1 Legal Concepts Meet Technology: A 50 State Survey of Privacy Laws Miriam B. Russom University of Illinois at Chicago, Computer Science Department Robert H. Sloan University of Illinois at Chicago, Computer Science Department Richard Warner Chicago Kent College of Law
2 We have lost a significant degree of control over how others use our personal information. What legal concepts of privacy have been developed in response to the changing technology? Are these responses adequate?
3 Outline Informational Privacy: Three Questions Methodology State Privacy and Security Laws Personally Identifying Information Findings: PII Security Laws Privacy Laws Conclusions
4 Informational Privacy Definition [T]he claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others. Westin, 1967
5 Three key questions To what extent should we able to control our information? What types of information should we protect? How should we protect it?
6 Methodology Detailed survey and analysis of current US state privacy laws rich field of privacy regulations in which commonalities and differences reveal an underlying conception of informational privacy Surveyed statutes chosen for their relevance to contemporary informational privacy Not an exhaustive compilation Statutes mostly found in Trade and Commerce Codes, Business Codes, Customer Record laws, and Internet Privacy Codes.
8 Personally Identifying Information Data Disposal 30 states Breach Notification 46 + DC Security Measures 11 states Spyware 16 states Driver license # state identification # AL, AZ, AK, CA, CO, CT, GA, HI, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MA,MI, MT, NV, NJ, NY, NC, OR, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VT, WA AL, AZ, AK, CA, CO, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY AK, CA, MA, MD, NV, NC, OR, RI, TX, UT AZ, CA, IN, NH, PA, RI, UT, VA, WA Social Security # Financial Account/ Credit/ Debit Card # All above excluding AL All above All above All above including WI All above excluding CO All above All above including AK, GA, IA, LA, TX Same as immediately above
9 PII Data Disposal Breach Notification Security Measures Spyware Address CA, KY DC, MN MN AZ, AK, CA, GA, IN, IA, LA, NH, PA, RI,TX, UT, VA, WA Biometric data CO, MA, NC, TN, TX IA, NE, NC, WI NC IN, UT DNA WI Fingerprints KY, NC, TX NC, WI NC IN Voice print TX WI IN Digital signature NC NC, ND NC UT Employment inf. AL, CA, CO ND IN, UT address KY, NC MN, NC MN, NC AZ, IN, NH, RI, TX, WA Health insurance inf. AL, CA, CT, RI, TN CA, MO Medical inf. AL, AK, CA, KY, RI, WA, WI AK, CA, MO, TX AK, CA, TX Mother's maiden name NY, TX ND IN Passwords CO, NC, TN GA, IA, MO, NE, NC NC NH, UT Payment / Overdraft history AZ, AK, CA, GA, IN, LA, PA, RI, TX, WA Physical description CA, RI WI Phone number CA, KY DC, MN MN IN, NH, UT Record of purchases AK, CA, GA, LA, PA Routing code TX IA, MO, NE IN Web history MN MN AK, CA, GA, LA, PA
10 Findings: State Laws CA has almost every statutes followed by UT Almost every state has Breach Notification Law (except for AL, KY, NM. SD ) KY has only Data Disposal Law (all states that have DD and DS have also BN) Only Breach Notification: # 10 DE, DC, FL, ME, MS, ND, OH, OK, WV, WY States with all 3 type of security laws: # 5 AK, CA, NV, TX, UT Spyware but not Data Security: # 8 AZ, IN, IA, LA, NH, PA, VA, WA Very few states have statutes on limitation of use of PII
11 Findings: PII Almost every state agrees on: Social Security number; Driver License number; Financial accounts; Otherwise no general agreement on what information should be legally protected. significant state to state variations as well as variations within a state among the different types of statutes. Some examples: TN specifies Biometric Data, Health Insurance Information and Password only in Data Disposal. Likewise, TX specifies Biometric data, Mother s maiden name, routing code only in Data Disposal. IN and UT are the only ones having Biometric data, employment information in Spyware. UT only includes Digital signature and IN only includes routing code and mother s maiden name. However neither UT nor IN include Record of purchases and Web history while other states do. MN and NC define consistently PII over all of the surveyed statutes.
