# Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

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1 Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 3 Control Structures 1

2 Control structures Algorithm Development Conditional Expressions Selection Statements Repetition Statements Structuring Input Loops 2

3 Structured Programming Evaluation of Alternative Solutions ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT 3

4 Algorithm Development An algorithm is a sequence of steps for solving a problem. Engineering problem solutions to real world problems require complex algorithms. Development of a good algorithm increases the quality and maintainability of a solution, and reduces the overall time required to implement a correct solution. 4

5 Top-Down Design Top-down design begins with a "big picture" description of a problem solution in sequential steps. The sequential steps are refined until the steps are detailed enough to translate to language statements. The refined steps, or algorithm, can be described using pseudo code or flowcharts. 5

6 Evaluation of Alternative Solutions Most problems have more than one solution. There may not be a single best solution, but some solutions are better than others. Elements that contribute to a good solution: correctness reliability readability maintainability execution speed memory considerations user interface 6

7 Structured Programming A structured program is written using simple control structures, including: Sequence steps are performed one after another. Selection one set of statements is executed if a given condition is true, a different set of statements, or no statements at all, is executed if the condition is false. Repetition A set of statements is executed repeatedly as long as a given condition is true. 7

8 Structured Programming Sequence Selection false? true Repetition? true false? => conditional expression 8

9 Relational operators Logical operators CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS 9

10 Conditional Expressions A conditional expression is a Boolean expression that evaluates to true or false. Selection structures and repetition structures rely on conditional expressions. Relational operators and logical operators are used to form conditional expressions. 10

11 Relational Operators == equality!= non equality < less than > greater than <= less than equal to >= greater than equal to 11

12 Logical Operators! not && and or 12

13 Logical Operators A B A&&B A B!A!B Truth table for conditional expressions 0 = 13

14 Operator Precedence 1. < <= > >= 2. ==!= 3. && 4. 14

15 Practice! - evaluate 4 (-6<0)&&(12>=10) true && true results in true 4 (3.0 >= 2.0) (3.0 >= 4.0) true false results in true 4 (3.0 >= 2.0) && (3.0 >= 4.0) true && false results in false 15

16 if statement switch statement SELECTION STATEMENTS 16

17 Selection Statements The C++ programming language supports the implementation of selection with: if statements switch statements 17

18 The if statement if(expression) statement; /*single statement executed if expression is true */ // statement block is executed if expression is true. if(expression) { statement1; statement2; statement n; } 18

19 The if statement - examples if (x>0) ++k; if(x>0) { x=sqrt(x); ++k; } 19

20 The if - else statement if(expression) statement; else statement; if(expression) { statement block } else { statement block } 20

21 The nested if-else if(x > y) if(y < z) k++; else m++; else j++; 21

22 Practice! int x=9, y=7, z=2, k=0, m=0, j=0; if(x > y) if(y >z && y>k) k++; else m++; else j++; What are the values of j, k and m? 22

23 The switch statement switch(expression) { case constant: statement(s); break; case constant: statement(s); break; /* default is optional*/ default: statement(s); } 23

24 The switch statement Expression must be of type integer or character. The keyword case must be followed by a constant. break statement is required unless you want all subsequent statements to be executed. 24

25 switch statement example char ch; int ecount=0, vowels=0, other=0; cin.get(ch); while(!cin.eof()) { switch(ch) { case e : ecount++; case a : case i : case o : case u : vowels++; break; default: other++; }//end switch cin.get(ch); }//end while cout << ecount <<, << vowels <<, << other << endl; 25

26 Practice! Convert these nested if/else statements to a switch statement: if (rank==1 rank==2) cout << "Lower division \n"; else { if (rank==3 rank==4) cout << "Upper division \n"; else { if (rank==5) cout << "Graduate student \n"; else cout << "Invalid rank \n"; } } 26

27 while statement do while statement for statement Structuring input loops REPETITION STATEMENTS 27

28 Repetition Statements The C++ programming language supports the implementation of repetition with: while statements do/while statements for statements 28

29 The while statement? false while (expression) statement; true while (expression) { statement block } 29

30 The do/while statement true? false do statement; while (expression) do { statement block } while (expression) 30

31 Practice! #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int n=4; while(n>0) { cout << n << endl; --n; } cout << value of n outside while is << n << endl; return 0; } Program Trace: Output? 31

32 The for statement initalize increment/ decrement statement(s)? true false 32

33 The for statement for(initialization; expression; increment/decrement) statement; for(initialization; expression; increment/decrement) { statement; statement; } 33

34 The for statement - examples //sum integers from //1 to 10 inclusive #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int sum=0; for(int i=1;i<11;++i) { sum = sum + i; } } cout << sum << endl; return 0; Alternate solution: //sum integers from //1 to 10 #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { } int sum=0; for(int i=1;i<=10;i++) sum = sum + i; cout << sum << endl; return 0; 34

35 The for statement - example //sum odd integers from //1 to n inclusive #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int sum=0, n; cout << "enter non-negative integer: "; cin >> n; for(int i=1;i<=n;i+=2) sum = sum + i cout << sum << endl; return 0; } 35

36 The for statement - example //sum odd integers from //1 to n inclusive //Alternate Solution #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int sum=0, n; cout << "enter non-negative integer: "; cin >> n; for(int i=1;i<=n;++i) { if(i%2) sum = sum + i; } cout << sum << endl; return 0; } 36

37 The break statement break; terminates loop execution continues with the first statement following the loop Example: What is the output? for(int i-0; i<=10; ++i) { if(i%2) break; cout << i << endl; } 37

38 The continue statement q continue; forces next iteration of the loop, skipping any remaining statements in the loop Example: What is the output? for(int i-0; i<=10; ++i) { if(i%2) continue; cout << i << endl; } 38

39 Practice! //This while loop calculates n! int nfact=1, n; cout << "enter positive integer "; cin >> n; while(n > 1) { nfact = nfact*n; n--; } cout << n << "! = " << nfact << endl; //What is the output for n=5? 39

40 Structuring Input Loops Ø Repetition is useful when inputting data from standard input or from a file. Ø Common repetition structures: Ø counter-controlled Ø sentinel-controlled Ø end-of-data controlled 40

41 Counter-controlled Repetition Structure i 0 while i < = counter input data value //Do something with data value increment i end while 41

42 Sentinel-controlled Repetition Structure input data value while data value! = sentinel value //Do something with data value input next data value end while 42

43 eof()-controlled Repetition Structure input data value while end-of-file is not true //Do something with input data input next data value end while 43

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