Tap into Health Water Promotion Toolkit

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1 Tap into Health Water Promotion Toolkit Developed by: Robyn Kumar, MPH, RD and Rusty Hopewell MS, RD Alameda County Public Health Department Nutrition Services Special Thanks to: Kaiser Community Benefits, The California Endowment, UCSF Department of Family Health Care Nursing and School of Dentistry through the UCSF Elev8 Healthy Students & Families Grant, Nancy Midlin, Anita Gossett, Tammy Liu, Stephanie Ackerman, Skyline High School Graphic Design Class, and Food and Water Watch 1

2 Getting Started Table of Contents Introduction.... page 5 Water Campaign Checklist... page 7 Partner Letter.... page 9 Water Education Water Education Overview page 11 Lessons for Students page 12 Tapped: The Movie - Student Viewers Guide page 85 Tapped: The Movie - Teachers Guide page 87 Activities for Adults (e.g., Families, Staff, etc.)....page 90 Tapped: The Movie - Advanced Viewers Guide page 120 Water Promotion Water Promotion Overview page 124 Flyers page 125 Posters......page 131 Spa Water Recipes page 138 Water Wheel Graphic....page 140 Water Wheel Questions...page 141 Water Fountain Safety Signs page 143 Water Bottles Water Bottles Overview......page 145 Water Bottle Design Contest Announcement Flyer....page 146 Water Bottle Design Contest Application Form...page 147 Sample Water Bottle Order Specifications page 148 2

3 Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Fountain Message Signs.....page 149 Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Form Blank......page 156 Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Form Filled......page 157 Water Fill Station Advocacy Water Fill Station Advocacy Overview page 159 Student Water Consumption Study Description..page 160 Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet page 162 Student Water Survey page 163 Photovoice Process Guide page 164 Water Fountain Survey page 168 TAP Worksheet page 169 Fountain Survey Report Form......page 170 Water Fill Stations Water Fill Stations Overview.. page 172 Water Dispenser Options. page 173 Cost Calculator....page 177 3

4 Getting Started 4

5 Introduction Welcome to the Water Toolkit! This toolkit will provide you with ideas, materials, and resources for you to get a water campaign started at your school. This toolkit provides multiple options for engagement around water promotion. Even if you have just five minutes to promote water, this toolkit has helpful resources for you to begin spreading the message about the benefits of drinking tap water for health. The resources in this toolkit span the spectrum from flyers and posters to feature around campus to a week-long set of lessons to bring in to middle school classrooms. Here s a brief walk-through of how to use this toolkit: The Getting Started section of the toolkit provides: Water Campaign Checklist which you can use to ensure that you have thought about how a water campaign would work best for your site. It includes example components of a water campaign and potential partners to reach out to for water promotion. Partner Letter which you can use as a way to inform and/or recruit others to be a part of the water campaign. The Water Education section of the toolkit provides: Lessons for Students which are designed as five individual lessons most appropriate for students at the middle school level. Each lesson is 45-minutes. Lesson activities include a bottled water vs. tap water taste test, figuring out how much sugar is in popular sugar-sweetened beverages, and a scientific experiment showing the protective effects of tap water on teeth. Tapped: The Movie Student Viewers Guide and Tapped: The Movie Teachers Guide, which you can use as an activity and discussion prompt when screening Tapped: The Movie in the classroom and/or at a school assembly. Activities for Adults which are designed to be minutes. These activities would be appropriate for raising parent or school staff awareness about the benefits of tap water within a family engagement night, parent leadership meeting, staff meeting, etc. Tapped: The Movie Advanced Viewers Guide, which you can use as an activity and discussion prompt when screening Tapped: The Movie for advanced students and/or at a family or staff event. The Water Promotion section of the toolkit provides: Sample Flyers and Posters that you can use for water promotion around campus, in classrooms, in the School Based Health Centers, at health fairs, etc. Materials to promote water at school health fairs or at a water education table set up during passing periods or lunch, including Spa Water Recipes, a Water Wheel Graphic, and Water Wheel Questions. 5

6 Water Fountain Safety Signs that you can use to promote the safety of drinking water on campus following a tap water independent lab analysis. The Water Bottles section of the toolkit provides: Materials needed to launch a student water bottle design contest, including an Announcement Flyer and Application Form. Sample Water Bottle Order Specifications that you can change to fit your specific needs. Materials needed to launch a water bottle scavenger hunt (which can be used to tie water education to water bottle distribution), including Water Fountain Message Signs and a Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Form. The Water Fill Station Advocacy section of the toolkit provides: Materials needed to conduct a study of student water consumption, including a Student Water Consumption Study Description, Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet, and a Student Water Survey. Materials needed to lead a Photovoice project, the results of which can be used as an advocacy tool for water fill stations on campus. The Photovoice materials included in this toolkit are a Photovoice Process Guide, TAP Worksheet, Water Fountain Survey, and Fountain Survey Report Form. The Water Fill Stations section of the toolkit provides: An informational sheet of Water Dispenser Options that lists example dispensers, price, source, number of schools impacted with $1000 investment, and considerations before purchase. A water fill station Cost Calculator with items to consider for funding estimation. 6

7 Adaptable version available at: Water Campaign Checklist Use this checklist to spark ideas of components/partners to consider when launching a school water campaign. Water education for students Partner with Principal to include water education in school assemblies/events Partner with teachers (e.g., Science, Math, PE, Reading/Language Arts, Art, etc.) for classroom water education/messaging Partner with after school program director for after school program water education/messaging Partner with School Based Health Center (SBHC) and/or School Nurse to tie water education into existing health education opportunities Partner with school district Food/Nutrition Services to host water education events in school meal service areas (e.g., cafeteria, snack bar, etc.) Water education for families/staff Partner with Principal to include water education in staff meetings/events Partner with family advocate to include water education in family meetings/events Partner with after school program director to include water education in family meetings/events Partner with SBHC and/or School Nurse to tie water education into existing staff wellness or family engagement events Campus-wide water promotion Partner with art teacher to have students design water promotion posters, flyers, murals, etc. Partner with ceramics teacher to have students design and make ceramic water bottles Partner with drama teacher to have students create and perform water promotion skits for classrooms, school assemblies, etc. Partner with after school arts instructors (e.g., graphic design, graffiti art, etc.) to have students design water promotion posters, flyers, murals, etc. Partner with SBHC and/or School Nurse to feature water activities (e.g., spa water taste test, water wheel, etc.) at school health fairs, health screenings (e.g., dental screening), and/or health education tables set up during lunch and/or passing periods Partner with school district Food/Nutrition Services to feature water promotion materials in school meal service areas (e.g., cafeteria, snack bar, etc.) 7

8 Launch a design contest for water bottle designs, water fountain poster designs, water fill station designs, etc. Screen a filming of Tapped: The Movie with time for a film discussion afterwards (use the Tapped: The Movie Viewers Guide to lead the film discussion) Advocate for a water-friendly campus Partner with school district nutrition services to advocate for water fill stations in the cafeteria. Partner with Principal to advocate for water fill stations in a high-traffic locations around campus. Partner with Principal and school wellness policy committee to create school policies to support drinking water at school (e.g., refillable water bottles permitted on campus, etc.). Conduct a water consumption study and/or Photovoice project to advocate for water fill station installation on campus. 8

9 Adaptable version available at: Partner Letter: School Water Campaign It has been shown that a simple glass of water can improve your students classroom performances and behaviors and result in fewer visits to the school nurse and health clinic with complaints of headaches and the I don t feel well syndrome. Watch out for the big splash on campus as we roll out the water campaign to encourage students and staff to drink more water. Here s what s in store: Tap Water Testing and Promotion to ensure the school s tap water is safe and something worth promoting, the water will l be tested by an independent laboratory and any concerning results addressed. Classroom Curriculum these lessons build awareness of the tap vs. bottled water debate with interactive activities that will keep students engaged. Tapped The Movie this video and Viewers Guide, available at the School Based Health Center for check out, exposes the bottled water industry and the controversy of whether bottled water is safer than tap water. Student Photovoice Project students will document the current st students will document the current status (working, clean, water pressure, etc.) of all the drinking fountains on campus through photos. Drinking Fountain Use Survey students interested in scientific investigation will have the opportunity to conduct a survey gathering data on drinking fountain use before and after the water campaign intervention. Better Hydration Through Art students will be encouraged to produce art that promotes staying hydrated and drinking tap water and that will be displayed around campus as part of a social media water campaign. Water Bottle Design Contest and Distribution water bottles carrying a winning student design will be distributed (funding allowing). Hydration Stations water bottle filling stations will be implemented to provide safe, chilled drinking water to students with water bottles. To find out how you can get involved, contact: 9

10 Water Education 10

11 Water Education Overview The Water Education section of the toolkit provides: *Lessons for Students which are designed as five individual lessons most appropriate for students at the middle school level. Each lesson is 45-minutes. Lesson activities include a bottled water vs. tap water taste test, figuring out how much sugar is in popular sugar-sweetened beverages, and a scientific experiment showing the protective effects of tap water on teeth. Tapped: The Movie Student Viewers Guide and Tapped: The Movie Teachers Guide, which you can use as an activity and discussion prompt when screening Tapped: The Movie in the classroom and/or at a school assembly. *Activities for Adults which are designed to be minutes. These activities would be appropriate for raising parent or school staff awareness about the benefits of tap water within a family engagement night, parent leadership meeting, staff meeting, etc. Tapped: The Movie Advanced Viewers Guide, which you can use as an activity and discussion prompt when screening Tapped: The Movie for advanced students and/or at a family or staff event. * Lessons and activities featured in this section were adapted from Take Back the Tap Curriculum, Food & Water Watch, (c) 2012, 11

12 Lessons for Students Lesson One: The Body Water Cycle 12

13 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) How Does Water Move? (40 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Students will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Students will understand how water moves through our bodies and the importance water plays in proper body function. Students will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. One Lesson One Questionnaire per student 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Butcher paper or white board 2. Markers 3. Powerpoint or butcher paper with Blank Body Water Cycle Diagram visual 4. Copies of Spending Time as Water worksheet for each student 5. Eleven Station Signs 6. Movement Cards 7. Body Water Cycle: Teachers Guide 8. Pencil for each student 9. Clipboard for each student (optional) 10. Calculator for each student (optional) 1. Their original Lesson One Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Copy one questionnaire for each student. 1. Copy a Spending Time as Water worksheet for each student. 2. Print out Station Signs and Movement Cards. 3. Cut out Movement Cards. 4. Create Station areas and post Station Signs. 5. Put the Movement Cards in a container (preferably one that students can see into) at the appropriate stations. 6. Cue Powerpoint or butcher paper with blank Body Water Cycle Diagram image. 7. Review Body Water Cycle: Teachers Guide 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. 13

