1 Exposures from the Events at the NPPs in Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Yoshiharu YONEKURA The 58th session of UNSCEAR, 23 rd May, 2011
2 1. Impact on Public & Environment 1A. Evacuation & Sheltering during the accident 2B. Radiation exposure to residents and workers 3C. Directives on foods and drinks
3 1A. Evacuation & Sheltering (1/4) 21:23 on March11, evacuation of residents within 3km radius from Unit 1 of 1F NPP 5:44 on March 12, evacuation within 10km radius from 1F NPP 17:39 on March 12, evacuation within 10 km radius from 2F NPP 18:25 on March 12, evacuation within 20 km radius from 1F NPP On March 15, in house stay was directed for the residents from 20 to 30 km radius from 1F NPP On March 15th, the Local Emergency Response Headquarter issued the direction to administer the stable Iodine during evacuation On March 25th, Chief Cabinet Secretary, Edano promoted voluntary evacuations for the residents within the area from 20 km to 30 km from 1F NPP
4 1A. Evacuation & Sheltering (2/4) On April 21 st, the Prime Minister issued the following instruction to the Governor of Fukushima prefecture. < 1F NPP > to establish a restricted area within 20km radius from 1F NPP to prohibit the access to the area < 2F NPP > to change the evacuation area from 10km radius to 8km radius from 2F NPP. Source: METI
5 1A. Evacuation & Sheltering during the accident (3/4) <1F NPPs> On April 22 nd to lift the area of in house stay between 20km and 30km radius from 1F NPP to establish Deliberate Evacuation Area as well as Evacuation Prepared Area in case of Emergency for the residents and others to make a preparation to enable deliberate leaving Deliberate Evacuation Area Evacuation-Prepared Area Source: METI
6 1A. Evacuation & Sheltering (4/4) A) Deliberate Evacuation Area As there is a threat that the accumulated dose reaches 20mSv in a year since the occurrence of the accident, it is requested for the residents and others to evacuate. The reference level of the radiation protection in the situation of emergency exposure of ICRP and IAEA (20 to 100mSv) was considered. B) Evacuation Prepared Area in Case of Emergency Since the situation caused by the accident of 1F NPPs has not been settled down, the possibility of requiring actions such as evacuation or in house stay in cases of emergency cannot be denied hereafter. Therefore in the Evacuation Prepared Area in case of Emergency, it is required for the residents to stay inside the house or to prepare for emergency evacuation by themselves.
7 1B. Radiation exposure to residents and workers (1/2) (Residents) 1) Local Emergency Response Headquarters started radiation screening, from March 12 th to 15 th, for 162 residents, and 41 of those were above the initial screening level of 6,000 cpm. 2) Local Government started the screening, from March 13 th, for the public at 11 places such as health offices. 3) Among 188,758 people who received screening, 102 persons were above the 100,000 cpm, but when measured these people again without contaminated clothes, etc, the counts decreased to below 100,000 cpm, and there was no case with health problems. 4) Thyroid accumulation of I 131 was measured in more than 1,000 children (age below 15), showing no cases of thyroid dose above 50 msv.
8 1B. Radiation exposure to residents and workers (2/2) Regulation on the dose limit for emergency workers was changed from 100 msv to 250 msv on March 14 th (Exposure of Workers) Total of 30 people had exposure dose above 100mSv. On March24, dosage above 170 msv was confirmed on 3 workers. Contamination of radioactive liquid on the skin of both legs was confirmed on two of them. Examination showed that none of them had any major systemic risk. Exposure dose on the legs was initially estimated to be maximum of 2 3 Sv to skin, but revealed much lower later. While the level of leg and internal exposure did not require treatment, they were hospitalized for follow up and discharged without heath problem on March 28.
