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1 technische universiteit eindhaven

2 Faculty Architecture, Building and Planning of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) MlD TERM RESEARCH ASSESSMENT Eindhoven, April

3 Table of contents Preface Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning Eindhoven Univarsity of Technology Introduetion Research profile of the faculty Mission statement Leadership Strategy and policy Researchers and other persennel Resources, funding and facllities Processas in research, intemal and extemal collaboration Academie reputation lnternal evaluation External evauatlon Analysis, perpectives and expectations Assessment per programme Structural Design {SD) Oe scription Leadership Strategy and policy Processas in research, internal and extemal collaboration Academie reputation lnternal evaluation External evauation Researchers and other persennel Resources, funding and facilîties Overview of results Self-analysis perpectives and expectations Physical Aspects of the Built Environment {PhBE) Description Mission Statement Leadership Strategy and policy Processas in research, intemal and extemal collaboration Academie reputation lnternal evalustion Extemal evaluation Social relevanee lndustrial contacts Forma! affiliations Researchers and other persennel Resources, funding and facilities Deseription of scientifie results Design and Deelsion Support Systems in architecture and urban planning (DDSS) Description Leadership Strategy and policy Processas in research, internal and external collaboration Academie reputation lnternal evaluation Extemal evalustion Researchers and other personnel p. 5 p. 5 p. 5 p. 6 p. 6 p. 7 p. 9 p. 9 p. 10 p. 10 p. 10 p. 13 p. 13 p. 15 p. 15 p. 15 p. 15 p. 16 p. 24 p. 25 p. 27 p. 27 p. 28 p. 30 p. 30 p. 31 p. 47 p. 47 p. 47 p. 47 p. 48 p. 50 p. 50 p. 54 p. 54 p. 54 p. 55 p. 55 p. 55 p. 57 p. 59 p. 88 p. 88 p. 88 p. 89 p. 92 p. 93 p. 96 p. 96 p Tl p; '... f

4 Resources, funding and facilitles p Overview of results p th Research Program (under constructlon) p Descrîption p ADE Research in Progress p Introduetion p Mission p Research areas p Specification of research areas p UD-MAN p Introduetion p Mission and Research Areas p Publications p Pubtic Health Engineering of Built Environments (PHEBE) p

5 At Stakel lt is my pleasure to introduce the results of the self study for the mid-term research assessment 2007 of the Faculty of Architecture, Building & Planning of the Eindhoven Univarsity of Technology. The report demonstrales how our faculty is referring and reacting to tendencies of internationalîzation, higher academie performance, balanced productivity, increased competition in broad fields of research. This all within the context of the mission of the faculty to contribute to a better built environment that creates value for its users and is in lîne with general policy objectives of a modern society at large. lt is on the edge of different sub-disciplines and topic areas where innovations can be expected and significant progress can made. This report shows various efforts along these lines, in addition to basic in-depth research on particular issues. Traditionally our faculty has chosen for long standing research programs and themes that can be incrementally improved and extended to play a research role at the international scene. The report witnessas that in all three programs continued progress has been made in the last three years. We have wltnessed evidence of increased productivity, more international publications, and more publications in more respected journals, while at the same time research results have been used in all kinds of applications in the built environment. This mid-term self study is valued as a stepping stone to the goals that we have in mind for the next full assessment. I expect the programs to unfold and expand further in the next three years and beyond. April2007, Jan Westra Dean -4-

6 1. Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning Eindhoven Univarsity of Technology 1.1. Introduetion The Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning of the Eindhoven Univarsity of T echnology was founded in the late 1960s and constitutes one of the two Faculties in the Netherlands in this discipline. The Faculty conslsts of four units: Structural Design & Construction Technology, Building Physlcs and Systems, Architecture & Engineering and Urban Design Management Systems. Research in the Faculty is organlsed in terms of three research programmes: Structural Design, BPS, and DOSS. lnitiatives to create a fourth programme have just been taken. This mld-term report provides an overview of the major research actlvities that were conducted during the period Research takes a tot of time. Review and publication in reading joumals may take 2-3 years. The time from developing a PhD proposal to lts completion typically involves at least 5-6 years. In that sense, this mld-term report wilt not highlight any dramatic changes from the previous research assessment period. This report articulates the evolving research strategy, and discussas changes in this policy from the previous assessment period. Research at the Faculty continued to be organised in terms of research programmes, although it should be noted that research projects across programmes are stimulated. Each programme consists of researchers working in related areas, sharing a common methodology or field of interest. Research programmes are supposed to develop common actlvities and research projects. Within these programmes, research projects are typicalty organised around the Chairs, who have a first responsibility for the quantity and quality of research actlvities of their respective groups. These actlvities need to fit within general guldelinas approved at the Faculty level and recommended by the Standing Committee of Science and the Research Management Committee. Some Ph.D. research projects are organised as part of the research schools BOUW and NETHUR, which have been accredited by the Royal Academy of Science. This report provides a brief overview of the inputs and main results of the programmes. A list of the most important publications is also included. The input is derived from the task altocation plans of the Departments, which are monitored through a time use system Research Profile ofthe Faculty Architecture, Building and Planning contribute to designing and creating a built environment that meets certain performance criteria for people and businesses alike such that these actors can attain their goals. In addition, environments are created such that they meet certain societal goals, such as sustainability, comfort, safety, avoidanee of social exclusion, etc. By definition, the performance of the built environment and lts constituent components is influenced by a set of physical, economie, technotogical, social, psychological and cultural values. This means that research projects necessarily involve theories, models and methodelogies from different disciplines, ranging from the technica! to the social sciences. A combination of such approaches allows one to make better-informed design decisions and to develop usar-eentred produels and technologies. The research programmes of the Faculty of Archîtecture, Building and Planning in general alm at developing and applying such knowledge from the relevant disciplines and integrate this knowtedge into new or împroved products, better design guidelines and especially better design and planning processes. By bringing tagether a multidisciplinary team of experts, the faculty aims at davaloping innovative and relevant research programmes and projects. -5-