12 Concern: Non-PII = PII? Recent advances in de-anonymization ensure that, in very many cases, non-pii may in fact identify individuals. AOL History Release (2006): New York Times reporters identified the anonymized search records of a Georgian woman MIT graduate student, Latanya, identified the anonymized medical records of the Governor of Massachusetts9.l Netflix Prize: Narayanan and Shmatikov identified the anonymous Netflix records of an individual by cross linking with internet movie database based on dates and titles of movie reviews
13 Security: Data Security Laws Losses from unauthorized access to online information run in the billions per year. Average cost of a data breach was $214 per compromised record and $7.2 million per data breach [2010 study by Ponemon Institute] But: Only 11 States require businesses to adopt reasonable security measures to protect the collected PII. Reasonableness requirements Only 2 states, MA and NV, impose specific measures of reasonableness and encryption requirements of both data at rest and in transit. More specific security measures requirements?
14 Security: Data Disposal Laws Reasonableness requirements: 11 out of 30 states require the use of reasonable standards of disposal of records that contain PII when the data is no longer needed More than reasonableness: (almost no guidance at all) Shredding Erasing Modifying the PII to make it unreadable by any means
15 Security: Anti-Spyware Laws 16 States have enacted Anti-Spyware laws that make it illegal to install software without consent on someone else's computer in order to collect PII. But: Consumers do not read standard form contracts. So what are they doing when the use websites or buy products? consumers indicate merely their willingness to proceed with the transaction--not necessarily their free and informed consent.
16 Privacy: Breach Notification Laws Forty-six states and DC have enacted security breach notification laws that require organizations that own or license personal information to notify individuals when unauthorized access to PII has occurred. Rationale: consumer can take protective steps to prevent identity theft, financial fraud, or other undesirable consequences. Low individual expected losses vs. aggregate losses that run in the billions. Empowering consumers to defend themselves may not be a viable response to the problem of aggregate loss.
17 Privacy: Data Sharing Laws There are no laws that regulate private business data sharing generally. The states regulate data sharing only through subjectspecific statutes. California requires a business to disclose, upon consumer request, the type of PII it shared and the third parties with whom it shared the information. Utah requires commercial entities with the intention to sell personal information to notify the customer. Two states, Minnesota and Nevada, require consent from the subject of the information before an ISP may disclose PII.
18 Privacy: Access and Correction Requirements None of the laws surveyed so far give an individual the right to access and correct records. Data sharing laws discussed above provide some access but do not allow correction Problems with access and correction Automated checking's and correction problematic. Very large number of requests could impose serious costs. Access alone provides little control unless the consumer has power to correct errors.
19 Conclusions How much control should we have over our information? The surveyed laws fail to adress this issue What types of information should we protect? Lack of consensus on what to protect under the PII rubric Difficulties to delimit PII How should we protect private information? Data security laws rely on an reasonableness standards In-practice consent is taken as suficient for authorization Little legal constraints on data sharing Practical and tecnical problem with access and correction Large aggregate costs vs low individual expected costs
Rate History Contact: 1 (800) 331-1538 Form * ** Date Date Name 1 NH94 I D 9/14/1998 N/A N/A N/A 35.00% 20.00% 1/25/2006 3/27/2006 8/20/2006 2 LTC94P I F 9/14/1998 N/A N/A N/A 35.00% 20.00% 1/25/2006 3/27/2006
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Weekly Progress Report on Recovery Act Spending by State and Program Report as of 3/7/2011 5:40:51 PM HUD's Weekly Recovery Act Progress Report: AK Grants
Regional Electricity Forecasting presented to Michigan Forum on Economic Regulatory Policy January 29, 2010 presented by Doug Gotham State Utility Forecasting Group State Utility Forecasting Group Began
This document reports CEU requirements for renewal. It describes: Number of required for renewal Who approves continuing education Required courses for renewal Which jurisdictions require active practice