9 1C. Directives on foods and drinks Provisional regulation values of radioactive materials in food. Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) Radioactive cesium (Sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs) Uranium Alpha emitting nuclides of plutonium and transuranic elements ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 242 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, 243 Cm, 244 Cm) Provisional regulation values of radioactive materials in food in accordance with the Food Sanitation Act (Bq/kg) Drinking water, Milk, dairy products* 300 Vegetables, Fish 2,000 Drinking water, Milk, dairy products 200 Vegetables, Grains, Meat, eggs, fish, etc. 500 Infant foods, Drinking water, Milk, dairy products 20 Vegetables, Grains, Meat, eggs, fish, etc. 100 Infant foods, Drinking water, Milk, dairy products 1 Vegetables, Grains, Meat, eggs, fish, etc. 10 *)Provide guidance so that materials exceeding 100 Bq/kg are not used in milk supplied for use in powdered baby formula or for direct drinking.
10 2. Radiation Monitoring 2A.Guideline for Radiation Monitoring in Japan 2B. Overview of radiation monitoring around the Fukushima-I NPP 2C. On-site monitoring 2D. Off-site monitoring 2E. Aerial monitoring 2F. Sea monitoring 2G. Build-up of monitoring system for the future
11 2A. Guideline for Radiation Monitoring in Japan (1/3) Rational 1) In case of nuclear accident, the regulatory body, the provincial government and the nuclear operator must take measures on necessary disaster prevention according to the Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness. 2) As part of this disaster measures, the emergency environmental radiation monitoring act is to be taken, in order to obtain the information on radioactive materials and radiation doses in the environment. 3) The Guideline for Emergency Environmental Radiation Monitoring have been established by Nuclear Safety Commission. In this guidance, the organization of monitoring team, radiation measuring instruments and materials and equipment for nuclear disaster prevention, and guidance for monitoring are prescribed.
12 2A. Guideline for Radiation Monitoring in Japan (2/3) 4) With regard to the practical procedures, authorized standard operation procedures have been already prepared and a series of emergency environmental radiation monitoring is to be operated in accordance with these procedures. 5) The operation of environmental, personal and contamination monitoring must be entirely made by nuclear operators and regulatory authorities, using well calibrated radiation measuring instruments, in accordance with the approved programs on radiation protection activities by regulatory body. 6) Calibrations of the measuring instruments is appropriately performed by accredited calibration bodies using radiation and radioactive standards which are traceable to the national standards.
13 2A. Guideline for Radiation Monitoring in Japan (3/3) Monitoring after Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency environmental monitoring around Fukushima I NPP, personal monitoring for staffs and contamination monitoring programs for workers and members in public, have been operated, using the equipment which has not been damaged. However, many radiation measuring instruments have been severely damaged, particularly at the NPP site. On the other hand, many instruments were delivered to Fukushima area and used for screening and monitoring by cooperating teams from the universities, hospitals, and other organization. Therefore, radiation measuring instruments which are not properly calibrated might have been used in emergency situation.
14 2B. Overview of radiation monitoring around 1F NPP Parameters; - Ambient dose rate - Radioactive concentration of fallout - Radioactive concentration of drinking water Sea area Monitoring ( km off shore ) Aerial Monitoring ( 80 km ) Off-site Monitoring ( 20 km ) 1F 2F Food & Drinks 10km On-site Monitoring Daily results of environmental monitoring by MEXT is updated at
15 2C. On site Monitoring (1/5) 1. Trend of on site radiation level 11,930 µsv/h was recorded near front gate on March 15th. Ambient Dose rate (µsv/h) 1F Monitoring Trend Near NearFront FrontGate Gate North of Admin. Bldg. South of Admin. Bldg. Near MP-4 Date / Time