7 1.3. Mission statement The Faculty's mission is to provide a research environment that supports: innovative, multidisciplinary, design-oriented research, that is academlcally sound and rigoreus, and relevant to its stakeholders Consequently, the Faculty's research strategy is to create the right balance between fundamental and applied research. Fundamental research is, however, still conducted with design problems in mind: ultimately the results of the fundamental research projects should be useful in supporting design or planning decisions. The applied research is focused on the dissemination and use of research findings by practitioners. This balance between fundamental and more applied research varles between programmes. As a rasuit of this distinction, the target audience and the most appropriate publlcation outlet for the various research projects may differ. The fundamental research Is by lts very nature primarily oriented at peers and is primarily targeted at the international academie joumals and conference proceedings. Much of the applied research is directed at practitioners, govemment and the building eensuiting industry and thus tends to be publishad in research reports. Research actlvities focused on the dissemination and critica! review of the state-of-the art will find their audience in professional journals. Because this research is concerned with Dutch building practica and the discussion about Dutch architecture, its results are publishad in Dutch joumals and are presenled at national meetings Leadership The Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning is part of the Eindhoven Univarsity of Technology. Research actlvities are organized in terms of research programmes, coordinated by a programme diractor (coordinator). Each programme consists of a number of Ph.D. research projects, reflecting particular research topics. Although management style and culture differ between the programmes, initiatives for new projects, the daily monitoring of projects and first-line quality control takes place at the programme level. The programme directars (coordinators) together constitute the Research Management Team (MTOZ), chaired by the Research Directer of the Faculty. MTOZ is responsible for all management issues related to research. Their tasks include evaluating new project proposals, davaloping and disseminating a publication policy, allocating funds for conference attendance, communicating relevant information between programmes and the faculty, monitoring progress, etc. In addition, there is the Standing Committee for Research I.VCW). This committee consists of experienced researchers of the faculty. The committee has primarily an auditing function. lt evaluates the annual output of the research programmes, assesses research strategies, advlee on the continuatien of Ph.D. projects after the first year, etc. The committee reports to the Faculty Board. Their observations and evaluations are then discussed again in the MTOZ, and in each research program. Thus, in this way, an annual cycle of improvement, evaluation and control is establlshed. Programme directers (coordinators) submit an annual plan which details new projects, reports progress of ongoing projects, announces initiatives for submitting new research proposals, updates publlcation plans, reports on the status of submitted manuscripts, and suggests a plan for conference attendance. These documents constitute the basis for resource allocation in the Faculty. -6-