14 Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson One Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each student before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same questions after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. How Does Water Move? (40 min.) Step 1: Setting the stage and creating a hypothesis. 1. Ask students for examples of how water enters our body (e.g., eating, drinking, etc.) and leaves it (e.g., tears, sweat, urine, etc.) See Body Water Cycle: Teachers Guide for answers. Write their answers on the board and explain that today, they ll learn about: what water does after it enters and before it leaves our bodies and why water is so important in keeping healthy bodies. 2. Project blank Body Water Cycle Diagram and give out Spending Time as Water worksheets. 3. Walk through the Body Water Cycle Diagram with the students, highlighting the path of water in through food and drink, through the different parts of the body and then out through various methods, drawing from the examples that the students came up with. Explain that students will learn specific functions of water in the various parts of the body when they play today s game. 4. Explain that the Source column on the worksheet lists some locations where water will spend time in the body. Ask students to predict (create a hypothesis about) which source they will spend the most time in (i.e. have the most turns in). 5. Have the students write their hypothesis on the worksheet (e.g., I think water spends the most time in because ) and mark their guess with an X in the appropriate column. 6. Ask a few students to share their hypothesis and explain their rationale (i.e., perhaps they think because, there is more water there so they will spend more time there than in the body). Step 2: Divide the class equally amongst all eleven of the water stations. Step 3: Explain the Spending Time as Water instructions and demonstrate to model it for students. 1. Emphasize that we re becoming water molecules and pretending that we re moving through the body as water. 2. Select a Movement Card 14

15 3. Read the Movement Card aloud and follow the card s directions, moving to the appropriate next station. For example, if a student at the Joints Station draws the card that says In cartilage, you prevent bones from grinding against one another. Get reabsorbed by body. Go to Absorption and Circulation, the student will move to the Absorption and Circulation Station. 4. Tally the stations that you visit (in the example above, there would be tallies for Joints and a tally for Absorption and Circulation) and write down the functions of water (in the example of Joints, the water function would be preventing bones from grinding against one another) on your Spending Time as Water worksheet. 5. Continue for at least 10 minutes. Step 4: Students calculate where they spend the most time. 1. Have students add up the total amount of turns spent in each station to determine where they spent the most time. Step 5: Debrief activity. Teacher s Note: The objective of the debrief is to get students to understand the importance that drinking water has on normal and healthy body function. You don t need to focus heavily on which station they spent the most time at. 1. Ask for a few volunteers to share their results from the Spending Time as Water activity. Use prompting questions such as: What station did you visit most? Who else visited that station most? Was your experience different? What does this mean/why do you think this was the case? Why are these parts of the cycle important? 2. Compare the students actual results with the predictions made at the beginning of the activity. Were the predictions close? What was different or unexpected? 3. Acknowledge that we all had different experiences as water traveling through the body. Then, ask students what all of our bodies have in common (answer: We all need water to function.) 4. Project the blank Body Water Cycle Diagram. Go through all of the stations in the body (all stations except the Food and Drink and Water Cycle stations) and ask students to share at least one function that water plays for each of those parts of the body (e.g., The function of water in joints is to prevent bones from grinding against one another.) Check their answers with the Body Water Cycle: Teachers Guide. Write their responses on the butcher paper or White Board, directly onto the blank Body Water Cycle Diagram, if possible. 5. Ask students how eliminating the Food and Drink station (i.e. reducing the amount of water you took in) would affect our body. 6. Ask students to share something new that they learned from this activity. 7. If you have extra time, some additional debrief questions are as follows: a. Why is this topic of the body water cycle important? b. What questions do you still have about the body water cycle? c. What did you find most interesting about this lesson? 15

16 Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the students to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If this is formatted as a discussion: For each question, ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 16

17 Printable version available at: Lesson One Questionnaire - Student Body Water Cycle Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) My body needs water to be healthy. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson My brain needs water to function. Before the lesson After the lesson I always drink enough water. Before the lesson After the lesson 17

18 Printable version available at: Body Water Cycle: Teachers Guide Use this guide when checking students answers for ways water enters and leaves our body as well as the functions of water in different parts of the body. Water In: Food (especially watery fruits and vegetables) and drink (especially water) Water Out: Feces (poop), Urine (pee), spit, exhaled as water vapor, sweat, tears Mouth: Water is needed to make saliva in the mouth. Saliva is needed for swallowing and digesting food and preventing chapped lips. Liver & Kidneys: Your liver and kidneys use water to remove wastes that leave your body through urine and poop. Your kidneys help keep your blood pressure normal. Brain: Water helps to send messages from the brain to the rest of the body; helping the heart to pump, muscles to move, and more. Water also protects the brain from injury. Joints and bones: Water protects joints, preventing them from grinding against each other. In joint fluid, water makes it easier for joints to bend and move. Lungs: Water helps move oxygen from the air through the lungs into the blood. Every breath we take uses water to warm air and move air into and out of your body. Skin: Water cools the body down as sweat. Water helps to keep our skin from drying out. Eyes : Water is needed to flush away dirt and grime from the eyes. Water is needed to make tears when you feel like crying. Stomach: Water helps our bodies digest nutrients like vitamins from foods and drinks. Water helps us go to the bathroom. Blood: Water in blood helps deliver important things (like oxygen from the air and vitamins from foods and drinks) to your body s cells. 18

19 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 19

20 Printable version available at: Spending Time as Water Create a hypothesis about where you will spend the most time and why. Mark your guess in the Guess column. As you move through the stations, tally the number of turns at each station and report in the Tally of Turns column. At the end of the activity, record the totals in the Total column and circle the station where you spend the most time. Hypothesis:. Source Food and Drink Water Cycle Skin Lungs Joints & Bones Brain Liver and Kidneys Mouth Eyes Blood Stomach Guess (mark w/ X) Function of Water Tally of Turns Totals 20

21 Printable version available at: Skin Water cools the body down as sweat. Water helps to keep our skin from drying out. Station 21

22 Printable version available at: Food & Drink Water is found in most foods, especially fruits and vegetables, and all drinks. Water is the best drink of all. Station 22

23 Printable version available at: Water Cycle Water moves through the water cycle as rain, snow, rivers, oceans, and clouds. Even the water in foods and drinks and in your body is part of the water cycle. Station 23

24 Printable version available at: Mouth Your mouth needs water to make saliva, which is needed for swallowing and digesting food and preventing chapped lips. Station 24

25 Printable version available at: Liver & Kidneys Your liver and kidneys use water to remove wastes that leave your body through urine and poop. Your kidneys help keep your blood pressure normal. Stationtion 25

26 Printable version available at: Brain Water helps send messages from the brain to the rest of Station the body. Water also protects the brain from injury. 26

27 Printable version available at: Joints & Bones Water protects joints, keeping them from grinding against each other. Water in joint fluid allows joints to bend and move. Station 27

28 Printable version available at: Lungs Water makes it easier for air to cross from the lungs into the blood. Every breath uses water to warm the air and move air into and out of your body. Station 28

29 Printable version available at: Eyes Your eyes need water to flush away dirt and grime. Also, water is needed to make tears when you feel like crying. Station 29

30 Printable version available at: Blood Water in your blood helps deliver important things (like oxygen from the air and Station vitamins from foods and drinks) to your body s cells. 30

31 Printable version available at: Stomach Water helps our bodies digest nutrients like vitamins from the things we eat and drink. Water helps us go to the bathroom. Station 31

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43 Lessons for Students Lesson Two: Sugar Shock & Dehydration Calculation 43

44 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Nutrition Facts Label/Sugar activity (20 min.) Dehydration/Rehydration Activity (20 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Students will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Students will be able to conceptualize the amount of sugar in a beverage reading a nutrition label, and distinguish between high sugar and low sugar beverages. Students will learn how to calculate and assess their own hydration needs. Students will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. One Lesson Two Questionnaire per student 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet 2. Power Point or butcher paper with Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet visual 3. Demo materials a) Soda bottle b) Plastic bag c) Teaspoon and box/bag of sugar OR box of sugar cubes (1 cube = 1 tsp) 4. Sugary Drink Predictions worksheet 5. Empty sugary drink bottles for group activity (1 bottle per group of 3-4 students; make sure you have 6 different varieties represented) 1. Dehydration/Rehydration worksheets A, B, and C 2. Calculators 3. Pencils (one per student) 4. 1 cup measuring cup 1. Their original Lesson Two Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Copy one questionnaire for each student. 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person) 2. Have the sugar and empty Cola bottle ready with a teaspoon for the demonstration. 3. Cue up the Power Point or butcher paper with Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet visual. 1. Make worksheet copies (one scenario per group) 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. 44

45 Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson Two Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each student before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. Nutrition Facts Label/Sugar Activity (20 min.) Step 1: Set the Stage 1. Ask students if they know why having too much sugar in the diet is not the healthiest choice. Which disease(s) are related to having too much sugar in the diet? 2. Do a simple poll by having students raise their hands (or stand up) if they know someone with Type 2 Diabetes. Have those students keep their hands up (or remain standing) and ask the remaining students to raise their hand (or stand up) if someone who is close to them is overweight. 3. Have students lower their hands (or sit down) and ask them if they know which beverages have the most sugar. 4. Tell them that today they will learn how to use a nutrition facts label to figure out how much sugar is in the drinks that they drink. Step 2: Do The Math (Sugar) Worksheet 1. Pass out the Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet to students. This worksheet will be done in class as an example. Show the worksheet visual via Powerpoint or butcher paper. 2. Write out the formulas and steps to solving it on the board. Students can refer to this later when they do the math in their groups. Write the following conversions on the board for reference: 1 tsp = 4 gm 1 tsp =5mL 1 cup = 8 oz. = 240 ml Step 3: Sugar demo 1. Explain that you are going to add sugar to a bottle (or stack sugar cubes), so that the class can see exactly what the numbers on the nutrition facts label mean about the amount of sugar in 45

46 Cola. Show the class the soda bottle that you filled with sugar so they have an idea of the amount of Cola that the amount of sugar corresponds to. 2. Spoon the # of teaspoons of sugar (or sugar cubes) that are in Cola into a clear bottle or baggie. You can ask for a volunteer for this step if you feel that it will engage the students more. 3. Count the number of teaspoons of sugar out loud. 4. Show the class the example soda bottle so they have an idea of the amount of Cola that the amount of sugar corresponds to. Pass around the baggie of sugar for maximum impact! Step 4: Students Do the Math in groups on Sugary Drink Predictions worksheet 1. Break the students into groups of 3-4 students each and pass out one sugary drink bottle per group and one Sugary Drink Predictions worksheet per student. Write down the types of sugary drinks that are represented in the class on the board. Ask the groups to rank the sugary drinks from MOST to LEAST sugar and write their guesses on their worksheet under My Ranking (1 = the drink with the MOST sugar and 6 = the drink with the LEAST sugar). This will be revisited following their calculations. 2. Have students calculate the amount of sugar in their sugary drink bottle using the label from the bottle they were given. 3. Once students are done with their calculations, write them up on the board next to the drink names. Check their calculations for accuracy. Make any corrections if necessary. 4. Have students write down the actual ranking of MOST to LEAST sugar in the Actual Ranking column. Step 5: Debrief Ask entire class (for brief discussion): 1. What were the different serving sizes, and how did that affect how much sugar a person will drink if they buy that beverage? Any surprises? What did you think would have less sugar than it does? 2. Does this make you want to rethink your drink? Dehydration/Rehydration activity (20 min.) 1. Start out activity by asking students if they know how much water their body needs to function every day. Ask them what kinds of things affect how much water your body needs each day? (Answer: going to the bathroom, sweating, weather, crying, etc.). Ask students to raise their hand if they think they get enough water per day. Explain the symptoms of dehydration or not getting enough water (headache, stomachache, dry mouth, etc.). 2. Explain that everyone needs a slightly different amount of water, as everyone s body is different. 3. Break the students into groups of 4 and pass out the Dehydration/Rehydration worksheets A, B, or C to each group, one character scenario for each group. Explain that the formula on their sheet gives a good estimate. Walk through the formula together. 4. Ask groups to read their scenario together and calculate the amount of water their character will need, using the Dehydration/Rehydration formula on their worksheet. Then, they will 46