New York Public School Spending In Perspec7ve School District Fiscal Stress Conference Nelson A. Rockefeller Ins0tute of Government New York State Associa0on of School Business Officials October 4, 2013
State Corporate Income Tax-Calculation 1 Because it takes all elements (a*b*c) to calculate the personal or corporate income tax, no one element of the corporate income tax can be analyzed separately from
Standardized Pharmacy Technician Education and Training Kevin N. Nicholson, RPh, JD Vice President, Pharmacy Regulatory Affairs National Association of Chain Drug Stores May 19, 2009 Overview of how technicians
TITLE POLICY ENDORSEMENTS BY STATE State Endorsement ID Endorsement Description AK ARM ALTA 6 Adjustable (Variable) Rate AK BALLOON FNMA Balloon Endorsement AK CONDO ALTA 4 Condominium AK COPY FEE Copies
This document reports CEU (continuing education units) and CCU (continuing competence units) requirements for renewal. It describes: Number of CEUs/CCUs required for renewal Who approves continuing education
State Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage Data from the National Health Interview Survey Eve Powell-Griner SHADAC State Survey Workshop Washington, DC, January 13, 2009 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND
AL No 2 Yes No See footnote 2. AK No Yes No N/A AZ Yes Yes Yes No specific coverage or rate information available. AR No Yes No N/A CA Yes No No Section 11590 of the CA State Insurance Code mandates the
Federation of State s of Physical The table below provides information on approval of continuing education/competence courses and for each jurisdiction. Summary Number of jurisdictions requiring approval
ehealth Price Index Trends and Costs in the Short-Term Health Insurance Market, 2013 and 2014 June 2015 1 INTRODUCTION In this report, ehealth provides an analysis of consumer shopping trends and premium
Florida Workers Compensation Market Lori Lovgren Lori_Lovgren@NCCI.com 561-893-3337 Copyright 2011 National Council on Compensation Insurance, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Florida Workers Compensation Rates
The Lincoln National Life Insurance Company Variable Life Portfolio State Availability as of 12/14/2015 PRODUCTS AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA GU HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MP MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE
These tables provide information on what type of supervision is required for PTAs in various practice settings. Definitions Onsite Supervision General Supervision Indirect Supervision The supervisor is
CINCINNATI HILLS CHRISTIAN ACADEMY COLLEGE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS Complete & bring with you to your Junior College Planning Meeting. NAME: ADDRESS: EMAIL: BIRTHDATE: PHONE #: DATE: PLEASE READ BEFORE
MULTI-LEVEL LICENSURE TITLE PROTECTION Prior AK MN TN MO AL MO KY VA AZ MS MO DC NYC NE HI ME OR IA RI PA IL TX VA KS WA LA WI MA WV Prior AK ME OR TN AL MI PA HI CO MS FL DC NC MN IA NE UT IL NV WA IN
AHA Taskforce on Variation in Health Care Spending O Hare Hilton, Chicago February 10, 2010 Allan M. Korn, M.D., FACP Senior Vice President, Clinical Affairs and Chief Medical Officer Variation In Utilization
BROKERS Ashar Group LLC - Life Settlement Specialists 407-772-1818 www.ashargroup.com Except AK NH VT Except AK NH VT Varies based on current market opportunities and groups that pass Ashar s due diligence
State Annual Report Due Dates for Business Entities page 1 of 10 If you form a formal business entity with the state, you may be required to file periodic reports on the status of your entity to preserve
MEDCHI, THE MARYLAND STATE MEDICAL SOCIETY HOUSE OF DELEGATES CL Report 3-13 INTRODUCED BY: SUBJECT: REFERRED TO: Council on Legislation A Fifty State Survey of Tort Reform Provisions Reference Committee
Understanding Payroll Recordkeeping Requirements 1 Presented by Sally Thomson, CPP Directory of Payroll Training American Payroll Association firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Agenda Recordkeeping Requirements
STATE INCOME TAX WITHHOLDING INFORMATION DOCUMENT Zurich American Life Insurance Company (ZALICO) Administrative Offices: PO BOX 19097 Greenville, SC 29602-9097 800/449-0523 This document is intended to
Enrollment Snapshot of Radiography, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2013 A Nationwide Survey of Program Directors Conducted by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists
Building a Market for Small Wind: The Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in the United States Ryan H. Wiser Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory email@example.com; 510-486-5474 Global WINDPOWER
What does Georgia gain by investing in its colleges and universities 2 A tremendous return: More economic prosperity. Less government spending. A stronger competitive advantage. A higher quality of life.