8 Organisational chart ') 2006 Fte faculty + staff 146,3 I44,4 J:40,0 139,9 Fte staff <;,() 78,5 Fte faculty 'i4.~ 'i2,0 Fte of full professors rs, IJ,8 13,7 Fte postdocs 2,3 2,6 I,3 I,6 Fte PhD. Students ,5 23,0 25,2 I UMDS I Prof.dr. H.J.P. Timmermans 1.5. Strategy and policy Research strategy is a combination of actions at the faculty level, the level of the research programmes and lnitiatives at the level of chairs and invldidual researchers. Baslcally, the faculty Is stimulating participation at different local, natlonal and international networks as this provides most opportunities for extemal funding, makes the organisation more sensitive to specific developments and opportunities in different subareas and stimulates the notion of a self-leaming, professional, knowledge-driven organisation. Hence, at the Faculty level, the main elements of the research strategy have not changed: 1. stimulate and create the necessary conditlans for researchers and programmes to participate in international and national initiatives and acquire the necessary fundlng 2. maintain high quality Iabaratory facilities 3. stimulate a research-positive environment: ample computers, software, funds for conferences, etc 4. guarantee a minimum number of hours for each full time faculty member to conduct research to stay informed about recent developments 5. allocate tasks and funds among faculty membars and research groups such as to strengthen good performing groups 6. constantly provide the necessary investments to start promising new research avenues 7. encourage grant applications by making available additional funding to successful teams 8. support the organisation of (international) workshops, seminars and conferences by taking the financlal risk 9. publish the Bouwstenen serles to disseminate dissertations In summary, the strategy and policy at the Faculty level is to take away the constraints that hamper research development and to stlmulate chairs and research programmes to take initiatives. The annual cycle of MTOZ and VCW serves as a means of quality control, lmprovement, innovation and adjustment. lt is basically a decentralised, performance-driven model of decislon-making. As for changes in strategies and policy, in reaction to autoome of the previous research assessment in 2002, the following ramarks can be made for the various programmes DDSS was again evaluated as the best programme in the building sciences in the Netherlands. Hence, there was no reason to change the orlentation of this programma. -7-

9 The Physics of the Built Environment programme was evaluated the second best programme from the TUle. Because there were some signs of lower performance (in the first two research assessments, this programme at the nationallevel always came out as #2 after DDSS), while the liaison with Kenniscentrum was believed to be temporary, a diversification strategy was followed. The ratirament of some professors craated an opportunity tor hiring new, highprospect people. In addition, the links with Univarsity of Leuven (joint appointments) were strengthened. Moreover, joint work with ether Faculties within the univarsity was stimulated and the first success can be reported. The third programme "Structural Design" was evaluated reasonably good. In fact, the history of this programme is one of slow but consistent gradual improvement. Thls programme was also continued and action was taken to improve this programme along the lines recommended by the research assessment committee, except for the suggestion to continue research on bamboe. The key strategy was to further choese and concentrata on main topics and keeping bamboe research in the air would jeopardlze this policy. The USO-Built programme received one of the lewest evaluation scores. lt was decided therefore to discontinue this programma. Since 2003 the chairs of virtually all participating groups have been replaced and new chairs were selected also for their reseach skilis and motivation. Because education recelved the highest priority, a new tormal research programme has not been formulated yet, but some new chairs all ware quite successful in obtaing external fundlng. This is especially true for the field of Urban Design (Prof. de Meulder) with two postdocs and five PhD students right now. lt is expected that this will be a good basisforstarting one or two new programmes in forthcoming years. Research within the faculty toek place within the context of change at the univarsity level Around 2003, the univarsity decided to develop an active research strategy at the univarsity level Each faculty was inivited to submit one or more proposals for research themes, that were of the highest quality, evidenced standing collaboration between faculties and would fit in the regional industrial profile of Eindhoven/Brainport. The Faculty suggested as a thema across lts research programmes "Comfort Technology and Design" but this theme was not selected by the univarsity and hence no univarsity funding was obtained. This topic was chosen because it offers an opportunity to diversify the activfties in the PhBE programma, which was the only programme with joint actlvities with other TU/e faculties. lt was feit that lt may also constitute an opportunity to include some ether groups, with a relatively weak past performance. The combination of criteria (very high assessment scores, within Tule collaboration, and size of the research group), tumed out to be an impossible trajectory for the Faculty, at least intheshort run. The Faculty has now decided to give this a secend try, stimulating a bottornup approach. Another change in the environment has been the collaboration between the three technica! universities. Again, however, the Building Sciences are not part of the initiatives which will receive special treatment. Thus, although some groups and programmes perferm very welt and have an international reputation, this is not because it is facilitated by many dedlcated (i.e. especially for the building sciences) funding programmes from the univarsity to the national and international level, but despita the lack of such support. The building sciences in general (and soma related disciplines) lack a streng institutionalized framewerk within their universities, within organisatlons such as STW and NWO, and even within the various Ministeries that are responsible for the buiding industry and the built environment. Gradually changing this situation requires the combined effort of the whole discipline and all institutions and will be one of the cornerstanes of pollcy development for the next period. -8-

