A COMMON DEVICE FOR THE MONITORING OF DESERTIFICA TIFICATION TION IN CIRCUM-SAHARAN AFRICA

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1 LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OBSERVATORIES NETWORK ROSELT/OSS A COMMON DEVICE FOR THE MONITORING OF DESERTIFICA TIFICATION TION IN CIRCUM-SAHARAN AFRICA ACHIEVEMENTS AND RESTROSPECTIVE OVERVIEW VIEW SAHARA AND SAHEL OBSERVAT ORY

2 LONG TERM ECOLOGIICAL MONIITORIING OBSERVATORIIES NETWORK ROSELT//OSS A COMMON DEVIICE FOR THE MONIITORIING OF DESERTIIFIICATIION IIN CIIRCUM SAHARAN AFRIICA ACHIIEVEMENTS AND RESTROSPECTIIVE OVERVIIEW 1 st edition - MARCH Sahara And Sahel Observatory

3 2004/ Sahara And Sahel Observatory (OSS) ISBN: Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel Boulevard de l Environnement BP 31 Tunis Cedex, Tunisie Tel Fax URL:

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS After 10 years of life of the network, a special tribute is due to Mr. Gilbert LONG, Honorary Research Director at CNRS (National Scientific Research Centre), former President of the MAB-France Committee, and President of the Scientific and Technical Committee (STC) of ROSELT/OSS (Long Term Ecological Monitoring Observatories Network/Sahara and Sahel Observatory), for the unfailing support he has generously provided to OSS throughout these years and for making his experience available to OSS, particularly by laying the conceptual bases for the design of the network and then directing the ROSELT/OSS programme through to its operational implementation. As early as 1994, the OSS Executive Secretariat was enjoying the support of several men of science and field experts, both from the North and from the South. In this regard, OSS would like to thank in particular the small Orientation Committee composed, at the time, of Mr. Mohamed SKOURI, former international expert to UNESCO and Vice-President of the ROSELT/ OSS Scientific and Technical Committee, Mr. Jean Claude MENAUT (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris, CESBIO Director, Toulouse) and Mr. Antoine CORNET, former President of the French Scientific Committee on Desertification, Representative of IRD in Tunis (Tunisia), as well as all members of the former OSS Scientific and Technical Committee (now replaced by the Strategic Orientation Committee), namely : Mr. Michel HOEPFFNER, IRD-MEDIAS, Toulouse (France); Mr. Klaus MUELLER-HOHENSTEIN, Professor at the University of Bayreuth (Germany) and member of the Scientific and Technical Committee (STC) -ROSELT/OSS; Mr. Jesse Theuri NJOKA, Professor at the University of Nairobi (Kenya), member of the STC- ROSELT/OSS and Regional ROSELT/OSS Coordinator for East Africa. Besides, several international experts have contributed in developing the ROSELT/OSS network, and special thanks are due to : Mr. Mohamed AYYAD, the late Professor at the University of Alexandria (Egypt) and former member of the STC-ROSELT/OSS; Mr. Bertrand de MONTMOLLIN, Director of BIOLConseils (Neuchâtel, Switzerland) and member of the STC-ROSELT/OSS; Mr. Giuseppe ENNE, Professor at the Faculty of Cagliari (Sardinia) and member of the STC- ROSELT/OSS; Mr. Mounkaila GOUMANDAKOYE, Team Leader, Regional Office for Central and West Africa at UNDP; Mr. Hamid NARJISSE, Professor at IAV Hassan II and Director General of INRA (Morocco); Mr. Edouard LE FLOC H, Research Engineer at CNRS (France); Mr. Ahmed AIDOUD, Consultant, Teacher at the University of Rennes (France); Mr. Jean Claude BILLE, Honorary Research Director at IRD (France); Mr. Andrea di VECCHIA, IATA-CNR (Florence, Italy); Mr. Francis FOREST, CIRAD (France); Mr. Christian FLORET, Honorary Research Director at CNRS, Dakar (Senegal); M. Ibrahima A. TOURÉ, the late former Coordinator of FAPIS and RCS / Sahel projects. OSS would also like to thank all those officials of institutions that have acted as Regional Operators, expressing gratitude to Mr. Alain GERBE (former IARE Director) and to all the members of the Regional Operator Consortium composed of IRD (group leader), of CIRAD and of CILSS/INSAH, with a particular mention for their representatives within this Consortium, namely : Mr. Jean Marc D HERBÈS, Regional Coordinator and Mr. Joseph BOULÈGUE, Director of Earth and Environment Department (DME) at IRD;