Funding Your Technology and Archive Conversion Needs Presented at the NACRC Legislative Conference March 5, 2011 Facilitators: Larry Burtness & Carol Foglesong Technology funding The question was asked
U.S. Department of Education NCES 2011-460 NAEP Tools on the Web Whether you re an educator, a member of the media, a parent, a student, a policymaker, or a researcher, there are many resources available
Broadband Technology Opportunities Program: Sustainable Broadband Adoption and Public Computer Centers National Telecommunications and Information Agency (NTIA) U. S. Department of Commerce Funded by the
Dignified Choice - Classic Series Final Expense Life Insurance Columbian Mutual Life Insurance Company Home Office: Binghamton, NY Administrative Service Office: Norcross, GA Columbian Life Insurance Company
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY ORGANIZATION CHART The following Chart has been designed to allow you in a summary format, determine the minimum requirements to form a limited liability company in all 50 states
State-Level Analysis HELP WANTED PROJECTIONS of JOBS and EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS Through 2018 JUNE 2010 ANTHONY P. CARNEVALE NICOLE SMITH JEFF STROHL Contents 1 Introduction 3 U.S. Maps: Educational concentrations
Welcome to the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action Dashboard About this Dashboard: These are graphic representations of measurable goals that the Campaign has selected to evaluate our efforts in support
CDFI FUND US Department of the Treasury NEW MARKETS TAX CREDIT PROGRAM: SECOND ROUND (2003-2004) Allocatees Serving Allocatee Name (Award Amount) AK 1 Alaska Growth Capital BIDCO, Inc. ($35 million) Total:
When Medicare-Medicaid enrollees lose their Medicaid coverage: Who loses it, for how long, and what are the consequences? Gerald Riley Lirong Zhao Negussie Tilahun Medicare-Medicaid enrollees Vulnerable
Suitability Agent Continuing Education Requirements by State STATE AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID Insurance producers holding a life line of insurance license must complete a one-time 4 hour annuity
s Served CDFI Fund 601 Thirteenth Street, NW, Suite 200, South, Washington, DC 20005 (202) 622-8662 25 New Markets Tax Credit Program Sixth Round (2008) s Served NOTES: (1) Allocatees that are italicized
Table 11: Residual Workers Market By AL Yes/NCCI 3 Two declination AK Yes/NCCI Two declination AZ Yes/NCCI Three declination, including one from the State Fund Agent/ ()/ Access? 4 Recommend NWCRP Recommend
2016 Individual Exchange Premiums updated November 4, 2015 Within the document, you'll find insights across 50 states and DC with available findings (i.e., carrier participation, price leadership, gross
LexisNexis Law Firm Billable Hours Survey Top Line Report June 11, 2012 Executive Summary by Law Firm Size According to the survey, we found that attorneys were not billing all the time they worked. There
Residual Markets, Uninsured Motorists and Competition in Maryland Auto Insurance Maryland Auto Insurance Plan Senate Hearing on Uninsured Motorists Annapolis, MD December 16, 2015 Download at www.iii.org/presentations
AL AK AZ AR Student, if they have a chronic condition school nurse or school administrators The student, if their parent/guardian authorizes them to. Trained school personnel can also administer Students
5 4 Pharmacist Administered Vaccines Types of Vaccines Authorized to Administer 46 Any vaccine I, P, Z 5 Other combos Number of states / territories Any vaccine Influenza, Pneumo and Zoster (I, P, Z) Other
Surety Bond Requirements for Mortgage Brokers and Mortgage Bankers As of July 15, 2011 State Mortgage Broker Bond Cancellation Mortgage Banker Bond Cancellation Notes & Citations AK $75,000 minimum for
Rates and Bills An Analysis of Average Electricity Rates & Bills in Georgia and the United States During regulatory and public policy discussions of electricity costs for Georgia ratepayers, the conversation