47 calculate how much it would cost to fill that water need with bottled water and how much it would cost to fill that water need with tap water. 5. Visit each group to make sure that they have read their scenario and understand the main questions they will be asked to figure out with conversion formulas. 6. Bring all groups attention back and ask groups to share out their findings. Ask students to discuss how this relates to their own lives and their own habits. 7. Have students calculate their own water needs using the equation they just used for the case study calculation. If students are uncomfortable with using or don t know their own weight for calculation, they can use 40 pounds which is the average weight of a 5 year old. Then, when they calculate out the amount of water a 5-year old would need, ask them if they think THEY are getting enough, as an older, bigger person. 8. After students have calculated their own needs, hold up the one cup measuring cup and ask them to visualize how much water they need compared to the one cup. Ask them if they are getting enough water. Have them call out ideas on how they can get more water in their day (e.g., bringing a refillable water bottle to school, etc.) Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the students to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If this is formatted as a discussion: For each question, ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 47

48 Printable version available at: Lesson Two Questionnaire - Student Sugar and Hydration Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) I know how much sugar is in the drinks that I drink. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson I will make positive changes about my health by drinking fewer sugary beverages. I need the same amount of water every day to stay healthy. Before the lesson After the lesson Before the lesson After the lesson 48

49 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 49

50 Printable version available at: Sugary Drink Predictions Name: Date: Examine the bottles of sugary drinks on the table. Rank them in order of sugar contained in the entire bottle: 1 = the drink with the MOST sugar and 6 = the drink with the LEAST sugar. Complete the My Ranking section ONLY. We will complete the remainder of the table after all participants have made their predictions. Drink A My Ranking (1-6) Actual Ranking Grams of Sugar in the Entire Bottle = Number of Servings X Grams of Sugar Teaspoons/Cubes of Sugar Formula = Grams of Sugar 4 B C D E F Wrap-up: 1. What, if anything, surprised you about the results of this activity? 2. What are the consequences of drinking sugary drinks? 3. What are some strategies for reducing the amount of sugary beverages that you drink? 4. Write a realistic goal for reducing your consumption of sugary drinks. 50

51 Printable version available at: Dehydration/Rehydration Worksheet (Dehydration/Rehydration Formula taken from: Dehydration/Rehydration Formula: Body Weight/2 = number of ounces of water needed per day ADD 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise Helpful conversions: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 ounces 1 Liter = ounces Price per gallon for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) tap water = $0.003/gallon Typical bottled water volume = 0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost = $ Liter = gallons Character Scenario A: Julia weighs 100 pounds. Today she walks her dog for 30 minutes. Tomorrow she will play basketball for an hour. How much water will Julia need today? How much will that water cost if she drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if she drinks bottled water? How much water will Julia need tomorrow? How much will that water cost if she drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if she drinks bottled water? 51

52 Printable version available at: Dehydration/Rehydration Worksheet (Dehydration/Rehydration Formula taken from: Dehydration/Rehydration Formula: Body Weight/2 = number of ounces of water needed per day ADD 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise Helpful conversions: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 ounces 1 Liter = ounces Price per gallon for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) tap water = $0.003/gallon Typical bottled water volume = 0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost = $ Liter = gallons Character Scenario B: Jose weighs 114 pounds. He plays soccer with his friend for an hour after school. He walks to the park and home for 30 minutes. How much water does Jose need if he does no exercise? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? How much additional water does Jose need today (since he exercised)? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? 52

53 Printable version available at: Dehydration/Rehydration Worksheet (Dehydration/Rehydration Formula taken from: Dehydration/Rehydration Formula: Body Weight/2 = number of ounces of water needed per day ADD 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise Helpful conversions: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 ounces 1 Liter = ounces Price per gallon for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) tap water = $0.003/gallon Typical bottled water volume = 0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost = $ Liter = gallons Character Scenario C: Daniel weighs 124 pounds. Tomorrow, he plans to ride his bike to school (20 min.) then to his cousin s house (15 min.) and then home (15 min.). How much water does Daniel need if he does no exercise? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? How much water will Daniel need tomorrow? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? 53

54 Lessons for Students Lesson Three: Facts about Fluoride 54

55 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Fluoride Experiment (40 min.) 1. Students will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. 1. Students will understand that fluoride is an additive, not a contaminant in tap water. 2. Students will understand the importance of fluoride and how fluoride contributes to the maintenance of teeth and oral health. 3. Students will understand the effect of sugary foods and drinks on oral health. 1. One Lesson Three Questionnaire per student 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Fluoride in Water Preand Post-Activity worksheet 2. Powerpoint or butcher paper with Anatomy of a Tooth image 3. Anatomy of a Tooth 4. Hypothesis worksheet 5. For each station, you will need the following: a) 1 raw egg soaked in Fluoride rinse solution at least overnight (Note: Fluoride solution is available from your dentist, local dental supply company, and some pharmacies. You will need about 4 ounces of solution/egg but this amount will vary depending on the size of the container you soak the egg in for best results, use as small a container as possible.) b) 1 plain raw egg c) Enough white vinegar to fill two containers about halfway d) 3 containers 1. Copy one questionnaire for each student. 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person) 2. Soak one egg (per station) in Fluoride rinse at least overnight. 3. Have all fluoride experiment materials set up for groups, 4 students per group. 4. Cue power point or butcher paper to project Anatomy of a Tooth. 55

56 Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Students will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. Their original Lesson Three Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson Three Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each student before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. Fluoride Experiment (40 min.) Step 1: Intro. 1. Have students fill out the pre-test side of the Fluoride in Water Pre- and Post-Activity worksheet. They have to match up the vocabulary words in the word box with a description. Have them hold onto their worksheet since it will be revisited at the end of class. 2. Explain that today we will look at some elements in water that are not just accidentally found in the water like pollution or organic matter, but are added to the water on purpose. These are not contaminants; they are additives. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommends the amount of these additives that EBMUD should add to the community water system so that it is safe to drink. Have students brainstorm and have a discussion about the following questions: 1. EBMUD adds fluoride to our water. Why do you think that they do that? Answer info: Water fluoridation prevents tooth decay mainly by providing teeth with frequent contact with low levels of fluoride throughout each day and throughout life. Community water fluoridation is 56

57 not only safe and effective, but it is also cost saving and the least expensive way to deliver the benefits of fluoride to all residents of a community. 2. What do you think fluoride does that is good for your teeth? Answer info: Fluoride works to strengthen the surface of the tooth, called the enamel. When bacteria in the mouth combine with sugars, acid is produced that can get through the tooth enamel and damage the inside of the tooth. 3. What kinds of things (minerals and substances) do you think make up the outer shell of our teeth? Answer info: Enamel, the outer protective layer of a tooth, is composed of an organic material that includes calcium and phosphate. Step 2: Explain the Basic Anatomy of the Tooth 1. Project tooth visual via Powerpoint or butcher paper: a) Crown: Protects the whole structure of the tooth. Make the connection that both tooth enamel and eggshells also have calcium and phosphate. b) Root: Provides a post for support c) Pulp: Keeps the tooth filled with nutrients (blood & minerals) Step 3: Break class into smaller groups, 4 students per group 1. Distribute materials (including Hypothesis worksheet.) 2. Explain that each group will be following the teacher step by step to conduct the experiment. 3. Give a brief overview of the experiment, with details that will help them fill out their Hypothesis worksheet. Some examples are as follows: a) Explain that when bacteria eats sugar, acid is produced (bacteria + sugar = acid). Prompt students to list foods or drinks that would cause an acidic environment in your mouth (e.g., candy, cake, soda, etc.). b) Explain that in this experiment, we are using vinegar to represent the acidic environment in your mouth following eating/drinking something sugary and that we are using an egg to represent your teeth since the egg shell is made of a similar material as our tooth enamel. Step 4: The Power of Fluoride Egg Experiment 1. Point out that one egg has been sitting in Fluoride overnight and one egg is untreated. Pour four inches of vinegar in the two empty containers. 2. Put the egg that has been treated with the Fluoride into one container of vinegar and the untreated egg in the other container of vinegar. 3. Ask the students what they think will happen if these eggs are placed in the containers filled with vinegar, which is an acid. They should write down what they think will happen and why on the Hypothesis worksheet. 57

58 a) Demonstration/Experiment Result: The untreated egg will start to bubble as the vinegar (an acid) starts to attack the minerals in the eggshell. The fluoridated egg will not bubble since it has been protected. Step 5: Discuss the experiment and relate it to the tooth 1. Ask a few questions to conclude the experiment. Answers below can supplement ideas raised by the students. a) Ask - What did the experiment show us about fluoride and the egg shell? Fluoride works to strengthen the surface of the egg shell. It combines with the Calcium and Phosphate in the tooth to make Fluorapatite. b) Ask Can someone remind us how the eggshell is like the enamel in our tooth? Both are made up of Calcium and Phosphate. Also, like the shell of the egg, dental enamel is the thin, outer layer of hard tissue that helps maintain the tooth's shape and structure, while defending it from wearing down. 2. Students should write answers to the questions on the back of the Hypothesis worksheet in their groups. Time permitting, group answers can be discussed as an entire class. a) Vinegar is an acid. What other food & drinks might have acid or be acidic? (Soda, lemon, fruit juice etc.) Acids have the ability dissolve/seep in the eggshell or enamel much more readily when it has not been treated and there is no Fluorapatite. Sugars, especially sucrose (table sugar), feed the millions of bacteria already in your mouth. Bacteria feast on your plaque buildup and produce lactic acid, which erodes your tooth enamel. b) How did the two eggshells react differently to the vinegar? The egg that was soaked in fluoride had time to combine the fluoride with Calcium and Phosphate to make Fluorapatite. As a result, the egg that was not soaked in Fluoride started to bubble before the fluoridated one. c) Based on what happened to the egg, what do you think can happen to teeth that have never been treated with fluoride when a person drinks or eats things with a lot of acid? (Reiterate the list of acidic foods and beverages they came up with). Cavities! If the damage to the enamel is not stopped or treated at the dentist, bacteria can penetrate through the enamel causing tooth decay (also called cavities). Cavities weaken teeth and can lead to pain, tooth loss, or even widespread infection in the most severe cases. d) How do you feel about drinking fluoride in tap water? 58

59 Step 6: Wrap up and reinforce key points 1. Have students fill out the post-test side of the Fluoride in Water Pre- and Post-Activity worksheet. Are there any surprises? 2. Answer any questions 3. Reinforce the idea that fluoride can be obtained by drinking tap water. Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the students to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 59

60 Printable version available at: Lesson Three Questionnaire - Student Oral Health Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) Drinking tap water could be good for my teeth. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson Drinking sugary drinks and eating sugary foods has a bad effect on my teeth. Before the lesson After the lesson Sugar is a leading cause of tooth decay (and cavities), but fluoride helps to prevent cavities. Before the lesson After the lesson 60

61 Printable version available at: Name: Date: Grade: Fluoride in Water Pre- and Post-Activity Match the words in the Word Box with their definitions. Complete the Before section before the lesson and the After section after the lesson. Word Box Contaminants Enamel Pulp Additives Fluoride Root Before: Definitions: After: 1. Particles that are added to a community water system so that it is safe to drink. 2. The outer protective layer of a tooth that is made up of calcium and phosphate. 3. An additive in water that prevents tooth decay. 4. The part of a tooth that provides a post for support. 5. Particles that make water unclean, impure and/or unsafe. 6. The part of a tooth that keeps the tooth filled with nutrients (blood and minerals). 61