10 1.6. Researchers and other personnel Human resource polîcy of the Faculty can best be characterized as creating the light balanee between experts in the various disciplines (architecture, urban planning and design, eivil engineering, material science, physics, computer scienee, social science), and the right balance between academies and professionals. As a result, a relatively large percentage of the faculty members is part-time, and some have an excellent track record in practica while others have a past performance in academies. The balance is however slowly shlfting to a more academie orientation. As a result of an explicit polîcy, the number of faculty members with a PhD has further increased over the past years. Experienced researchers supervisa Ph.D. students. Part-time faculty membars usually do not have an explicit research task. They often also have a short -term contract. Part of the resources Is allocated to Ph.D. students. They are selected through Interviews at the level of the research programma. lt Is feit Important that supervisors as opposed to human resource personnel select the candidates because they have to become a research team. Progress is monitered by the research Committee aftar the first year, when a deelsion is made whether or not to continue this project. Newly developed over the last three years is a follow-up progress evaluation every year to identify any problems on time and improve the efficacy and eftectivness of the PHd projects. lt is too soon to teil whether thls new lnltiatlve had any substantlal success. Every PhD student prepares an educatlon and training programma. Those who participate in the BOUW or NETHUR Ph.D. schools will generally attend courses oftered by these schools. lndividual programmes or actlvities are developed for the other students, when necessary. In addition to projectrelated knowledge, training typically includes presentation, writing and programming skills, methodology, and the like. In addition to such forma! training, students will leam most trom interaction with their supervisors and peers in the context of the research programmes. Further personal development options are oftered at the Univarsity level. Each individual student is also stimulated to attend one international conference annually to establish contacts, leam about academie research culture and get feedback on hls/her project. Annual performance reviews monitor the development of every member of staft, includlng Ph.D. students and also serves to identify personal development opportunities. The Faculty spends 10% of her research budget on exchange, collaboration, networks and the like. There are possibillties for post does, spanding time in Eindhoven, short vislts of well-respected international expertswhoare a member of Ph.D. committees, 2 conference attendances/year, etc Resources, funding and facllities Kanoetallen financien (in EUR x 1 mln) oo6 I 1 OFM-bijdrage (incl. centrale middelen!2,4 13,1 13, I I Tweede geldstroom ,2 0,4 I Derde geldstroom 0,7 I,S 1,6 I,6 I Only the DDSS programme had funding from NWO (2nd stream). Third stream research funding was distributed as follows 200~ <; 2oo6 I SD. o.~ 0,4 o,6 PHBE 0.4 o,6 o,6 0,4 I 'DDSS o.~ 0,4 o.~ o,6 I -9-

11 1.8. Processas In research, internaland external collaboration Because the research culture varles between research programmes, a more detailed account of research processas is given in the programme documentation. Here, we will discuss only some faculty-level principles, guidellnes and objectives. Teamwork versus individual research activities: teamwork Is stimulated. In most cases, Ph.D. students have two supervisors and a mentor. In addition, teamwork and feedback is stimulated at the level of the research programma. The ideal is a learning organisation. Some faculty membars are involved in individual research activities. The list of publications gives a good idea of the proportion of teamwork against individual research actlvities and the varlation across research programmes. Communication and exchange channels: primarily within teams related to a specific project, foliowed by the chair, the research program, the Ph.D. school and the Faculty. Different formats are used: presentations, websites, intemal and external publications, newsletters, etc. Supervision of junior researchers: in most cases, Ph.D. students and junior researchers work in teams and hence are advised implicitly or explicitly about methodology, research direction, funding, publication policy, etc. The objective is to create a research environment and research culture where supervision is a natura! activity. Official plans are developed for Ph.D. students, especially if they participate in Ph.D. schools. Quality control and methodological safeguardlng. The best quality control is a group's success in publishing their work in leading joumals and in attracting funding. Discussion within groups (design of project, choice of methodology, feedback on presentstion and manuscripts, etc) is stimulated and is already practiced in saveral cases. Quality control at the programme level is accomplished by the VCW, who annually audits progress. Ph.D. projects are evaluated after the first year, when it is decided whether the project can be continued. The methodological underpinnings are the most important criterion in this context. That also holds true for new research proposals. Recently, and new, the Faculty has starled an internal discussion to promate publication in joumals with an impact factor. Although this is not a goal in itself, publication in such joumals tend to imply a more rigarous and critica! review process, and thus is seen as instrumental in the process of quality control lntemal and extemal collaboraüon. The first layer hare is that of the research programme which combines the research actlvities of two or more chairs. At the project level, soma dagree of collaboration between research programmes is stimulated to address research topics that span two or more programmes. At the same time, however, it is feit important that external collaboration is stimulated. Thus, successful univarsity funding has. been obtained for joint projects with other Faculties (Physics, Mathematics) at the Eindhoven Univarsity of Technology. At the nationallevel, the Structural Design programme is participating in Ph.D. School Bouw, while part of the DDSS programme is participating in NETHUR. Moreover, some NWO funding involves collaboration with Delft, Utrecht and Amsterdam. At the international level, soma programmes are involved in joint international pro]ects, including forma! and informal collaboration with universities such as MIT, Colurnbis University, Tokyo lnstitute of Technology, Hiroshima University, Univarsity of Leuven, etc Academie reputation The relevant information is provided in the documentation for each research program lnternal evaluation The focus and state of development of the various programmes differ. This is depicted in the following graphs and tables. Note that thls overview only includes the three formal programmes. Output of the remaining chairs is not included