FHWA Update: Traffic Incident Management Program Moving TIM from Good to Great? Iowa Traffic Safety Forum November 19, 2014 Mr. Jeff King (Retired Capt. AzDPS) Traffic Incident Management Public Safety
Youth in the 2008 and 2006 Elections: A State-by-State Comparison By Surbhi Godsay, Amanda Nover, and Emily Hoban Kirby 1 September 2010 The 2008 presidential election saw a two percentage point increase
States Future Economic Standing if current education levels remain the same. Presentation by Joe Marks SREB Director of Data Services State Leaders Forum St. Petersburg, Florida November 17, 2004 1 The
Enrollment Snapshot of, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2014 January 2015 2015 ASRT. All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is forbidden without written permission from
About Us For over 30 years, we have protected the interests of the small- to mid-sized businesses that insure with us. At Berkshire Hathaway Insurance Companies, we dedicate our efforts in the areas that
Department of Business and Information Technology College of Applied Science and Technology The University of Akron Summer 01 Graduation Survey Report 1. How would you rate your OVERALL EXPERIENCE at The
January 29, 2015 Athene Annuity (DE) s Athene Benefit 10 SM, Athene Choice, Athene Max and Athene 7 MYG SM rates will remain unchanged for the Athene Annuity (DE) product series. Guaranteed payout rates
Annual Survey of Public Pensions: State- and Locally- Administered Defined Benefit Data Summary Report: Economy-Wide Statistics Division Briefs: Public Sector By Phillip Vidal Released July 2015 G14-ASPP-SL
Preapproval Inspections for Manufacturing Christy Foreman Deputy Director Division of Enforcement B Office of Compliance/CDRH Major Steps Review of the Quality System information Inspection requests generated
Company / Minimum Issue Ages Product Premiums Surrender Charges Last 15 Years Life of the Southwest SecurePlus Accumulator 5 Life of the Southwest SecurePlus Platinum (after 3/21/06) Fixed Indexed Annuity
Terms & Conditions Website E-Boutique 1. General: The following terms and conditions and any other related rules made available in writing by Bernardaud (collectively the Conditions of sale ) are applicable
Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA): Understanding the Regulations Ron Greenbaum, RPh Director of Compliance and QA Dendrite Interactive Marketing BuzzeoPDMA, Totowa, NJ Agenda - PDMA Introduction Purpose
History of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs PDMP Training and Technical Assistance Center Brandeis University History of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs First PDMP Early PDMP Characteristics
Forms are listed alphabetically by form title. INDEX POLICY CODES 1. Auto 2. Fire and Multiple Peril 3. Liability 4. Property, other than Fire and Multiple Peril (e.g. Crime & Inland Marine) 5. Workers
Policy Forms and Endorsements IT IS WOLTERS KLUWER FINANCIAL SERVICES' POLICY TO LIMIT THE SALE OF BUREAU FORMS TO THE MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS OF THOSE RESPECTIVE BUREAUS. PURCHASE AND USE OF BUREAU FORMS
Auto Insurance Underwriting/Rating Insurance Underwriting/Rating Variables Driver Demographics Driver History Type of Vehicle Vehicle History Auto Po olicy 1 Name: John Smith Age: 32 Gender: Male Marital
Oral Health Workforce for Low Income Children National Health Policy Forum April 20, 2007 Shelly Gehshan, Senior Program Director National Academy for State Health Policy National Academy for State Health
State of the Residential Property Management Market Survey Report, Fall 2012 Recently we asked you to give us your opinion regarding the state of the residential property management market. Now that we
ANALYSIS OF US AND STATE-BY-STATE CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND POTENTIAL SAVINGS IN FUTURE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE AND GLOBAL SEA LEVEL RISE by Paul Knappenberger SPPI ORIGINAL PAPER Updated April 2013 ANALYSIS
STC Insured Deposit Program (STID) Welcome to the AIG Federal Savings Bank ( AIG FSB ), d/b/a SunAmerica Trust Company ( STC ) STC Insured Deposit Program. Under this program, available cash balances (from