62 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 62

63 Printable version available at: HYPOTHESIS What is your hypothesis for the Fluoride Egg experiment? Your hypothesis is a prediction of the outcome of the experiment. You can make a prediction based on your understanding of fluoride, and your understanding of how fluoride affects materials like an egg shell (which is like tooth enamel.) What is your prediction? Your hypothesis is a guess of what you think will happen to the two different eggs after they sit in vinegar. Hypothesis: After the Experiment, answer these questions: How did the two eggshells react differently to the vinegar? Vinegar is an acid. What other food and drinks might have acid or be acidic? Based on what happened to the egg, what do you think can happen to the tooth that has never been treated with fluoride when a person drinks or eats things with a lot of acid? How do you feel about drinking fluoride in tap water? 63

64 Lessons for Students Lesson Four: Bottled versus Tap 64

65 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Students will complete a brief questionnaire about the day s topic before the lesson. 1. One Lesson Four Questionnaire per student 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Copy one questionnaire for each student. Water Taste Test Activity (10 min.) Water Quality Activity (10 min.) Cost of Water Activity (15 min.) Summary Activity (5 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Students will identify their opinions about and gain a new perspective on tap water and bottled water. Students will learn about differences in quality standards between tap and bottled water. Students will calculate the cost difference between tap and bottled water. Students are able to list differences between bottled and tap water. Students will complete the same questionnaire to determine if agreement has changed Agreement signs (Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree)Enough bottled water for each student s Dixie cup 2. Dixie cups- 2 per student, in 2 colors 3. 4 pitchers, 2 labeled A fill with tap water (A) and 2 labeled B bottled water (B)[Bottled water supplied for taste test] 4. Taste Test Score Card 1. Powerpoint slide or butcher paper with EPA/FDA Water Quality Chart image 1. Pencils (1 per student) 2. Calculators 3. Cost of Water Calculation Sheet Exit Card worksheet 1. Their original Lesson Four Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Copy 1 Taste Test Score Card per student 2. Create taste test stations with -2 cups/student, 4 pitchers, 2 filled with tap, 2 filled bottled water.) 3. Post Agreement signs around the room. 1. Cue up Powerpoint or butcher paper featuring EPA/FDA Water Quality Chart. 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person) 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person) 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. 65

66 Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the questionnaires (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each student before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. Water Taste Test Activity (10 min.) Step 1: Brief warm up discussion 1. To get students thinking about bottled water vs. tap water, read the statements below and ask students to go stand under the sign that describes their opinion. Allow for debate; encourage students to justify and explain their position. a) Bottled water tastes better than tap water. b) Bottled water is safer to drink than tap water. c) Bottled water is cheaper than tap water. d) Whenever I have a choice, I select bottled water over tap water. e) Whenever my parents have a choice, they select bottled water over tap water. Step 2: Groups of four will conduct blind taste test. 1. Give every group 8 Dixie cups, two per student. 2. Pour water A in all the blue cups, and water B in all the green cups 3. Students fill out the Taste Test Score Card and circle their favorite of the two waters. Step 3: Vote for Favorite, and which is Tap Water 1. Students raise their hand to vote for their favorite( tally on the board.) 2. Students vote to guess which bottled water and which is tap. Tally on the board. 3. Reveal the secret identity of Water A and Water B. Step 4: Debrief Has this activity changed the way anyone will decide where to get their water in the future? Water Quality activity (10 min.) 66

67 1. Project the EPA vs. FDA Bottled Water chart via Powerpoint or butcher paper during discussion. 2. Walk through the EPA/FDA Water Quality Chart with the students. Some points to highlight include: a) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) checks tap water for contaminants to make sure it s safe to drink. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water. b) This chart shows that these two agencies have different standards. For example, disinfection (i.e., getting rid of germs) is required for tap water but not required for bottled water. 3. Have students point out other differences they see between tap water and bottled water regulations that are surprising to them. Define some terms that are unfamiliar to some students: a) E Coli - a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. (Taken from CDC) b) Fecal Coliform - coliforms are used as indicators of possible sewage contamination because they are commonly found in human and animal feces. Although they are generally not harmful themselves, they indicate the possible presence of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria, viruses, and protozoans that also live in human and animal digestive systems. (Taken from EPA) c) Pathogens - a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host (Taken from Science Daily) d) Cryptosporidium - a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis, this parasite can be spread in several different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common method of transmission (Taken from CDC) e) Giardia - a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis, found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals. (Taken from CDC) f) Asbestos - a mineral fiber that occurs in rock and soil, exposure to asbestos increases your risk of developing lung disease (Taken from EPA) g) Phthalate - Phthalates are used in hundreds of consumer products including cosmetics, personal care products, detergents, adhesives, building materials, etc. (Taken from National Library of Medicine, NIH) 4. Ask students what they think about this information. Lead a discussion about this, time permitting. Cost of Water Activity (15 min.) 1. Use Cost of Water Calculation Sheet with the class to figure out the costs associated with bottled water. Tell students to refer to the helpful conversions on the worksheet (cost of tap water, etc.) to help with their calculations. Have all students use 1 bottled water per day for ease and standard calculations across the entire class. 2. Discuss the annual differences between costs of bottled and tap water. 3. Time permitting, have students answer the questions on the Cost of Water Calculation Sheet starting with How does the price of tap water compare to the cost of bottled water? 67

68 4. Ask students What do you think about the cost difference of bottled and tap water? Does this information make you think twice about anything in your own life/behaviors? Summary activity (5 min.) 1. Have students fill out the Exit card and discuss answers, time permitting. Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the students to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 68

69 Printable version available at: Lesson Four Questionnaire - Student Water Taste, Quality, and Cost Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) I can definitely taste the difference between Before the lesson bottled water and tap water. After the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion Tap water is safer for me to drink than bottled water. Before the lesson After the lesson Tap water is much more expensive than bottled water. Before the lesson After the lesson 69

70 Printable version available at: Tasting Notes Water A Water B Smell Taste What kind of water is this? Tasting Notes Water A Water B Smell Taste What kind of water is this? 70

71 Adapted from Resource for Life document (http://www.resourcesforlife.com/docs/item4145) and the University of Iowa Water Confidence Report (http://www.facilities.uiowa.edu/uem/water-plant.html) Printable version and Power Point image available at: 71

72 Printable version available at: Cost of Water calculation sheet Bottled Water Calculations Number of bottles of water that you drink per day Cost of each bottle of water Number of days in a year Your total cost of bottled water per year Tap Water Calculations Amount of water that you drink per day in liters Amount of water that you drink per day in gallons Price per gallon of your local tap water Price per day of your water intake in gallons Number of days in a year Your total cost of tap water per year How does the price of tap water compare to the cost of bottled water? What fraction of the cost of bottled water is the cost of tap water? What is the cost difference? The difference between the yearly cost of bottled water and tap water. Helpful conversions: Typical bottled water volume=0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost= $ Liter=0.264 gallons Price per gallon of EBMUD tap water=$0.003/gallon 72

73 Printable version available at: Exit Card Name: Date: 3 Differences in quality standards between tap water and bottled water: a) b) c) 2 Reasons to drink tap water rather than bottled water: e) f) 1 Small change that I will make in my life regarding tap water: g) 73

74 Lessons for Students Lesson Five: Be the Change You Wish to See 74

75 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Photovoice Discussion (15 min.) Recipe for Change Activity (25 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Students will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Students will analyze Photovoice water fountain photos (or water fountain example photos if no Photovoice was conducted prior to lesson) using the T-A-P photovoice analysis tool, focusing on P where students propose something they can do about it. Students will generate ideas for promoting tap water to peers based on learning from Lessons 1-4. Students will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. One Lesson Five Questionnaire per student 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Powerpoint featuring Photovoice photos (e.g., floating plastic island, landfills, etc.) - If no Powerpoint is possible, print 1 copy of each photo for each group of 4 students.) 1. Recipe for Change worksheet (1 doublesided copy for each student) 2. Butcher paper 3. Markers 4. Marker sets for students 1. Their original Lesson Five Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per student 1. Copy one questionnaire for each student. 1. Write out the T- A-P acronym on the board. T is Tell me about what you see, A is Assess whether it s a strength or problem, and P is Propose something you can do about it. 2. Cue up Powerpoint featuring Photovoice photos OR print Photovoice photos. 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person) 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. 75

76 Background Information for Teachers: In the Photovoice discussion activity, you will be leading an analysis of photos with your students. Photovoice refers to an advocacy technique in which photos are used to tell a story/highlight an issue; recognizing that photos may be so much more powerful or illustrative than words. During the Photovoice discussion, you will show your students various photos and ask them to use the T-A-P photo analysis tool to break down what they re viewing and begin to think about ways they can be advocates for change. T is Tell me about what you see, A is Assess whether it s a strength or problem, and P is Propose something you can do about it. Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the questionnaires (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each student before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why their answer is correct. Photovoice Discussion (15 min.) Step 1: Lead Photovoice discussion (15 min.) 1. Introduce the concept of Photovoice as an advocacy tool in which photos are used to tell a story/highlight an issue. 2. Project the Photovoice issue photos and ask students to volunteer responses for what they see in the photos and how this photo relates to their own lives. 3. Let students know what is being represented in each photo. a. Photo #1: This is a photo of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch which is a large area in the middle of the Pacific Ocean that is full of trash. Ocean currents move discarded trash to this area in the Pacific Ocean that has low currents. Then, the trash releases harmful chemicals into the ocean as it degrades over time. It is estimated to be twice the size of the continental United States. There is another one in the Atlantic Ocean called the North Atlantic Garbage Patch. b. Photo #2: This is a photo of a dead bird with its stomach filled with plastic trash. Birds will eat plastic and it will fill their stomachs up and they won t be able to pass the plastic so they will slowly starve to death. c. Photo #3: This is a photo of a student walking by trash in a school yard. d. Photo #4: This is a photo of a school water fountain. Does it look familiar? 4. Focusing on the photo of the school water fountain, ask students what may be similar about their own school water fountains. Lead students through each of the T-A-P steps written on the board. Write student propose something you can do about it responses on the butcher paper. 76

77 Step 2: Discuss campus water resources (10 min.) 1. Ask for a student volunteer to write out the locations of each of the campus water fountains on a piece of butcher paper. 2. Lead a discussion about which of the water fountains the students like to use/don t like to use and why. Draw a circle next to fountains they like and an X next to fountains they don t like with notes about why they like or don t like those fountains. Remind students about some of the lessons they learned about tap water throughout the week (e.g., campus-specific water quality report). 3. Compare and contrast the notes about why they don t like certain fountains and the propose something YOU can do about it solutions that the students had listed in the Photovoice activity. Ask students to identify one of the non-liked water fountains (the ones with the X next to them) to adopt and commit to doing one of the propose something you can do about it solutions specifically for that water fountain. Step 3: Lead Recipe for Change activity (15 min.) 1. Pass out the Recipe for Change worksheet. Explain that the main goal of these worksheets is for them to persuade their peers to drink more tap water. Their worksheet calls for them to create a recipe for change. The ingredients in the recipe include a catchy slogan/message that promotes the benefits of drinking tap water (for our health, for our wallets, for our earth, etc.), an appropriate visual that illustrates that slogan/message, and 3 reasons we should choose to drink tap water. 2. Before students get started on their worksheets, lead them through a popcorn activity where they stand up and say a word or phrase that was interesting to them about the lessons they have learned over the past week. If students have a hard time grasping the concept, go over the week s lessons. Write student ideas on a piece of butcher paper at the front of the class. Leave the butcher paper up for the students to use as inspiration for their Recipe for Change worksheets. 3. Ask students how they think these worksheets should be used. Prompt them with whether they think it would be a good idea to have student worksheets posted up around the water fountains or other sources of drinking water on campus. 4. Use the rest of the class time for students to design and share their Recipe for Change worksheet. Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the students to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask them to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one student of each opinion to explain why their answer is correct. 77