12 Results PhJ>..theses Academie Professional Total This tabla shows that in line with the faculty research policy, the output in conference proceedings has grown substantially, foliowed by an increase of publications in international academie joumals. Publications in professional journals, although there is a peak in 2005 have remained more or less constant. Differences between the three programs are captured below PhD-s I~ ~ PHBEI L':l.. ooss This graph shows that the number of PhD has been highest in the DDSS programma. The number of successfully completed PhD's has been the same for the other two programmes, except in 2004 when SD had no completed Phd's. International academie joumals The number of publications in academie joumals has been highest in DDSS for all years; it is increasing for PhBE and more or less constant and fluctuating for SD

13 Conference proceedings and book chapters The number of conference papers has been rapidly growing for PhBE, and surpassed DDSS since The output in this category has also increased for SD and seems to stabalize. Professional publications rmse j PHBE cddss The number of publications in professional outiets is highest in all years for PHBE, foliowed by SD. lt has been increasing for DDSS. In line with the faculty's policy to stimulate publications in international joumals, this graphs shows a decrease for PHBE and DDSS since Productivity mso-] PHBE!

14 Productivity is difficult to quantify and campare because the time to write and get accepted a publication differs dramatically between output categories. Moreover, there are substantial differences within each output category between the three research programmes, with significant differences in the number of pages. The above graph captures productivity in terms of number of accepted and refereed research output. lt shows that productivy has increased rapidly for the PHBE programma. lt has increased a little for DDSS but this programme seems to have reached it maximum productivity. Compared to the previous assessment, there is also evidence of increased, but slower, productivity in SD (except for 2006) Extemal evaluatlon No tormal programme-level external evaluation took place since However, lndividual projects are continuously evaluated in terms of artiele reviews, conference papers, research proposals, external funding, citations, etc. For an active programme, the number of such reviews may sum up to several hundred in any given year Analysls, perspectives and expectations The Faculty feels that key to a successful research programme is to have highly-talented scholars in a research-minded environment with ample facilities and resources within an (institutionalised) network of national and international cantacts with other research groups, governments and industry. As indicated before, the building solences face some structural weaknesses: the training of students and the creation of high-performance built environments require a multitude of skilis and research is only one of these. This is also reflected in the general cuhure of the discipline; good designs are based on a variety of influences, the results of academie research are only one of these. lt also had led to a situation, where compared to other disciplines, the discipline has nat been widely institutionalised in terms of research organizations, committees withln research granting agencies, etc. This aften means that research proposals are not reviewed by peers only, but have to compete with proposals stemming from other disciplines. Moreover, the relative share of R&D in the building industry is low compared to other industries; the building industry tends to invest more in people and process impravement instead of product development. This is not unique for Eindhoven, but is true across the world. Regardless of such structural problems, the strengths of the research actlvities of the Faculty are (i) the high number of students, (ii) the fact that all programmes participate at the international scene, and some programmes even play a leading, innovative role in particular sub-areas, (lil) the combination of research and design, of technologically-driven and user-driven research, which is rare. Although it is challenging to combine these different areas, the faculty has succeeded in creating a platform for a variety of concepts, methodologies and research approaches. This has led to interesting discusslons between sub-disciplines, exchange of ideas and thinking "out-of-the-box": in short: a creative, stimulating research environment. The available Iabaratory facilities allow researchers to conduct advanced, innovative research. In the Dutch context, a growth in new housing and other buildings is still expected, while the urban planning scene is exemplary internationally. Architecture is considered important in the Netherlands, and the debate is alive. The recent policy interest in elimate change, energy-neutral developments, etc set new challenges to the built environment and infrastructure/mobility, ranging from the right use of material, building services, innovative technological building design to sustainable urban farms and reduction of mobility, in light of negative transport externalities. These developments in society at large create new opportunities tor policy-relevant research projects. Gradually, but still very slowly, topics relevant to the building sciences start to appear in European programmes, thereby offering new opportunities. One of the most important threats is the shift away trom the funding of smali-scale research projects to the fundlog of larger scale national and international programmes, a tendency that can be observed in many funding agencies including the univarsity itself. -13-