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv Mr. Bernard TOUTAIN, ROSELT/OSS Sub-regional Coordinator for East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya), Mr. Joseph DOMENECH, Director of Stock-breeding and Veterinary Medicine Department (Elevage et Médecine Vétérinaire EMVT), Mr. François MONICAT, Programme Manager; Mr. Idriss ALFAROUKH, Director of INSAH and Mr. Netoyo LAOMAÎBAO and Khassoum DIEYE from the INSAH Research Department, as well as Mr. Gaoussou TRAORE and Mr. Sibiri OUEDRAOGO who have consecutively served as Sub-regional Coordinator for West Africa; Mr. Musa MBENGA, CILSS Executive Secretary, for his unfailing support to OSS and its programmes. The operating of the network could not have run so smoothly without the contribution of the national teams and, in particular, that of the national correspondents : Mr. Abdelaziz GAOUAR, General Director of CRSTRA, Biskra (Algeria) ; Mr. Koudier MEDIOUNI, the late Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of the Steppes of the Upper Plains of the South West of Oran, URBT, Algiers (Algeria) ; Mrs. Dalila NEDJRAOUI, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of the Steppes of the Upper Plains of the South West of Oran, URBT, Algiers (Algeria) ; Mr. Mohamed ABDELRAZIK, Professor at the University of Alexandria, National and Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of El Omayed (Egypt) ; Mr. Abderrahmane KABBAJ, Director of DREF, Rabat (Morocco) ; Mr. Mohamed YASSIN, National and Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Oued Mird, DREF, Rabat (Morocco) ; Mr. Abdelouahed EL GHARBAOUI, Director of ORMVAO (Morocco) ; Mr. Ahmed RAMDANE, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Issougui, ORMVAO (Morocco) ; Mr. Houcine KHATTELI, National Coordinator, Director General of IRA, Medenine (Tunisia) ; Mr. Mongi SGHAIER, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Menzel Habib, IRA, Medenine (Tunisia) ; Mr. Rachid BOUKCHINA, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Haddej Bou Hedma, IRA, Gabes (Tunisia) ; Mr. Antonio EVORA FERREIRA QUERIDO, National ROSELT Coordinator, President of INIDA, Praia (Cape Verde) ; Mr. Joe SPENCER, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Ribeira Seca, INIDA, Praia (Cape Verde) ; Mr. Bino TEME, Director General of IER, Bamako (Mali) ; Mr. Fadiala DEMBELE, National and Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Bamba (Bourem Circle), IER, Gao (Mali) ; Mr. Mohamed OULD HAMZA, National and Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Nouakchott (Mauritania) ; Mr. Wata ISSOUFOU, National ROSELT Coordinator, MHELCD, Niamey (Niger) ; Mr. Maxime BANOIN, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Torodi (Torodi-Tondikandia- Dandiantou observatories set), University of Niamey (Niger) ; Mr. Aboubacar ICHAOU, Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Dandiantou (Torodi- Tondikandia-Dandiantou observatories set), MHELCD, Niamey (Niger) ; Mr. Moktar NIANG, Director General of CSE, Dakar (Senegal) ;

