Tekno that allows us to capture an electromagnetic sign that consists of images and sounds marks so that the students receive the inter - learning in a creative, dynamic and participative way, the same one that would be of great utility, for the professor work. DVD A DVD Tekno was chosen that is a device of massive storage of data, it contains 25 times more information and can transmit them to the computer POBLACIÓN Y MUESTRA: La presente investigación se realizó en la escuela general básica Carmen María Benalcázar, tomando el 45 % de la población de alumnos matriculados en la institución y el 100% como muestra de la totalidad de la población de docentes y autoridades y el 21 % de los representantes. 39

53 Escuela general básica Carmen María Benalcázar POBLACIÓN % MUESTRA % Estudiantes de la escuela Profesores Representantes TOTAL RESOURCES TO USE To obtain the product and get the proposed objective it is needed of a quantity of resources, like: human, materials and financial HUMAN Resources involved in the proposal were: Dean of the Ability. Director of Thesis. Members of the Tribunal of Thesis. Carpenter. Electrician. Painter Bricklayer The graduated of the Career of Languages and Linguistic MATERIALS Cement Sand 40

54 Water Brick burrito Construction materials (badilejo, meter, level, etc.) Cables Switches Extinguishers Contacts Plugs Electric implements ( staples, screws, tapes, etc.) Painting Diluter Implements (sand, brushes, spatulas) Curtains Spongy clean floor Creamy wax Tables Seats Television DVD Fans Desk Books Liquid board 8.3. FINANCIAL The present work had a cost of $4, USD 00, which were financed 100% by the graduated. 41

55 9. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE OBTAINED RESULTS IN THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM. 42

56 9.1. SURVEY TO STUDENTS 43

57 CHART Nº Which one do you think are the principal problems at the institution? ORDEN ALTERNATIVA CANTIDAD % A. Lack of classrooms 0 0 B. Lack of modern didactic resources C Little training received by the school teachers TOTAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION Series1 Series2 Lack of classrooms Lack of modern didactic resources Little training received by the school teachers A. B. C SOURCE: The Students ELABORATED BY: The Authors 44

58 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND CHART No. 1 When students were asked Which one do you think are the principal problems at the institution? They responded as follows: Lack of modern didactic resources the 50 % and Little training received by the school teachers the other 50 %. The conclusion is that, the principal problems that the institution has they are Lack of modern didactic resources and Little training received by the school teachers so the environment where the interaction takes place the learning is essential to ensure the success of the academic process in relation to the teaching of English. 45

59 CHART Nº Do you agree to implement a classroom with modern and didactic technological materials? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. Yes B. No 17 9 TOTAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION 91; 33% 183; 67% 1 2 SOURCE: The Students ELABORATED BY: The Authors 46

60 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND CHART No. 2 To investigate the students' opinion about the subjects for learning were elicited the following responses: 93 % of the surveyed responded yes and 7 % said no.. According to these results, almost all students believe that the implementation of a classroom with modern and technological materials, audio-visual programs used to improve the teaching of English because, as schoolteachers have adequate tools to motivate students toward meaningful learning. 47

61 CHART Which modern and technological didactic material elements would they be better for learning? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. Televisor B. Projector C. Recorder D. All of them TOTAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION 3 28; 14% 52; 26% 42; 21% 78; 39% Televisor Projector Recorder All of them SOURCE: The Students ELABORATED BY: The Authors 48

62 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND CHART No. 3 To investigate the students' opinion on audiovisual element that learn better, we obtained the following responses: From the sample 78 students surveyed 39 % responded projector, 52 students for the 26%, replied TV, while 42 students said recorder 21%, the remaining 28 students, 14 %, completed all of them. According to these results, almost all students believe that the implementation of a classroom with a projector used to improve the teaching of English, because schoolteachers have adequate tools to motivate students toward meaningful learning. 49

63 CHART Do the school schoolteachers have to receive training on the handling of the modern technological resources? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. Yes B. No TOTAL GRAPHIC Nº4 No 36% Yes 64% SOURCE: The Students ELABORATED BY: The Authors 50

64 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND CHART No. 4 When students were asked whether the school schoolteachers have to receive training on the handling of the modern technological resources, they replied as follows: Yes 64% No, 36%. The conclusion is that the school schoolteachers have to receive training on the handling of the modern resources technological material, which is essential to ensure the success of the academic process in relation to the teaching of English. 51

65 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF THE SURVEY AIMED TO THE BASIC EDUCATION SCHOOLTEACHERS 52

66 CHART Nº Which do you think are the principal problems at the institution? ORDEN ALTERNATIVA CANTIDAD % A. Lack of classrooms 0 0 B. Lack of modern didactic resources C Little training received by the school teachers 8 46 TOTAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION Series1 Series Lack of classrooms Lack of modern didactic resources Little training received by the school teachers A. B. C SOURCE: The Schoolteachers ELABORATED BY: The Authors 53