16 2C. On site Monitoring (2/5) 2. Radioactive concentration in the air TEPCO conducted nuclide analyses of radioactive materials contained in the air which were collected at the site of 1F NPP. Source:
17 2C. On site Monitoring (3/5) 3. Radioactive concentration in soil samples Detected amount of Pu 238 is the same levei as that of the fallout in Japan by previous nuclear tests. Although Pu 238, 239, and Pu 240 are detected from the samples taken on and after March 21, those values have not been greatly changed. Sampling spot ( ): Distance from the stack of Unit 1, 2 1Playground (west-northwest approx. 500m) 2Forest of wild birds (west approx. 500m) 3Adjacent to industrial waste disposal facility (south-southwest approx.500m) Date of sampling/ Analyses organization Pu-238 Pu-239, Pu-240 April 25/ JCAC (1.1±0.12) 10-1 (4.6±0.74) 10-2 N.D. N.D. (Unit: Bq/kg Dry soil) N.D. N.D. Soil in Japan * N.D.~ N.D.~ *: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Environmental Radiation Database,
18 2C. On site Monitoring (4/5) 4. Radioactive concentration in subsurface water near the turbine building of 1F In order to verify any leakages to underground and sea, and safety, TEPCO have been implementing the sampling survey of subsurface water and seawater. 1F NPP : Results of Nuclide Analysis of Sub-drain (Data summarized on May 12) Place of sampling Sub drain of Unit1 Sub drain of Unit2 Sub drain of Unit3 Sub drain of Unit4 Sub drain of Unit5 Sub drain of Unit6 Deep well Time of sampling Detected Nuclides 14:03, 14:08, 14:16, 14:25, 13:35, 13:23, 10:10, May 11 th May 11 th May 11 th May 11 th May 11 th May 11 th May 11 th Radioactivity Density of Sample (Bq/cm3) I E E E 01 ND ND 2.2E 02 ND Cs E E E E 02 ND 4.6E 02 ND Cs E E E E E E 02 ND
19 2C. On site Monitoring (5/5) 5. Out flow of fluid containing radioactive materials to the ocean from areas near intake canal of 1F Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 At 9:30 am on April 2nd, 2011, TEPCO detected water containing radiation dose over 1,000 msv/h in the pit* where power supply cables are stored near the intake channel of Unit 2. Furthermore, there was a crack of about 20 cm length on the concrete lateral of the pit, from where the water in the pit was out flowing out. At 5:38 am on April 6th, TEPCO have observed stopping of spilling of water to the ocean from the crack on the concrete lateral of the pit. * In addition to above place of collection, Data are summarized for other Units.
20 Place of Collection Time of sampling Detected nuclide Shallow Draft Quay 2C. On site Monitoring (5/5) North intake canal (U 1 4) (outside the silt fence) Unit 1 (outside the silt fence) Unit 1 (inside the silt fence) Unit 2 (outside the silt fence) 6:55 7:09 6:20 6:15 7:18 May 12 th May 12 th May 12 th May 12 th May 12 th Bq/cm 3 (Q) < Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) > Q/L Bq/cm3 (Q) Q/L Bq/cm3 (Q) Q/L Bq/cm3 (Q) (Data summarized on May 13) Q/L Bq/cm3 (Q) Q/L Limit by Regulation (Bq/cm 3 ) (L) I E E E E E E 02 Cs E E E E E E 02 Cs E E E E E E 02
21 1. Radiation monitoring 2. Cumulative doses measured 3. Radioactive concentration of Land samples (Weed, Soil, pond water) 4. Radioactive concentration of Dust samples 5. Air borne monitoring by MEXT and US DOE 6. Sea area monitoring 2D. Off site Monitoring
22 1. Radiation monitoring 2D. Off site Monitoring Source: MEXT
23 1. Radiation monitoring 2D. Off site Monitoring Overall radiation level has tended down since March 17 th. The highest value recorded at Monitoring Point #32 has peaked out at 170 μsv/h and has been declining since then. 30km from 1F In NW direction 30km from 1F In NW direction Mar. 17 th Apr. 1 st May. 1 st Ambient dose rate monitoring at monitoring post outside of 20km zone of 1F Source: MEXT
24 2D. Off site Monitoring 2. Cumulative doses measured Radiation level cumulatively measured since March 23 th topped 28,680μSv at #32, 30km North West from 1F. Source: MEXT
25 2E. Air borne monitoring by MEXT and U.S. DOE (1/2) < 1.0 No Data 1F NPP Assessment of ambient dose rate on 1 m from the ground surface and Cesium deposition inside the 80 km zone of 1F was carried out. 20km 30km 60km 80km The map was prepared based on results obtained from April 6 th to 29 th by a small airplane and two helicopters, in total of 42 flights. Decay of radioactive substances was considered and actual readings were converted into values as of the last survey date of April 29 th. Source: MEXT