78 Printable version available at: Lesson Five Questionnaire - Student Water Advocacy Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) Drinking bottled water can be bad for the Before the lesson environment. After the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion I drink from the water fountains at school. Before the lesson After the lesson One person on his/her own cannot make a change. Before the lesson After the lesson 78

79 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 79

80 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 80

81 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 81

82 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 82

83 Printable version available at: Recipe for Change Worksheet Explanation of recipe ingredients (Use the other side of this sheet to write out the following items): 1. Catchy slogan/message - Come up with a catchy slogan/message that promotes the benefits of drinking tap water. 2. Visual - Draw a visual that represents your slogan/message reasons we should drink tap water - Based on what you learned about tap water over this past week, list 3 reasons it is a good idea to drink tap water. 83

84 Catchy Slogan/Message: Visual: 3 Reasons to Drink Tap Water:

85 Printable version available at: Name Date Tapped: The Movie - Student Viewer s Guide 1. By the year, 2/3 of the world s population will lack access to clean drinking water. 2. When we treat our water as a commodity it becomes. 3. In 2007, Americans bought more than billions of bottles of water? 4. How much of Earth s surface is covered in water? % How much of it is drinkable? % 5. Poland Springs water costs Nestle to cents / gallon to extract, process, & package but they sell it for $ a gallon. 6. Name the 3 largest water bottling corporations 7. Who said There is enough water for human need but not enough for human greed? 8. The World Bank values the world water market at $ billion. 9. In the next years, no matter where you live, clean water access will be an issue due to changes in. 10. How many states had drought in 2007? 11. Which bottled water brand STILL pumped over 400,000 gallons of water / DAY during the height of the 2007 drought in Raleigh, NC? 12. Coca-Cola pumped million gallons of water from the lake in Atlanta during a level 4 drought in 2007 even though severe restrictions on local residents & businesses were in effect. 13. How do bottled water companies imply tap water isn t healthy? What do they say in their advertisements? 14. What percentage of bottled water is just filtered tap water? % Where does the plastic used for these bottles come from? 15. Paraxylene, a main compound in plastic and found in bottled water is linked to causing. 16. Plastic water bottle manufacturers use 714 million gallons of oil / year to make plastic bottles. That s enough to fuel cars. 85

86 17. Birth defects in Corpus Christi, TX are % higher than the state average. The company in Corpus Christi makes paraxylene. 18. How many people at the FDA are responsible for overseeing bottled water regulations? 19. FDA has no control over INstate commerce, only INTERstate (crossing state lines). How much bottled water purchased is produced within state lines? % to % 20. Bottled water manufacturers do their own tests on sources & products. Are they required to submit these reports to the FDA? 21. Municipal water sources also test their water sources & products. Are they required to submit these reports? 22. B-phisenol or BPA is linked to many severe health problems. Name 3: 23. National Institutes of Health reviewed over peer-reviewed studies on BPA. FDA reviewed studies from the industry. internationally recognized scientists expressed concern over BPA s effect on human health. 24. Dr. Alderson states that all approval from FDA comes from whose studies? 25. Of 80 million single serving plastic bottles used daily, million end up in landfills. 26. The average world recycling of beverage containers is %. The US is %. 27. Eleven states have container deposit legislation. The 5 states have a % return rate while Michigan with its 10 deposit has % return rate. 28. % of Americans don t have curbside recycling yet bottled water companies push that method of recycling over container deposit legislation. 29. In 1999, the Western Pacific Garbage Patch had times the plastic as plankton. In 2008, that had jumped to times. 30. Name 3 things listed in the credits that YOU can do. 86

87 Printable version available at: Name Date Tapped: The Movie - Teacher s Guide 1. By the year 2030, 2/3 of the world s population will lack access to clean drinking water. 2. When we treat our water as a commodity it becomes corporate control. 3. In 2007, Americans bought more than 29 billion bottles of water. 4. How much of Earth s surface is covered in water? 75% How much of it is drinkable? 1% 5. Poland Springs water costs Nestle 6 to 11 cents / gallon to extract, process, & package but they sell it for $ _6_ a gallon. 6. Name the 3 largest water bottling corporations: Nestle, Coca-Cola, Pepsi 7. Who said There is enough water for human need but not enough for human greed? Mahatma Gandhi 8. The World Bank values the world water market at $ 800 billion. 9. In the next years, no matter where you live, clean water access will be an issue due to changes in climate. 10. In 2007, 35 states suffered from drought, but Pepsi still pumped 400,000 gallons of water per DAY during the drought s height. 12. Coca-Cola pumped 118 million gallons of water from the lake in Atlanta during a level 4 drought in 2007 even though severe restrictions on local residents & businesses were in effect. 13. How do bottled water companies imply tap water isn t healthy? What do they say in their advertisements? Pure, safe, clean, healthy 14. What percentage of bottled water is just filtered tap water? 40%. Where does the plastic used for these bottles come from? Refineries and petrol chemical plants 15. Paraxylene, a main compound in plastic and found in bottled water is linked to causing cancer. 16. Plastic water bottle manufacturers use 714 million gallons of oil / year to make plastic bottles. That s enough to fuel 100,000 cars. 17. Birth defects in Corpus Christi, TX are 84% higher than the state average. Flint Hills is the name of the company in Corpus Christi that makes paraxylene. 18. How many people at the FDA are responsible for overseeing bottled water regulations? 1 person 87

88 19. FDA has no control over INstate commerce, only INTERstate (crossing state lines). Ex: If water pumped in Maine and dispensed in Maine is NOT regulated by the FDA. How much bottled water purchased is produced within state lines? 60% to 70% 20. Bottled water manufacturers do their own tests on sources & products. Are they required to submit these reports to the FDA? No. Municipal water sources also test their water sources & products. Are they required to submit these reports? Yes 21. Municipalities test tap water multiple times per day. In a city of over 1 million, they test tap water 300 times per month. In a city of over 3 million, they test tap water 400 times per month. 22. B-phisenol or BPA is linked to many severe health problems. Name 3: Diabetes, obesity, breast cancer, prostate cancer, brain and liver disease, low sperm count. 23. National Institutes of Health reviewed over 700 peer-reviewed studies on BPA. FDA reviewed 2 studies from the industry. 38 internationally recognized scientists expressed concern over BPA s effect on human health. 24. Dr. Alderson states that all approval from FDA comes from whose studies? What does this mean? Ex: If approval comes from only one source, there is a higher chance of providing information which solely substantiates their argument. Industry studies 25. Of 80 million single serving plastic bottles used daily, 30 million end up in landfills. 26. The average world recycling of beverage containers is 50%. The US is 20%. 27. Eleven states have container deposit legislation. The 5 states have a 70% return rate while Michigan with its 10 deposit has 97% return rate % of Americans don t have curbside recycling yet bottled water companies push that method of recycling over container deposit legislation. 29. In 1999, the Western Pacific Garbage Patch had 6 times the plastic as plankton. In 2008, that had jumped to 46 times. 30. Name 3 things listed in the credits that YOU can do (e.g., Vote with your dollar, Be mindful of your own water usage, Demand that bottled water companies make water quality reports available to the public, etc.). 88

89 Additional activities and bonus questions: These are optional bonus questions that you can choose to use. If you choose to use these bonus questions, write them on the board and have students answer them at the bottom of their answer sheet under #30. Bonus Questions: 1. Where is the largest food processing plant in the world? 2. Poland Springs is a part of which major corporation? 3. What country is this corporation from? 4. Why are local residents so upset about Nestle s water mining? (at least 3 reasons) Is the anger of these local residents justified? a. b. c. Activity based on information in Extras- World Water Crisis Tell students that they are going to use some of the class s answers to question #30 for a debate. Call on a few students to share their responses to question #30 and write the responses on the board. Take a poll and the two responses with the most hands will be the topic of debate- each team in advocates why their response is best to implement in their local community. Have them think about: The needs of residents, ability of residents, environment, available resources, tools used to implement ideas such as communicating with local legislators etc. *If there is extra time you can pose the statement to the class: Safe drinking water and water sanitation is the number one health crisis around the world. Every 15 seconds a child dies from preventable water borne disease. Ask for basic feedback and form a discussion about what we can do as a community and as individuals. 89

90 Activities for Adults Lesson One: Bottled versus Tap 90

91 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity~15 min. Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Cost of Water Activity (12 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Adults will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Adults will calculate the cost difference between tap and bottled water. Adults will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. One Lesson One Questionnaire per adult 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Pencils (1 per adult) 2. Calculators 3. Cost of Water Calculation Sheet 1. Their original Lesson One Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Copy one questionnaire for each adult. 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person). 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson One Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each adult before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. Cost of Water activity (12 min.) 1. Use Cost of Water calculation sheet with the class to figure out the costs associated with bottled water. Tell adults to refer to the helpful conversions on the worksheet (cost of tap 91

92 water, etc.) to help with their calculations. Have all adults use 1 bottled water per day for ease and standard calculations across the entire class. 2. Discuss the annual differences between costs of bottled and tap water. 3. Time permitting, have adults answer the questions on the sheet starting with How does the price of tap water compare to the cost of bottled water? 4. Ask adults, What do you think about the cost difference of bottled and tap water? Does this information make you think twice about anything in your own life/behaviors? Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the adults to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 92

93 Printable version available at: Lesson One Questionnaire - Advanced Cost of Water Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) Tap water is much more expensive than bottled water. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson I will never drink tap water. Before the lesson After the lesson 93

94 Printable version available at: Cost of Water calculation sheet Bottled Water Calculations Number of bottles of water that you drink per day Cost of each bottle of water Number of days in a year Your total cost of bottled water per year Tap Water Calculations Amount of water that you drink per day in liters Amount of water that you drink per day in gallons Price per gallon of your local tap water Price per day of your water intake in gallons Number of days in a year Your total cost of tap water per year How does the price of tap water compare to the cost of bottled water? What fraction of the cost of bottled water is the cost of tap water? What is the cost difference? The difference between the yearly cost of bottled water and tap water. Helpful conversions: Typical bottled water volume=0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost= $ Liter=0.264 gallons Price per gallon of EBMUD tap water=$0.003/gallon 94