15 The previous SWOT analysis did lead to the following analysis: 1. A focusing on research topics that (1) reflect important developments in science, (2) are relevant to society at large and architecture, building and planning in particular, and (3) that can be managed given the expertise of the researchers 2. A discontinuation of projects, themes and programmes that prove to be unproductive 3. A shift away from individual projects to research programmes 4. The introduetion of a professlonat devetopment, controt and monitoring cycte 5. The introduetion of a hybrld input-output driven resource altocation model 6. An intensification of collaboration locally to harvest the wide spectrum of expertise within the Faculty, but also nationalty and internationalty 7. Stimulating and fostering key positions of faculty membars in national and international research organisations 8. Taking initiatives in participating in organisations that alm at disseminating research outputto practica. 9. Taking initiatives in hosting international workshops and conferences. 10. Taking initiatives in faunding international Ph.D. schools. Many of these actions ware imptemenled only a few years ago and hence further effectiveness can still be expected. In the next year, these initiatives wilt be further intensified. To support this strategy, the internal research organisation has been changed. Previously, the departments ware responsible for the allocation of tasks (research and education) among their members. The evaluation of output, although different between departments, was minimal and education often had priority. For the next stage of research development, more professionallsm and an output-driven organization are feit important. To that effect, the programme directars have become more responsible for the (re)altocation of research funds, quality control and personal development of PhD students. Resource allocation has beoome more dependent on the quantity and quality of the research output in the previous years (long term effect, based on research assessment scores), an moving average of publications (short-term effect), plus soma resource for new ideas. The role of the Programme Directars will further change. In addition, to their traditional tasks of coordinating the program, reporting progress, stimulating a research elimate and the like, they will now a primary responsibility for filtering proposals, budget allocation and a direct vote in research policy decisions

16 2. Assessment per programme 2.1. STRUCTURAL DESIGN (SD) Description Documentat/on regarding the level of the research programme Research area and mission The research area concerns the design of building structural systems (related or nat to materials such as concrete, steel, masonry, aluminium and timber), and structural components. The mission of the Structural Design research programme is to conduct research on lnnovative Structural Design (development) supported by Fundamental Research on Systems, Components, and Conneetlans (analysls). NABScode RC Programme coordinators during the review period: Dr. J.C.D. Hoenderkamp MSc (2003-August 2004). Dr. H. Hofmeyer MSc (September 2004-) Starting date of the programme The programme Structural Design exists since the seventies, end of 2004 a new approach was taken to imprave focus and output, based on the QANU-evaluation Affiliation outs/de the lnstitute: Research school Structural Engineering (Onde!Zoekschool BOUW), recently (2006/2007) renamed as Research school lntegral Design of Structures Leadership Management style The research group Structural Design is a part of the unit "Structural Design and Construction Technology (SDCT)". Of this unit, only Structural Design is subject to the evaluation because Construction Technology Is mainly focussed on education. The unit has a well-structured schema for management with (1) a daily management team, (2) a management board, and (3) a board of advisors, figure 1. The dally management team has a head and three membars for research, educational, and financlal affairs respectively. They take care of dally issues and they prepare the management board meetings. The management board ltself consists of the daily management, most full professors and the lab manager. The management board takes care of strategie issues in the field of research, education, human resource management, and public relations. Furthermore, specific meetings are organised monthly for the laboratory, all membars of the research group, and MSc and PhD-students. Figure 1, management of the research group Structural Design 15-

17 Means of motivation Most research staff is allowed to spend a basic fraction of 40% of their time on research. This includes supervision of MSc-students and PhD-students involved in research projects as well as Iaberatory experiments, writing publications and keeping up with research literature and developments in the specialised field of the staff member. The additional amount of research time a researcher has available to him is dependent on hls past publication performance. Since this year, the researchers' publication performance is stimulated by allowing a researcher to visit an extra conference if he has got an accepted joumal paper or if he has submitted a NWO/STW-research proposal, this additional to a single conference that may be vislted each year without further restrictions. Communication and control Every month a newsletter is distributed that lists information on the faculty board meetings, the saveral managements groups wlthin the faculty (MTOZ, VCW, MTOB, etc.), human resources and official decisions made. lnformation and deelslons from the daily management team and management board are dlscussed in specific meetings for the laboratory, all research group members, and MSc and PhDstudents respectlvely. Process of improvement and innovation The unit SDCT (and thus the research programme SD) employs a Board of Advisors consisting of five leading membars from the national building lndustry reprasenting consultlng engineering firms, architects, project developers, building contractors and research instltutes. The Board meets the SDCT management team on a regular basis to discuss ongoing research and possible new areas of research that could be interesting for the group. Research aftairs are discussed regularly In the daily management team, the management board, and the Board of Advisors. The output and conference vislts are monitored on a yearly basis by the programme coordinator. This data together with the assessments of research quality, both intemal and extemal ones, are used to initiate changes if required. Full and associate professors are expected to initiale new research subjects and projects within the departmental research programma. Supervision and responsibility for the quality of the research lies within the full professors of the group Strategy and pollcy Context The Structural Design Programme oomprises researchers with a variety of expertise in the field. This ranges from the design of structural systems for buildings, applied mechanics, and structural behaviour of specific materials such as concrete, steel, timber, stone, and aluminium. The design of a building is inherently a multi-disciplinary project requiring the collaboration of many experts. The group therefore is involved in research projects on the integrated design of structures. The research area is defined by both the faculty research programme and the staff fields of expertise. As will be shown in this section, these two defining factors are more than reasonably coherent. The Department of Architecture, Building, and Planning has four research programmes.: (1) SD, Structural Design, (2) BPS, Building Physics, (3) USO-Built, User-Oriented Technology for Design of the Built Environment, and (4) DDSS, Decision and Design Support Systems. These four groups also join a departmental research area "Comfort Technology and Design (CTD)". The research programme (1) SD is fully covered by staff membars of the unit Structural Design and Construction Technology (SDCT)