Session #56 Two-Factor Authentication Steven Burke & James McMahon U.S. Department of Education Project Overview To comply with the White House through the United States Office of Management and Budget
Beth Radtke 50 Included in the report: 7/22/2015 11:15:28 AM Alaska (AK) Arizona (AZ) Arkansas (AR) California-RN (CA-RN) Colorado (CO) Connecticut (CT) Delaware (DE) District Columbia (DC) Florida (FL)
The Future of Nursing Report Illinois Healthcare Action Coalition Strategic Planning Meeting June 16, 2011 Susan B. Hassmiller, PhD, RN, FAAN Campaign for Action Campaign Vision All Americans have access
Health Insurance Mandates in the States 2011 Executive Summary Health Insurance Mandates in the States 2011 Executive Summary By Victoria Craig Bunce Director of Research and Policy The Council for Affordable
Admitting Foreign Trained Lawyers National Conference of Bar Examiners Chicago, May 2, 2015 Professor Laurel S. Terry Penn State s Dickinson Law Carlisle, Pennsylvania LTerry@psu.edu Overview of Remarks
An Introduction to... Equity Settlement The New York CEMA & Co-op Process June 2009 About Us... Established in 1986 Over 100 Associates Approved Vendor for Bank of America Preferred Vendor for Many National
INTEREST RATES - June 16, 2016 to July 15, 2016 Notices 1. Before soliciting or taking any annuity applications, it is required that you have completed Lafayette Life's Annuity Training and any Continuing
VCF Program Statistics (Represents activity through the end of the day on June 30, 2015) As of June 30, 2015, the VCF has made 12,712 eligibility decisions, finding 11,770 claimants eligible for compensation.
National Student Clearinghouse Presentation for CACG Meeting February 2010 Dr. Jeff Tanner, Vice President The Clearinghouse A non-profit organization founded in 1993 in affiliation with several educational
Enrollment Snapshot of, and Nuclear Medicine Programs 2012 A Nationwide Survey of Program Directors Conducted by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists January 2013 2012 ASRT. All rights reserved.
Forethought Medicare Supplement and ForeLife Final Expense Life Insurance Phase 1 FOR AGENT USE ONLY NOT FOR USE WITH CONSUMERS 1 Company History Forethought Financial Group, Inc., through its subsidiaries,
11:00 11:30 10 Reasons Why Vertex SMB is A Better Way to Handle Your Sales and Use Tax Automation Scott Coleman Channel Sales Manager Agenda Landscape of the Market Today 10 Reasons Why Vertex SMB is a
Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants in the United States: Current Patterns of Distribution and Recent Trends Preliminary Tables and Figures Kevin M. Stange, PhD Assistant Professor Gerald R. Ford
EFFECTS OF LEGALIZING MARIJUANA 1 Effects of Legalizing Medical On Illegal Use Professor Elizabeth Jacobs, PhD Psychology 230 November 29, 2010 EFFECTS OF LEGALIZING MARIJUANA 2 Introduction With the increasing
QTA A brief analysis of a critical issue in special education Special Education s September 2002 Eileen M. Ahearn, Ph.D. Purpose and Method One of the major issues mentioned in connection with the pending
A Fixed Indexed Annuity with a 16-year surrender period. This product is not available in AK AL CT DE MN NJ NV NY OH OK OR PR TX UT VI WA Ratings A.M. Best : A- Standard & Poor's: BBB+ 1 Year S&P 500 Annual
Trends in Medigap Coverage and Enrollment, 2011 May 2012 SUMMARY This report presents trends in enrollment in Medicare Supplement (Medigap) insurance coverage, using data on the number of policies in force
NCHRP 20-68A US Domestic Scan Program Scan 13-02 Advances In Civil Integrated Management (CIM) Scan Team Visits 2014 Presenter: Fangyu (Denise) Guo PhD student from Iowa State University CIM is the collection,
2014 Year in Review State Policies Impacting CTE Catherine Imperatore, ACTE Andrea Zimmermann, NASDCTEc February 5, 2015 Background and Context Federal policies Perkins WIOA HEA Senate and Congressional
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.