26 2E. Air borne monitoring by MEXT and U.S. DOE (2/2) 20km 30km 3E+6 3E+7 1E+6 3E+6 6E+5 1E+6 3E+5 6E+5 < 3E+5 No Data 1F NPP 60km The deposition of Cs-134 in the ground was calculated based on the results of air-borne monitoring and of measurements which DOE took on the ground using a gammaray analysis. Based on the results of DOE measurements of Cs-134 on the ground using a gamma-ray analysis, and analysis values of Cs-137, the deposition of Cs- 137 in the ground was calculated from the results of accumulated Cs km Results of total deposition of Cs 134 and Cs 137 Source: MEXT
27 2F. Sea Area Monitoring 1. Sampling Point of Sea Area Monitoring Source: MEXT MEXT have conducted seawater sampling surveys at 12 points, from surface water (1m from the sea surface) and sub surface (10 m above the sea bottom) around 30km off shore Fukushima Pref. TEPCO have conducted seawater sampling surveys at 4 points, off the shore and 6 points, 15 km off the shore of 1F. Since April 17, TEPCO have also conducted sampling surveys at 4 points, 3 km off the shore and two points, 8 km off the shore of 1F.
28 2F. Sea Area Monitoring 2. Radioactive Concentration of Seawater at South Discharge Channel of 1F (Bq/cm 3 ) Radioactive concentration in seawater (Bq/cm 3 ) I-131 Cs-134 Cs-137 Month / Date Source:
29 2G. Build up of monitoring system for future Main Analytical Body of Monitoring by MEXT National Institute of Radiological Sciences Japan Atomic Energy Agency Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Tecnology Nuclear Safety Technology Center Japan Chemical Analysis Center Universities etc. U.S. Department of Energy (Aerial monitoring) Strengthen monitoring by MEXT in response to the Enforced Plan on Environmental Monitoring - Off-site Monitoring - Aerial Monitoring - Sea Area Monitoring - Construct distribution map for ambient dose rate, deposition of I-131, Cs-137, and accumulated dose etc. Soil sampling and analysis will be done by Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, JAEA, and other relating organizations.
30 3. Information Sharing with International Community
31 3. Information sharing with international community 1. Daily Notification by NISA (1) ENAC Website (IAEA) (2) IEC (IAEA) (3) Foreign Media Briefing (4) Briefings for Diplomatic Representatives in Tokyo (5) English information on the Web Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency: Office of Prime Minister: e.html
32 3. Information sharing with international community 2. IAEA (1) Technical Briefing on March 21 st Following the special meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors, NISA officials briefed the member state representatives on the overview of the earthquake itself as well as the status of and ongoing measures to address the Fukushima NPP accident. (2) Side event on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Initial Safety Measures Worldwide on April 4 th NISA and MEXT officials explained the member state representatives the Status of Fukushima Daiichi NPPs and monitoring, action taken and Future plan as well as the implementation on emergency safety measures.
33 3. Information sharing with international community 3. ICRP ICRP Main Commission Meeting on April OECD MDEP Steering Technical Committee on April27 29 OECD/NEA Steering Committee on April CNRA Highlevel Senior Task Group on May 4 6 OECD/NEA 69 th CRPPH meeting on May WHO 63 rd World Health Assembly on May Technical briefing on May 17
34 Summary After the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan, the NPP (Fukushima Daiichi) was severely damaged and a significant amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. In order to limit and reduce the exposures, counter measures including evacuation from surrounding area, sheltering, restrictions on consumption of water and certain food products were taken by the government. With regard to the workers, operational staff and emergency response personnel were exposed to certain levels of radiation in managing the emergency situation. Since there has been much concern about the levels of exposure and effects both on general public and workers, we are prepared to collect and offer further information, hoping to share the experience and knowledge of the accident with the international community.
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