18 Background As part of the SD-research program me, the research withln the unit SDCT is focussed on the design of building structural systems (without or with using materlals such as concrete, steel, masonry, aluminium and timber), and structural components.. lt is partly derived from practical needs so that a high degree of utilisation is guaranteed. The analytica!, experlmental and numerical research of structural systems is focused on functionality and flexibility in addition to strength and stability. The unit oomprises five chairs/groups: integrated design, applied mechanics, steel structures, masonry structures, and concrete structures. Over the years the group has been expanded by three additional chairs funded by the industry (third souree of funding): precast and prefabrlcated concrete structures, timber structures, and aluminium structures. The chairs are grouped into three sections: integrated design, applied mechanics, and structural behaviour of materlals. February 2005, an assessment of research quality was carried out for Architecture, Urbanism and Building Scienees [Qanu05a). For the Structural Design programma, the assessment was positive of character, however, reading the assessment, the research is dassical and no new fields of research are investigated. Furthermore, fundamental research is lacking and research needs a stronger focus. The group is willing to further imprave lts research by taking the assessment advlee serlously. The new faculty research programme and the assessment results have led to the following activities: To increase focus, govemmental funds are now used only tor research that is regarded as fulfilling the assessment advlee and faculty research programme (see the research area "lnnovative Structural Design"). The group has a hlstory of being successful in obtaining industry (third souree of funding) and semi-govemmental funds (NWO/STW, second souree of funding). These sorts of funds can still be used to carry out research in the area "Fundamental Research on Systems, Components, and Connections". Research is scanned for meeting the assessment advlee and faculty research programma: it should be new (non-classica!) and fundamental T o increase performance and stimulate strategie (fundamental) and tactical research (NWO/STW), as an incentive a researcher is allowed to visit an extra conference if he has got an aceepted joumal paper or if he has submitted a NWO/STW-research proposal. Positioning The research programme Structurai Design can be positioned in-between the structural design group of TU-Delft Architecture and that of TU-Delft Civil Engineering. Compared to Architecture at the TU Delft, the research on Timber Structures, Glass stabilized structures, and Lightweight Structures, is more or iess unique. Compared to Civil Engineering, the programme of Structural Design puts more focus on building structural systems and fundamental research on components instead of materials. Examples are Frames with concrete, brick wall, and glass sheet provided stability, Life Cycle Design of Structures, lntegrated Design of Structures, Computer Aided Structural Design, etc. In some cases, there may seem to be overlaps between this programme and TU-Delft Civil Engineering, i.e. Thin Walled Structures, but for this case agreements have been made and detailed parts of subjects are carried out in Eindhoven or Delft respectively. Structural Design is concerned with the design and analysis of load resisting systems for buildings, also with respect to multi-disciplinary projects. The research is aimed at the development of new systems and components for bullding structures. The basic actlvities of the group camprise design, analysis, and simulation of structural components and systems for buildings. Design: This pertalns to the non-materlal aspects of design and focuses on the performance of the structural systems for buildings in their relation to architecture, services, construction, maintenance, exploitation and re-use. Analysls: This aims at the investigation into the structural properties, i.e. stiffness, strength and stability of systems when subjected to loading. lt is focussed on optimum materialisation of structural building systems