95 Activities for Adults Lesson Two: Sugar Shock 95

96 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity ~20min. Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Nutrition Facts Label/Sugar activity (15 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Adults will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Adults will be able to conceptualize the amount of sugar in a beverage reading a nutrition label, and distinguish between high sugar and low sugar beverages. Adults will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. One Lesson Two Questionnaire per adult 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet 2. Power Point or butcher paper with Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet visual 3. Demo materials d) Soda bottle e) Plastic bag f) Teaspoon and box/bag of sugar OR box of sugar cubes (1 cube = 1 tsp) 4. Sugary Drink Predictions worksheet 5. Empty sugary drink bottles for group activity (1 bottle per group of 3-4 adults; make sure you have 6 different varieties represented) 1. Their original Lesson Two Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Copy one questionnaire for each adult. 1. Make worksheet copies (one per person). 2. Cue up the Power Point or butcher paper with Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet visual. 3. Have the sugar and empty Cola bottle ready with a tea spoon for the demonstration. 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. 96

97 Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson Two Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each adult before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. Nutrition Facts Label/Sugar Activity (15 min.) Step 1: Set the Stage 1. Ask adults if they know why having too much sugar in the diet is not the healthiest choice. Which disease(s) are related to having too much sugar in the diet? 2. Do a simple poll by having adults raise their hands (or stand up) if they know someone with Type 2 Diabetes. Have those adults keep their hands up (or remain standing) and ask the remaining adults to raise their hand (or stand up) if someone who is close to them is overweight. 3. Have adults lower their hands (or sit down) and ask them if they know which beverages have the most sugar. 4. Tell them that today they will learn how to use a nutrition facts label to figure out how much sugar is in the drinks that they drink. Step 2: Do The Math (Sugar) Worksheet 1. Pass out the Do the Math (Sugar) worksheet to adults. This worksheet will be done in class as an example. Project the worksheet on the board or butcher paper. 2. Write out the formulas and steps to solving it on the board. Adults can refer to this later when they do the math in their groups. Write the following conversions on the board for reference: 1 tsp sugar = 4 gm 1 tsp =5mL 1 cup = 8 oz. = 240 ml Step 3: Sugar demo 1. Explain that you are going to add sugar to a bottle (or stack sugar cubes), so that the class can see exactly what the numbers on the nutrition facts label mean about the amount of sugar in 97

98 Cola. Show the class the soda bottle that you filled with sugar so they have an idea of the amount of Cola that the amount of sugar corresponds to. 2. Spoon the # of teaspoons of sugar (or sugar cubes) that are in Cola into a clear bottle or baggie. You can ask for a volunteer for this step if you feel that it will engage the adults more. 3. Count the number of teaspoons of sugar out loud. 4. Show the class the example soda bottle so they have an idea of the amount of Cola that the amount of sugar corresponds to. Pass around the baggie of sugar for maximum impact! Step 4: Adults Do the Math in groups 1. Break the adults into groups of 3-4 adults each and pass out one sugary drink bottle per group and one Sugary Drink Predictions worksheet per adult. Write down the types of sugary drinks that are represented in the class on the board. Ask the groups to rank the sugary drinks from MOST to LEAST sugar and write their guesses on their worksheet under My Ranking (1 = the drink with the MOST sugar and 6 = the drink with the LEAST sugar). This will be revisited following their calculations. 2. Have adults calculate the amount of sugar in their sugary drink bottle using the label from the bottle they were given. 3. Once adults are done with their calculations, write them up on the board next to the drink names. Check their calculations for accuracy. Make any corrections if necessary. 4. Have adults write down the actual ranking of MOST to LEAST sugar in the Actual Ranking column. Step 5: Debrief Ask entire class (for brief discussion): 1. What were the different serving sizes, and how did that affect how much sugar a person will drink if they buy that beverage? Any surprises? What did you think would have less sugar than it does? 2. Does this make you want to rethink your drink? Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the adults to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 98

99 Printable version available at: Lesson Two Questionnaire - Advanced Sugar-sweetened beverages Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) I know how much sugar is in the drinks that I drink. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson I will make positive choices about my health by drinking fewer sugary beverages. Before the lesson After the lesson 99

100 Printable version and Power Point image available at: 100

101 Printable version available at: Sugary Drink Predictions Name: Date: Examine the bottles of sugary drinks on the table. Rank them in order of sugar contained in the entire bottle: 1 = the drink with the MOST sugar and 6 = the drink with the LEAST sugar. Complete the My Ranking section ONLY. We will complete the remainder of the table after all participants have made their predictions. Drink A My Ranking (1-6) Actual Ranking Grams of Sugar in the Entire Bottle = Number of Servings X Grams of Sugar Teaspoons/Cubes of Sugar Formula = Grams of Sugar 4 B C D E F Wrap-up: 1. What, if anything, surprised you about the results of this activity? 2. What are the consequences of drinking sugary drinks? 3. What are some strategies for reducing the amount of sugary beverages that you drink? 4. Write a realistic goal for reducing your consumption of sugary drinks. 101

102 Activities for Adults Lesson Three: Hydration Calculation 102

103 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity~15 min. Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Dehydration/Rehydration Activity (10 min.) Adults will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Adults will learn how to calculate and assess their own hydration needs. 1. One Lesson Three Questionnaire per adult 2. One writing utensil per adult 5. Dehydration/Rehydration worksheets A, B, and C 6. Calculators 7. Pencils (one per adult) 8. 1 cup measuring cup 1. Copy one questionnaire for each adult. 2. Make worksheet copies (one scenario per group). Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Adults will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. Their original Lesson Three Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson Three Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide). 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each adult before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 103

104 Dehydration/Rehydration activity (10 min.) 1. Start out activity by asking adults if they know how much water their body needs to function every day. Ask them what kinds of things affect how much water your body needs each day? (Answer: going to the bathroom, sweating, weather, crying, etc.). Ask adults to raise their hand if they think they get enough water per day. Explain the symptoms of dehydration or not getting enough water (headache, stomachache, dry mouth, etc.). 2. Explain that everyone needs a slightly different amount of water, as everyone s body is different. 3. Break the adults into groups of 4 and pass out the Dehydration/Rehydration worksheets A, B, or C to each group, one character scenario for each group. Explain that the formula on their sheet gives a good estimate. Walk through the formula together. 4. Ask groups to read their scenario together and calculate the amount of water their character will need, using the Dehydration/Rehydration formula on their worksheet. Then, they will calculate how much it would cost to fill that water need with bottled water and how much it would cost to fill that water need with tap water. 5. Visit each group to make sure that they have read their scenario and understand the main questions they will be asked to figure out with conversion formulas. 6. Bring all groups attention back and ask groups to share out their findings. Ask adults to discuss how this relates to their own lives and their own habits. 7. Have adults calculate their own water needs using the equation they just used for the case study calculation. If adults are uncomfortable with using or don t know their own weight for calculation, they can use 40 pounds which is the average weight of a 5 year old. Then, when they calculate out the amount of water a 5-year old would need, ask them if they think THEY are getting enough, as an older, bigger person. 8. After adults have calculated their own needs, hold up the 1 cup measuring cup and ask them to visualize how much water they need compared to the one cup. ) Ask them if they are getting enough water. Have them call out ideas on how they can get more water in their day (e.g., bringing a refillable water bottle to work, etc.) Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the adults to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 104

105 Printable version available at: Lesson Three Questionnaire - Advanced Hydration Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) I drink enough water every day. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson I need the same amount of water every day to stay healthy. Before the lesson After the lesson 105

106 Printable version available at: Dehydration/Rehydration Worksheet (Dehydration/Rehydration Formula taken from: Dehydration/Rehydration Formula: Body Weight/2 = number of ounces of water needed per day ADD 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise Helpful conversions: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 ounces 1 Liter = ounces Price per gallon for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) tap water = $0.003/gallon Typical bottled water volume = 0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost = $ Liter = gallons Character Scenario A: Julia weighs 100 pounds. Today she walks her dog for 30 minutes. Tomorrow she will play basketball for an hour. How much water will Julia need today? How much will that water cost if she drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if she drinks bottled water? How much water will Julia need tomorrow? How much will that water cost if she drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if she drinks bottled water? 106

107 Printable version available at: Dehydration/Rehydration Worksheet (Dehydration/Rehydration Formula taken from: Dehydration/Rehydration Formula: Body Weight/2 = number of ounces of water needed per day ADD 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise Helpful conversions: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 ounces 1 Liter = ounces Price per gallon for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) tap water = $0.003/gallon Typical bottled water volume = 0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost = $ Liter = gallons Character Scenario B: Jose weighs 184 pounds. He plays soccer for an hour after work. He walks to the park and home for a total of 30 minutes. How much water does Jose need if he does no exercise? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? How much additional water does Jose need today (since he exercised)? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? 107

108 Printable version available at: Dehydration/Rehydration Worksheet (Dehydration/Rehydration Formula taken from: Dehydration/Rehydration Formula: Body Weight/2 = number of ounces of water needed per day ADD 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise Helpful conversions: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 ounces 1 Liter = ounces Price per gallon for East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) tap water = $0.003/gallon Typical bottled water volume = 0.5 Liter Typical bottled water (0.5 Liter) cost = $ Liter = gallons Character Scenario C: Daniel weighs 124 pounds. Tomorrow, he plans to ride his bike to the supermarket (20 min.) then to his cousin s house (15 min.) and then home (15 min.). How much water does Daniel need if he does no exercise? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? How much water will Daniel need tomorrow? How much will that water cost if he drinks tap water? How much will that water cost if he drinks bottled water? 108

109 Activities for Adults Lesson Four: Bottled versus Tap 109

110 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity~15 min. Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Water Quality Activity (10 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Adults will test their knowledge by completing a brief questionnaire related to the day s topic prior to the lesson. Adults will learn about the differences in quality standards between tap and bottled water. Adults will complete the same questionnaire to determine whether their level of agreement has changed based on the information learned in today s lesson. 1. One Lesson Four Questionnaire per adult 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Powerpoint slide or butcher paper with EPA/FDA Water Quality Chart image 1. Their original Lesson Four Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Copy one questionnaire for each adult. 1. Cue up Powerpoint or butcher paper featuring EPA/FDA Water Quality Chart. 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson Four Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each adult before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning today and that they are not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 110

111 Water Quality activity (10 min.) 1. Project the EPA vs. FDA Bottled Water chart via Powerpoint or butcher paper during discussion. 2. Walk through the EPA/FDA Water Quality Chart with the adults. Some points to highlight include: a) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) checks tap water for contaminants to make sure it s safe to drink. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water. b) This chart shows that these two agencies have different standards. For example, disinfection (i.e., getting rid of germs) is required for tap water but not required for bottled water. 3. Have adults point out other differences they see between tap water and bottled water regulations that are surprising to them. Define some terms that are unfamiliar to some adults: a) E Coli - a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. (Taken from CDC) b) Fecal Coliform - coliforms are used as indicators of possible sewage contamination because they are commonly found in human and animal feces. Although they are generally not harmful themselves, they indicate the possible presence of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria, viruses, and protozoans that also live in human and animal digestive systems. (Taken from EPA) c) Pathogens - a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host (Taken from Science Daily) d) Cryptosporidium - a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis, this parasite can be spread in several different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common method of transmission (Taken from CDC) e) Giardia - a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis, found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals. (Taken from CDC) f) Asbestos - a mineral fiber that occurs in rock and soil, exposure to asbestos increases your risk of developing lung disease (Taken from EPA) g) Phthalate - Phthalates are used in hundreds of consumer products including cosmetics, personal care products, detergents, adhesives, building materials, etc. (Taken from National Library of Medicine, NIH) 4. Ask adults what they think about this information. Lead a discussion about this, time permitting. 111

112 Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the adults to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 112

