Protobinaries. von Cornelia Weber, Bakk.rer.nat. Donnerstag, 23. Mai 13

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1 Protobinaries von Cornelia Weber, Bakk.rer.nat.

2 Overview Motivation Molecular Clouds Young Stellar Objects Multiplicity of YSO Orion Molecular Cloud Aims of my thesis

3 Motivation Binary and Multiple system formation important for star formation process Understanding of protobinary formation is related to the evolution of the CMF (Core Mass Function) & how the CMF is related to the IMF Confirm that protostellar Multiplicities are higher than for main sequence stars. Why/What disrupts these systems?

4 Molecular Clouds Stahler & Palla

5 From Cloud to Star Cloud Clump Core

6 Cloud M 2-15 pc n cm -3 (H2) 10 K

7 Clump M pc n cm -3 (H2) K

8 Core M pc n cm -3 (H2) 8-12 K

9 Core M pc n cm -3 (H2) 8-12 K

10 Young Stellar Objects (YSO)

11 From Clump to Core Isothermal phase Cloud collapse at free fall 10 K density too less grav. energy --> thermal energy --> mm-radiation temperature still low ongoing collapse

12 Class 0 peak emission:sub-mm 10 4 years early accretion adiabatic phase

13 Class 0 adiabatic phase density increases --> opacity too Energy released by contraction can t escape --> T rises pressure built up --> contraction stops hydrostatic equilibrium only cloud detectable - dust radiation as a black body

14 Class I - IR Protostar peak-emission: far-ir 10 5 years main accretion phase Stahler & Palla

15 Class I - IR Protostar envelope still rains down onto the core accretion shock waves Core heats up T high enough to dissipate the atoms Energy spent is not longer available for stabilisation of the core --> 2. Collapse (till hydrostatic. equilibrium.)

16 IR-Protostar still accreting accretion luminosity T= 1000 K covered by envelope heating molecular cloud inside heating up to 1500 K dust evaporates --> opacity gap

17 Class II peak emission: near- IR 10 6 years classic T Tauri stars

18 Class III peak emission: visible 10 7 years,weak line T Tauri stars

19 YSO - SED Spectral index α=d log λf λ /d logλ Class 0: λ < 20 μm Class 1: α > 0.3 Class 2:-0.3 > α > -1.6 Class 3: α < -1.6 Stahler & Palla

20 YSO - SED Stahler & Palla

21 Multiplicity of YSO Multiple systems dominant at YSO environmental-dependent trend because of dichotomy btw high- & low-multiplicity star forming regions not clear if intrinsic difference in fragmentation process or result of dynamical disruptive interaction 60-80% of the field stars member of binary or multiple system multiplicity of PMS higher than MSS Class 0 observations show high multiplicity's at birth Contrast low-mass MSS less than 50% multiples

22 Binaries general Separations : 0.01 AU r 10 4 AU Field MSS 1/3 with r 1 AU PMS 0.01 AU r 1000 AU wide and close binaries formed during the star formation process formed through cloud rotation, magnetic field & turbulence --> numerical calculations

23 The Orion Molecular Cloud Complex nebular, dark clouds & young stars Ly diameter of 100 Ly active star forming region Stahler & Palla

24 Protobinaries in Orion Giant Molecular Cloud A

25 Satoko Takahashi, Teixeira, Ho, Zapata

26 VISIR/VLT Separation: 959,96 AU N-Band

27 VISIR/VLT Separation: 463,68 AU N-Band

28 VISIR/VLT Separation: 1244,62 AU, 4162,09 AU, 2979,20 AU N-Band

29 separations

30 Aims of the thesis Separations of the stars mass ratios frequency of the multiplicity

31 Literature,New Observational Frontiers in the Multiplicity of Young Stars by Gaspard Duchêne et al.,formation Scenario for wide and close Binary Systems by Masahiro Machida et al. (2008),The Formation of Stars by S. Stahler & F. Palla (2004),Hierarchical Fragmentation of the Orion Molecular Filaments by Satoko Takashashi, P.S. Teixeira, P.T.P. Ho, L. Zapata (2012)

32 Thank you!

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