19 Simulation: The study of the behaviour of nawly designed structural systems can ba performed with the help of numerical models and experimental testing. Multi-disciplinary projects: Design research projects often necessitate theoretica!, experimental and numerical investigation. This requires close collaboration between the staff of the group or engagements with other groups outside the department and experts trom other universities. lt is encouraged by the department to get expertise trom foreign universities involved in the research projects. Type of research The research actlvities of the Structural Design programme can be subdivided into three specific categorias: 1. Strategie (fundamentao research, sciantific research as a basis for design rules in building codes, rules and regulations by davaloping basic and general theories. Scientific research on the development of new structural design methodologies. These are research programmes from 4 to 1 0 years where the utilisation will be reached in the long term 2. Tactical (practlcavapp/ied) research, research in collaboration with consulting engineering and construction lndustry that develops schematic and speeltic methods of analysis and design. The behaviour of structural systems or components is described by means of theories and finite element simulations. Research projects take up to 4 years 3. Operational research, research for the consulting engineering and construction industry that generatas direct answers to the appllcabillty of structural elements. This research wijl often be carried out by experimental testing of products by means of speclfic measurements and data processing. Research projects take up to 1 year. The largest capacity for strategie (fundamental) research in the department is with the PhD candidates as they are only required to fulfil limited teaching tasks (10 % of their time). Furthermore, PhD candidates are important as they yield a gratuity for the programme once successfully finished. The research actlvities of the teaching staff are mainly focussed on project supervision. Besides the PhD candidates some additional fundamental and applied research capaclty is obtained from MScstudents. PhD projects can ba financed by means of first, second and third sourees of funding. The first souree of fundlog is directiy from the Ministry of Education and Science, the second souree of funding is via dedlcated funds on appliance, but funds are financed by the government. The third souree of funding is provided by industry. PhD students funded by the first souree of finance must have their research proposals approved by the MTOZ (management team research). One of the criteria is that the research must fit within the field of the faculty research programma. Here, the utilisation will not be taken into account in the evaluation. Research projects financed by the second souree funding (mainly NWO/STW) must have a "high level of scientific content and the results must ultimately be applied by potentlal user groups. In the project evaluation by STW the utilisetion will count for 50%. In general PhD projects started with first souree of funding will be put up for appllcatlon for the second sou ree. Projects financed by second and third sourees of funding are presented to the MTOZ for approval which is also a requirement for advance fundlng of the project by the faculty. After the project finished, this advance funding is then settled with the gratuity mentioned. Publication policy The resuhs of the research are publishad in dlssertations, articles in academie journals, conference proceedings, and in professional journals. The policy on publication is that as many as possible articles should be placed in academie journals. To stimulate this, the already mentioned regulation is - 18-

20 used to allow a researcher an extra conference if he has got an accepted joumal paper or if he has submitted a NWO/STW-research proposal. Research areas Tostart increasing focus, two research areas have been defined: lnnovative Structural Design Fundamental Research on Systems, Components, and Connections As already mentioned, the first souree of funding (governmental funds) is now used only for research in the group of "lnnovative Structural Design". This makes it posslble to reinforce this group and to gradually reduce the research efforts in the second group. Thus, even more focus is planned in the futura. However, it should be noted that it is not the alm to significantly reduee the group "Fundamental Research". First of all, it provides a very valuable background for the group of lnnovative Structural Design. Secondly, the programme has a history of being successful in obtaining industry (third souree of funding) and seml-govemmental funds (NWO/STW, second souree of funding) in the group of "Fundamental Research on Systems, Components, and Connections". These sorts of funds can and should still be used to carry out research in this area "Fundamental Research on Systems, Components, and Connections". lnnovative Structural Design (lsd) The area of "lnnovative Structural Design" investigates the combination of saveral materials and structural design strategies in order to find new, useful structural systems for buildings. Every section in the unit cooperates in this area. Figure 2 shows research projects as gray circles. Circles that are adjacent belang to a chair section. The inner circle is the domsin of lnnovative Structural Design and the outer circle belongs to "Fundamental Research. All research projects of ISO wlll be discussed briefly. Frames with concrete, brick wal/, and glass provided stabillty At the moment, two PhD-projects are involved in research on the frame stabllity wlth concrete and glass respectively, and one PhD project recently finished on the brick wall part. Steel frames, used for mlddie to high-rise buildings, are tilled with precast concrete panels (wlth openings), brick walls, or glass panes. The increased stability, conneetion problems, and strength are investigated wlth a specially designed test-rig in the "Pieter van Musschenbroeck"-laboratory. In all three projects numerical analyses are made to have datalied knowledge on the stress-distributions. And given the experiments and numerical analyses, theoretica! models are developed to ba used in future design rules. The finished project on the brick wall part was finaneed by NWO/STW which is now funding the farmer PhD-student as a post-doc. These research projects show that saveral chairs have a common interest, and use the same test-rig for a product (stabi!ised frames) that impraves future building construction in the Netheriands, given the tendency to build more and more high-rise buildings in the region. The project on frames wlth glass has also the alm to fulfil the desire of architacts to build a building as transparent as possible. lf glass could provide stability here, distracting bracing cables or even panels could be avoided. Expertmental results for this project are promising. See also the key publications

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