6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v Mr. Magatte BA, National and Scientific Coordinator of the Observatory of Ferlo, CSE, Dakar (Senegal) ; Mr. Fred MWANGO, National ROSELT Coordinator, MWRMD, Nairobi (Kenya). During these years, several young competencies have participated in the development of ROSELT/OSS, within the Executive Secretariat team and the Regional Coordination team, namely : Wafa ESSAHLI, Mohamed EL GUERROUJ, Sandrine JAUFFRET, Maud LOIREAU, Cécile FONTANA, Jean-Christophe DESCONNETS, Eric DELAITRE and Olivia DELANOË Last but not least, we would like to commend the unfailing support of our financial partners that have allowed the development of the network. OSS is pleased to express its immense gratitude to the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MAE), the Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development (MEDD), the French Fund for World Environment of the French Development Agency (FFEM/AFD), to the Directorate of Development and Cooperation of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (DDC), as well as to the Italian Cooperation Agency and the German Cooperation Agency. OSS finally acknowledges the highly beneficial decision for this project consisting in setting up, within IRD, of a «Desertification» Service Unit, and expresses warmest thanks to IRD General Director. A special tribute is due to Marc BIED CHARRETON, former Executive Director of OSS and President of the French Scientific Committee on Desertification France, to have initiated this great African programme.

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8 SYNTHESIS vii SYNTHESIS CCONTTEEXXTT AND ORI IIGI IIN OFF TTHEE CCONCCEEPTT OFF LLONG TTEERM EECCOLLOGI IICCALL MONI IITTORI IING Following the intense and recurrent droughts that had prevailed in sub-saharan Africa in the mid- 1960s, political awareness and the mobilisation of the scientific community toward checking the desertification processes and mitigating drought effects have brought about the need to monitor and evaluate the natural resources in order to ensure their sustainable management. This has led to conducting several studies and research works on droughts and aridity, as well as on their ecological implications (soil degradation, desertification) and socio-economic impacts (migration, rural exodus, pauperisation). This period was characterised by the adoption of the action plan to combat desertification which was developed during the United Nations Conference on Desertification (Nairobi, Kenya, August/September 1977) and the coming into force of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD). This convention a strategy in its own right strongly emphasises the development of scientific and technical cooperation among the relevant institutions at national, subregional, regional and international level. In this regard, the establishment of the Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS) in 1992, has favoured the emergence of a new North-South-South partnership and solidarity spirit, as well as the development of new synergies between the various partners, thus allowing the capitalisation of acquired knowledge and experience, the harmonisation of data collection and analysis methods, information sharing and the design of new tools to help in decision making. In view of these considerations, and based on the conclusions and recommendations of a workshop organised jointly with UNESCO and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in July 1992 in Fontainebleau (France) on continuous monitoring of terrestrial ecosystems, OSS proposed the set up of a Long Term Ecological Monitoring Observatories Network (ROSELT/OSS) whose objective would be to better apprehend the causes and effects of desertification in the circum-saharan African region. This initiative constitutes a response to the need expressed by the Southern member countries to access reliable data on the state of the environment, and more particularly in circum-saharan arid and semi-arid zones that are severely hit and/or endangered by desertification. Ecological monitoring is understood in its broadest sense, namely the study of the dynamics of the natural, physical and biological environment, of the human environment, including social organisation, the dynamics of land use systems, as well as the dynamics of the interactions that exist between these various sets. FFROM DEESI IIGN TTO AN OP EERA TT IIONA I LL IIMPLLEEMEENTTATTI I IION OFF TTHEE ROSEELLTT/ /OSS PROGRAMMEE Between 1992 and 1994, the inventory of Potential Candidate Territories (TCP) which had been conducted by the countries allowed an ad hoc Scientific Committee to select, based on labellisation criteria, 25 observatories or observatory clusters, distributed over 11 countries. Among these 25 ROSELT/OSS observatories, 12 were further selected as pilotobservatories, intended to serve within a first phase as a basis for refining the concept, finalising the techniques and methodologies of data collection and processing, and developing reliable, relevant and reproducible tools to help in decision-making (maps, indicators, information systems...).