113 Printable version available at: Lesson Four Questionnaire - Advanced Water Quality Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) Tap water is safer for me to drink than bottled water. Before the lesson Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson There are limited regulations on bottled water, so it s much more likely to have bacteria than tap water. Before the lesson After the lesson 113

114 Adapted from Resource for Life document (http://www.resourcesforlife.com/docs/item4145) and the University of Iowa Water Confidence Report (http://www.facilities.uiowa.edu/uem/water-plant.html) Printable version and Power Point image available at: 114

115 Activities for Adults Lesson Five: Bottled versus Tap 115

116 Objectives/Materials/Preparation: Activity Objectives Materials Preparation Pre-questionnaire (2 min.) Water Taste Test Activity (10 min.) Post-questionnaire (3 min.) Adults will complete a brief questionnaire about the day s topic before the lesson. Dispel myths about superiority of bottled water to tap water Adults will complete the same questionnaire to determine if agreement has changed. 1. One Lesson Five Questionnaire per adult 2. One writing utensil per adult 5. 4 Agreement signs (Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree)Enough bottled water for each adult s Dixie cup 6. Dixie cups- 2 per adult, in 2 colors 7. 4 pitchers, 2 labeled A fill with tap water (A) and 2 labeled B bottled water (B)[Bottled water supplied for taste test] 8. Taste Test Score Card 1. Their original Lesson Five Questionnaire 2. One writing utensil per adult 1. Copy one questionnaire for each adult. 4. Copy 1 Taste Test Score Card per adult. 5. Create taste test stations with -2 cups/adult, 4 pitchers, 2 filled with tap, 2 filled bottled water.) 6. Post Agreement signs around the room. 1. Make sure they each have their original questionnaire. Pre- questionnaire (2 min.) Step 1: Distribute the Lesson Five Questionnaire (or facilitate a discussion using the questionnaire as a guide) 1. Hand out one questionnaire to each adult before you begin the lesson. Tell them that these are questions relating to material they are going to be learning and they re not expected to necessarily know the answers right now. Ask them to answer each question based on the knowledge they have now by checking either the Agree or Disagree box. 2. Tell them to hold onto their questionnaire until the end of the lesson because they are going to answer the same question after the lesson is completed. *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 116

117 Water Taste Test Activity (10 min.) Step 1: Brief warm up discussion 2. To get adults thinking about bottled water vs. tap water, read the statements below and ask adults to go stand under the sign that describes their opinion. Allow for debate; encourage adults to justify and explain their position. a) Bottled water tastes better than tap water. b) Bottled water is safer to drink than tap water. c) Bottled water is cheaper than tap water. d) Whenever I have a choice, I select bottled water over tap water. e) Whenever my family has a choice, they select bottled water over tap water. Step 2: Groups of four will conduct blind taste test. 1. Give every group 8 Dixie cups, two per adult. 2. Pour water A in all the blue cups, and water B in all the green cups 3. Adults fill out the Taste Test Score Card and circle their favorite of the two waters. Step 3: Vote for Favorite, and which is Tap Water 1. Adults raise their hand to vote for their favorite ( tally on the board.) 2. Adults vote to guess which bottled water and which is tap. Tally on the board. 3. Reveal the secret identity of Water A and Water B. Step 4: Debrief Has this activity changed the way anyone will decide where to get their water in the future? Post- questionnaire (3 min.) Step 1: 1. Ask the adults to take out their original questionnaire and answer each question with an Agree or Disagree based on the knowledge they have now. Ask them thought provoking questions for them to either answer in discussion or self-contemplative format such as: Did my answer change and if so, what information caused me to change my answer? *If formatted as a discussion: For each question ask adults to raise their hands if they agree, and hands down if they disagree. Choose one adult of each opinion to explain why they believe their answer is correct. 117

118 Printable version available at: Lesson Five Questionnaire - Advanced Water Taste Test Name: Date: Statements about Water Agree (mark with X) I can definitely taste the difference between bottled water and tap Before the lesson water. Disagree (mark with X) Support for opinion After the lesson I don t drink tap water because it tastes bad. Before the lesson After the lesson 118

119 Printable version available at: Tasting Notes Water A Water B Smell Taste What kind of water is this? Tasting Notes Water A Water B Smell Taste What kind of water is this? 119

120 Printable version available at: Tapped: The Movie - Advanced Viewer s Guide Name Date Per Complete while watching the movie and afterwards after reflecting on the information presented. 1. How are the oceans and beaches affected by water bottles? Describe the plastic soup. 2. Is water a fundamental right or should it be sold for profit? Support your opinion with evidence from the movie. 3. How does the amount of the bottle deposit (5 cents vs. 10 cents) affect the recycling return rate? a. Should CA raise its rate to 10 cents, in your opinion? Why or why not? Give three reasons as to why recycling is necessary: 120

121 4. Does the water mining in Maine affect us here in the Bay Area? How? a. How would you feel if Nestle decided to mine here in Oakland? 5. Gandhi said, There is enough water for human need, but not for human greed. Explain what he meant and how the movie supports this statement. 6. You re a politician. Local residents want you to stop Nestle from mining their local water and reselling it to them at almost 2000 times the cost. Your residents are also complaining about the health and environmental impact of Nestle s mining. Nestle reminds you of the loss of jobs that will occur if you stop them. What do you do? Explain your reasons. 121

122 7. Do you use bottled water? After seeing Tapped, do you feel differently about your personal use or the use of bottled water in general? If so, what has changed? 8. List at least three ways that you can raise awareness about tap water and pollution and/or change your own drinking and recycling habits. 122

123 Water Promotion 123

124 Water Promotion Overview The Water Promotion section of the toolkit provides: Sample Flyers and Posters that you can use for water promotion around campus, in classrooms, in the School Based Health Centers, at health fairs, etc. Materials to promote water at school health fairs or at a water education table set up during passing periods or lunch, including Spa Water Recipes, a Water Wheel Graphic, and Water Wheel Questions. Water Fountain Safety Signs that you can use to promote the safety of drinking water on campus following a tap water independent lab analysis. 124

125 Flyers Printable version available at: Source: MoneyAisle 125

126 Printable version available at: Adapted from Resource for Life document (http://www.resourcesforlife.com/docs/item4145) and the University of Iowa Water Confidence Report (http://www.facilities.uiowa.edu/uem/water-plant.html) 126

127 Printable version available at: 127

128 Printable version available at: 128

129 129

130 Printable version available at: 130

131 Posters Printable version available at: 131

132 Printable version available at: 132

133 Printable version available at: 133

134 Printable version available at: 134

135 Printable version available at: 135

136 Printable version available at: 136

137 Printable version available at: 137

138 Printable version available at: Spa Water Recipes 138

139 139

140 Printable version available at: Water Wheel Graphic 140

141 Printable version available at: Water Wheel Questions Q1. The price of bottled water is more than 1,000 times the price of tap water. Fact or myth? a. Fact Tap water costs about a penny per gallon which works out to be 1/8th of a cent per 16-ounce serving. Let s say you pay $2.00 for a 16-ounce bottled water at a convenience store. You are paying 1600 times more for that $2.00 bottled water than for the tap water at home. And remember, if you drink tap water at school, you re drinking for free. Q2. Bottled water is cleaner, and thus safer, than tap water. Fact or myth? a. Myth In testing, many brands of bottled water were found to have higher levels of contaminants than tap water. Also, the standards of cleanliness are much higher for tap water (tested by the EPA) than bottled water (tested by the FDA). Bottled water that does not meet FDA standards can still be sold as long as it is labeled to indicate excessive chemical substances. Q3. What percentage of your body weight is water? Your brain? a. The adult body is composed of nearly 60% water, on average. The brain is nearly 70% water and the lungs 90% water. Q4. When you feel thirsty, you are already in the early stages of dehydration. Fact or myth? a. Fact when you are first feeling thirsty your body is already 1% dehydrated. This level of dehydration can result in poor mental capacity (thinking), headaches, feelings of being tired, stomachaches, decreased athletic performance, and moodiness. Q5. When you feel thirsty, what percentage does your brain power (mental capacity) decline? a. 10% of your ability to think and concentrate is lost when you are even slightly dehydrated. Academic performance will improve if you maintain good hydration. That afternoon fogginess and sleepiness may be due to not drinking enough water. Q6. Water bottles are environmentally-friendly because they can be recycled. Fact or myth? a. Myth The fact is that about 86% of plastic water bottles are not being recycled; they end up in the trash. This is dangerous because producing as many plastic water bottles that are consumed by Americans each year uses the same amount of oil that it takes to keep 100,000 cars on the road for one year. Q7. Name a few things that increase your daily need for water. a. Exercise (+8oz per ½ hour activity); illness, such as fever or vomiting; hot weather. Q8. How does drinking enough water help your body maintain a healthy body weight? a. Aids digestion, suppresses appetite, replaces other caloric-rich drinks, and helps metabolize fat for energy. 141

142 Q9. Calculate your body s water needs (WN) in ounces using this formula: WN =(body weight)/2 + (8oz for every 1/2 of exercise) a. You need to replenish your body s water supply against loses from urine, sweat, metabolic processes, and breath. An easy formula is to divide your body weight in half to get the number of ounces needed per day and then add in 8 ounces for every half hour of exercise. If the weather is hot you need even more water. 8 ounces of water = 1 cup. One way to know you are getting enough water is to make sure your urine is clear or pale yellow; dark colored urine means dehydration or you are taking a mulit-vitamin (B-complex darkens the urine as excess vitamins are excreted). 142

143 Adaptable version available at: Water Fountain Safety Signs 143

144 Water Bottles 144

145 Water Bottles Overview The Water Bottles section of the toolkit provides: Materials needed to launch a student-designed water bottle design contest, including an Announcement Flyer and Application Form. Sample Water Bottle Order Specifications that you can change to fit your specific needs. Materials needed to launch a water bottle scavenger hunt (which can be used to tie water education to water bottle distribution), including Water Fountain Message Signs and a Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Form. 145

146 Adaptable version available at: Water Bottle Design Contest Announcement Flyer 146

147 Adaptable version available at: Water Bottle Design Application Form 147

148 Adaptable version available at: Sample Water Bottle Order Specifications Nutrition Services of Alameda County Public Health is requesting an All In quote for stainless steel water bottles with the following specifications: All In Quote: Quote must include all applicable charges, including costs for production, artwork rendering and imprinting, shipping and freight, handling, all applicable federal, state, and local taxes, and all other predictable associated costs. Sample: a sample of the water bottle intended to fulfill any resulting contract must be provided with each quote. Count: 6,000 units Size: ounces Color: as available, but must be specified to each design prior to production Material: Stainless steel, BPA-free Cap Design: Wide-mouth with closable sports spout that does not leak when closed, (as will be determined from the sample water bottle provided with quote). Picture provided for reference of the acceptable cap design. Art Work Specifications: Quote must include all costs for the following: 1. Imprint area must measure at or greater than a 3.75 inches by One color imprinting of seven (7) different designs on the bottles at one thousand (1,000) bottles per five (5) designs, and five hundred (500) bottles each for two other designs. Actual color may vary depending on the color of the water bottle and the design, but in most cases will be black. 3. Converting seven (7) separate design images from rastor format (JPG, TIFF, etc.) to any manufacturer required formats (i.e., vector image format, etc.) 4. All setup fees for imprinting the seven (7) different designs. 5. Proofs for each design will be provided and approved prior to production. Production Time and Delivery Specs: bottles must be produced and delivered within forty-five (45) days of acceptance of final proofs by the manufacturer. Packaging: All shipping boxes must be clearly marked with contents to indicate which of the six designs the box contains. 148