67 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND CHART No. 1 When asked to the schoolteachers Which were institution, they replied as follows: the principal problems at the The Lack of modern didactic resources 54 %, and Little training received by the school teachers 46 %. According to these results all schoolteachers definitely feel that Lack of modern didactic resources and Little training received by the school teachers are the principal problem of the institution and the academic level of students will implement programs to improve auditory, visual and cognitive knowledge in a virtual classroom, since this type of elements motivates students to a dynamic, critical, thoughtful and meaningful learning. 54

68 CHART Nº Do you agree to implement a classroom with modern and didactic technological materials? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. Yes B. NO 0 0 TOTAL GRAPHIC Nº2 No 0% YES 100 % SOURCE: The Schoolteachers ELABORATED BY: The Authors 55

69 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND CHART No. 2 When asked the opinion of schoolteachers about whether the implementation of audiovisual equipment serve as a tool to improve teaching in relation to the subject of English, we obtained the following responses: The 18 schoolteachers interviewed it means 100% answered yes. According to these results all the educational ones consider that definitively the academic level of the students will improve implementing auditory, visual and cognitive programs installed in a classroom with didactic modern elements of new technology, this type of elements motivates the students toward a dynamic, criticize, reflexive and significant learning. They also agree that the implementation of audiovisual equipment will improve the teaching in relation to the subject of English, as well as generate significant learning, making the knowledge in learning processes that will help face challenges in their future life. 56

70 CHART Nº Are you interested in being enabled in the handling of didactic modern resources of new technology to improve the English teaching? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. YES B. NO 2 11 TOTAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION 2, 11% , 89% SOURCE: The Schoolteachers ELABORATED BY: The Authors 57

71 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND GRAPHIC No. 3 When schoolteachers were asked if they were interested in being enabled in the handling of didactic modern resources of new technology to improve the teaching in a general way and of English in particular in what students learn English, they replied as follows: 16 schoolteachers interviewed it means 89 % chose the alternative Yes. 11 % answered no. The results indicate that according to the criterion all the schoolteachers are interested in being enabled in the handling of didactic modern resources of new technology to improve the teaching in a general way and of English in particular in what students learn English. 58

72 CHART Nº Your familiarization like professor in the handling of the didactic modern and technological materials motivate you to improve your process? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. yes B. NO 0 0 TOTAL GRAPHIC Nº4 No 0% yes 100% SOURCE: The Schoolteachers ELABORATED BY: The Authors 59

73 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND GRAPHIC No. 4 By asking schoolteachers if the familiarization like professor in the handling of the didactic modern and technological materials motivate them to improve their process, they replied as follows: The 18 schoolteachers interviewed agreed to choose the alternative SI, which corresponds to 100%. These results support that schoolteachers need training in the use of new visual resources for its use and development of new content, as Technology is an active part of English language teaching and comprehensive support for training the students, and also motivate them to improve their process. 60

74 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF THE SURVEY TO THE PARENTS 61

75 CHART Nº1 1.- Do you think that the students will have a better English learning with an audio visual room? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. Yes B. NO 0 0 TOTAL CHART Nº1 No 0% Yes 100 % SOURCE: The Parents ELABORATED BY: The Authors 62

76 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF TABLE AND GRAPHIC No. 1 When asked parents if they believed that students can improve the academic level in the English class through the implementation of an audio visual room, they replied as follows: Parents surveyed chose the alternative of 100% YES. According to these results all parents definitely believe that the academic level of students will implement programs to improve auditory, visual and cognitive knowledge in a virtual classroom, since this type of elements motivates students to a dynamic learning critical, reflective and meaningful. 63

77 CHART Nº2 2.- Do you think that the didactic materials are important in the student s motivation? ORDER ALTERNATIVES CUANTITY % A. Yes B. NO 0 0 TOTAL GRAPHIC Nº2 No 0% Yes 100% SOURCE: The Parents ELABORATED BY: The Authors 64

78 ANALISIS E INTERPRETACION OF CHART AND GRAPHIC No. 2 When asked parents if they believed that the materials are in motivating the students, they replied as follows: The 100 parents surveyed chose the alternative of 100% YES. According to these results all parents definitely believe that the academic level of students will implement programs to improve auditory, visual and cognitive installed in a virtual classroom, since this type of elements motivates students to a dynamic learning critical, reflective and meaningful. 65

79 CHART Nº3 2. Which of the following modern didactic elements are Important in the student s motivation? ORDER ALTERNATIVES FREQUENCY % A. Games B. PRACTICeS C. VIDEOS D. All of them TOTAL GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION 3 10; 10% 10; 10% 50; 50% Games PRACTICeS 30; 30% VIDEOS All of them SOURCE: The Parents ELABORATED BY: The Authors 66

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