149 Adaptable materials available at: Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Fountain Message Signs 149

150 Adaptable materials available at: 150

151 Adaptable materials available at: 151

152 Adaptable materials available at: 152

153 Adaptable materials available at: 153

154 Adaptable materials available at: 154

155 Adaptable materials available at: 155

156 Adaptable materials available at: Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Form- Blank Find your fountains, get a water bottle. Each fountain has a sign promoting tap water. Each sign has a unique health message. Find each sign and record the 7 different health messages below. Look for this sign at the fountains Message #1. Message #2. Message #3. Message #4. Message #5. Message #6. Message #7. Name: School: Grade: Message # Health Message Go Here 156

157 Adaptable materials available at: Water Bottle Scavenger Hunt Form- Filled Find your fountains, get a water bottle. Each fountain has a sign promoting tap water. Each sign has a unique health message. Find each sign and record the 7 different health messages below. Message #1. I m improving my test scores. Message #2. I m preventing headaches. Message #3. I m preventing stomachaches Message #4. I feel more alert and ready to learn. Message #5. I m improving my athletic performance. Message #6. I m drinking for a healthy weight. Message #7. I m drinking for beautiful skin. Look for this sign at the fountains Message # Health Message Go Here 157

158 Water Fill Station Advocacy 158

159 Water Fill Station Advocacy Overview The Water Fill Station Advocacy section of the toolkit provides: Materials needed to conduct a study of student water consumption, including a Student Water Consumption Study Description, Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet, and a Student Water Survey. Materials needed to lead a Photovoice project, the results of which can be used as an advocacy tool for water fill stations on campus. The Photovoice materials included in this toolkit are a Photovoice Process Guide, TAP Worksheet, Water Fountain Survey, and Fountain Survey Report Form. 159

160 Adaptable version available at: Student Water Consumption Study Description Purpose: to determine the effect on student water consumption of increasing access to free tap water through the installation of water filling stations (WFS) and the distribution of reusable water bottles. School Sites: Two intervention and two control schools will be used, one each at the high school and middle school level. 1. Skyline High School intervention, high 2. Roosevelt Middle School intervention, middle 3. Dewey or MetWest High control, high 4. Madison control, middle Data Collection Schedule: Data will be collected when fountains are in service during breakfast (45 minutes prior to first period) and lunchtime in the cafeteria at fountains identified by Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) for replacement with WFS units. Data will be collected prior to and following WFS unit installation, and at 3-month, and possibly a 6-month, follow-up interval. 1. Intervention: pre-install (Pre) and post-install (Post) data will be collect just prior to and following installation of WFS units 2. Follow-Up: follow-up (FU) data will be collected at approximately 3 months (and possibly 6 months) after Post data collection Data Source (Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet): For each data collection period, the Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet will be used to collect and record the following types of data: 1. Individual fountain visits (FV) to a fountain, collected through hand tally 2. Age class of fountain user (AC) student (S) or Adult (A) 3. Gender of student or adult, male (M) or female (F) 4. Ethnicity or race, African American (AA), Asian/Pacific Islander (A), Latino (L), White (W), and Other (O). 5. Time spent drinking water during each student visit (SD), collected as time student is drinking from fountain water stream.* 6. Type of water container (WC) used during each fountain visit. Water containers will be recorded as paper cups (P), as distributed, OUSD student-designed water bottles (DB), other non-distributed reusable water bottles (OB), and disposable plastic bottle (PB). 160

161 * Translate SD data into total gallons consumed (GC) by collecting the amount of water delivered (WD) from each water fountain or fill station in a measuring cup during a 10 second period. Divide WD by 10 and multiply by SD. That number will represent the number of cups consumed. Then, convert that number to GC by dividing by 16 (1 gallon = 16 cups). Data Source (Student Water Survey): For each data collection period, the Student Water Survey will be used to collect and record the following types of data: 1. An estimation of daily water consumption 2. An estimation of how much water is being consumed at school 3. Barriers to school water access 4. The effects of WFS implementation on water access 5. Grade level Timeline: data collection will occur during the 2012/13 school year as follows: 1. Pre-installation (Pre) within the first two weeks of school (August 27 - Sept 7, 2012) prior to WFS unit installation. 2. Post-installation (Post) within two weeks following WFS unit installation month follow-up the last two weeks before Winter break (December 10-21, 2012) 4. 6-month follow-up (if collected) month of March. Equipment/ Forms Needed: Stop watches (2) Clip boards (2) Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet (20) Measuring Cup (at least 4 cups) Prior to Study Implementation: Hold an orientation meeting with the School Principal and Cafeteria Manager. Communicate the names of the Water Study evaluators to the school before the water data collection. All evaluators should sign in at the main office to get guest passes, and should be led on campus by certified school personnel. 161

162 Adaptable version available at: Student Water Consumption Tracking Sheet Directions: Date: School: Page of Data Cycle: Pre Post 3-month FU WFS Install Date Evaluators: Meal Time: Breakfast: Lunch #1: Lunch #2: Location of Filling Station (FS): Fountain Condition: Pressure Fountain Flow Rate: Free: oz Drinking: oz Cleanliness: Notes: FV Sex Ethnicity/Race Age Class 1 M F AA AP L W O S A P 2 M F AA AP PP L W O S A C P 3 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 4 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 5 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 6 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 7 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 8 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 9 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 10 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 11 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 12 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 13 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 14 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 15 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 16 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 17 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 18 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 19 M F AA AP L W O S A C P 20 M F AA AP L W O S A C P C Water Container SD (Secs) DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB DB OB PB Total # of Observations: Total Seconds (SD) Comments Legend: FV = Fountain Visits; Sex: M=Male, F=Female; Ethnicity/Race: AA=African American; A=Asian/Pacific Islander; L=Latino; W=White; O=Other; Age Class: S=Student; A=Adult; Water Container: P=Paper Cup; DB= Student-designed Water Bottle; OB=Other Reusable Water Bottle; PB=Plastic Disposable Bottle; SD=Time Spent Drinking; 162

163 Adaptable version available at: Student Water Survey 163

164 Photovoice Process Guide Day #1 (Lesson Time: Approximately 45 minutes) Materials: Trash picture Pens Vantage Points Worksheet one copy per group Digital cameras Water Fountain Survey two 2- sided copies per group School Map (if available) Clipboards (1 per group) Talking Points: What is Photovoice? - Photovoice Introduction o Explain that Photovoice is a tool that people use to advocate for some environmental or social change in their school, community, etc. Photos are a powerful way to communicate a story or a message they can be much more powerful than words. Using TAP - Photo Analysis o Show students the trash picture and ask them to pretend this photo was taken at their school. Walk them through the TAP process, asking them to identify the T-A-P as a group. T: Tell others about what you see A: Analyze the strength or problem P: Propose something you can do about it Making the Water Connection - Water Access on Campus o Assess student opinion about water access on campus. Encourage all students to share. Some prompt questions are: What do you think of campus water fountains? Do you drink from all of the campus water fountains? Why or why not? o Explain that they will use the Photovoice tool today to take pictures of anything to do with getting drinking water on campus where they get water, why it s important to get water, etc. Their pictures will be shown to school district policy makers. Before Getting Behind the Lens - Photo Taking Techniques o Familiarize students with the different views of photo taking (Pass out Vantage Points Worksheet) as well as explain camera functions (e.g., focus, zoom, flash, etc.) and offer tips for effective photo taking (e.g., lighting considerations, etc.) Getting Behind the Lens Photo Taking o Divide students into groups. Group members should take turns taking photos, using different vantage points as inspiration hits. o Explain that students should also fill out the Water Fountain Surveys for each water fountain they find. 164

165 o Give the groups a time limit and ask them to return to the classroom to debrief and return cameras when time is up. Before Day #2 Inform students that they will be applying the TAP concept (review TAP if necessary) and to think about their photos and experiences and what they want others to know about them. Download photos from the camera and name them with the group name. Print out photos, 4 per page. Hint: to print photos in Windows, right-click on one of the photos and select Print. The Photo Printing Wizard will begin; click Next. Select all of the photos for a particular team; click Next. Select your printer; click Next. Scroll down and select the 3.5X5 in. Prints; a 4-per-page sample of the prints will appear; click Next. 165

166 Trash Picture Printable version available at: 166

167 Photovoice Process Guide Day #2 (Lesson Time: Approximately 45 minutes) Materials: Picture prints Paper clips TAP worksheets Pens Tape Completed Water Fountain Surveys Talking Points: Using TAP - Photo Analysis o Have students work with the same groups and pass out their picture prints to them. Have students pick their top three photos, number them, and fill out the TAP comments for each of the three photos. Water Fountain Survey Analysis o Pass out each group s completed Water Fountain Surveys. Ask them to come up with the average score for each water fountain that they rated. o To score the results have students assign the following point scale to each of the ratings Bad=0; O.K.=1, Good=2; 1 point for a Yes for the Would you drink from this fountain? question. If the fountain does not work at all it gets a 0 score. If it is a multi-spigot fountain and one of the spigots does not work, subtract 2 points. Sharing is Caring: Group Photo and Survey Sharing o Have students share their top three photos with the rest of the class along with their Water Fountain Survey results. Next Steps o Let students know that their Photovoice projects will be shared with School District policy makers to try to make a change on their campus. o Students may want to choose one presentation for delivery to the policy makers, or develop a master presentation that pulls from every teams presentation. o Lead a group discussion on the kinds of advocacy efforts that were highlighted during the P part of the Photo Sharing activity. Emphasize the importance of what the students feel they can do to try to make a change. 167

168 Printable version available at: Water Fountain Survey 168

169 Printable version available at: TAP Worksheet Photo #1: T: Tell others about what you see A: Analyze the strength or problem P: Propose something you can do about it Photo #2: T: Tell others about what you see A: Analyze the strength or problem P: Propose something you can do about it Photo #3: T: Tell others about what you see A: Analyze the strength or problem P: Propose something you can do about it 169

170 Printable version available at: Fountain Survey Report Form School: Team Name: Date: Fountain Location: Description: Does this fountain work? Yes (2) No (0) Please rate the following: Water pressure: Bad (0) O.K. (1) Good (2) Fountain Cleanliness: Bad (0) O.K. (1) Good (2) Water Cleanliness: Bad (0) O.K. (1) Good (2) Water Temperature: Bad (0) O.K. (1) Good (2) To insert photo Insert Photo 1) click inside this box 2) Keystroke Ctrl-A to select all text 3) Choose Insert 4) Choose Picture 5) Choose From File 6) Locate picture 7) Click Insert button Would you drink from this fountain? Yes (2) No (0) If No, why not: Comments: Total Score 170

171 Water Fill Stations 171

172 Water Fill Stations Overview The Water Fill Stations section of the toolkit provides: An informational sheet of Water Dispenser Options that lists example dispensers, price, source, number of schools impacted with $1000 investment, and considerations before purchase. A water fill station Cost Calculator with items to consider for funding estimation. 172

173 Printable version available at: Water Dispenser Options 173

174 174

175 175

176 176

177 Adaptable version available at: Cost Calculator 177

OPEN WIDE! Fun Science Activities Inside!

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