9 SYNTHESIS viii In the light of these works, the founding document of the ROSELT/OSS was drafted in 1995 and synthesis studies providing «a reference state» in three North-African pilot-observatories ( ) were conducted. A first operational phase was subsequently launched in 1998 in order to perform in situ testing of the data collection and processing methods. The insufficient integration between the devices used for the sampling of biophysical and socio-economic parameters based on the sectorial approach adopted during this phase did not allow the development of the expected tools to help in decision making. The launch of the ROSELT/OSS in West Africa in June 2000 during the Bamako workshop led to updating the concepts used within the network and to adopting a comprehensive conceptual outline for the study of environmental changes within the ROSELT/OSS. The «landscape» thus developed allows the integration of the whole set of biophysical and socioeconomic data and the study of the impact of uses on the natural resources, and this with a view to developing products that help in decision making, such as reliable data on soil degradation in arid zones, biophysical and socio-economic indicators, state of the environment of the OSS region, spatialised resources/uses balances, prospective scenarios... Particular effort was made in order to define a minimum data set, to be collected at lower cost, and which would allow the spatialisation of data, their possible extrapolation to larger zones and their integration within models of use of both space and resources. TTHEE ROSEELLTT/ /OSS PRODUCCTTS : DEEVVEELLOPMEENTT,, USEE AND DI IISSEEMI IINATTI IION The ROSELT/OSS products may be distributed as follows : o Previous achievements : development of reference states under the form of thematic maps, such as «land use» maps, and «physical features» maps (pedology, geomorphology... ); o The scientific and technical documents which are gradually issued as part of the «ROSELT/OSS Scientific and Technical Collection», such as the methodological guidebook and its thematic leaflets (including Vegetation, Socio-economic Features, Fauna...), the national scientific and technical reports; o The Local Environment Information System LEIS - ROSELT/OSS; o The metadata base; o The Charter on the management and dissemination of data and products within ROSELT/OSS; o The indicators at local and regional levels; o The prospective simulations and desertification risk index maps. ROSELT/OSS Observatory of «Banizoumbou» Niger Coordinates : UTM Million m Villages Coordinates : UTM Million m Villages Indice Desertification de Risque de Risk Désertification Index (IRD) (IRD) Indice Desertification de Risque de Risk Désertification Index (IRD) (IRD) Sur plateaux On iron pan cuirassés plateaux (Usages (pastoral Sur pastoral and forestry plateaux On iron et pan forestier) uses) cuirassés plateaux (Usages (pastoral pastoral and forestry et forestier) uses) [0-10] : Très Very faible Low ]10-17] [0-10] : Très Very : Très Very Low faible Low ]17-34] ]10-17] : Faible Medium : Très Very Low faible ]17-34] : Faible Medium Hors Out plateaux of iron pan cuirassés plateaux (agricultural, pastoral and forestry (Usages Hors Out agricole, plateaux of iron pastoral pan cuirassés plateaux et uses) (agricultural, pastoral and forestry (Usages forestier) agricole, pastoral et uses) [0-17] forestier) : Très Very faible Low ]17-34] [0-17] : Faible : Low Très Very faible Low ]34-56] ]17-34] : Moyen Medium : Faible Low ]56-81] ]34-56] : Fort High : Moyen Medium ]81-100] ]56-81] : Très Very : Fort High high fort ]81-100] : Très Very high fort Degraded zones Zones dégradées Degraded zones Zones dégradées IRD = ISSD * IP IP = (P_USR Ai / P_USR IRD = A ) ISSD * (D_USR * IP / D_USR A ) IP = (P_USR Ai / P_USR A ) * (D_USR / D_USR A )

10 SYNTHESIS ix The relevance of the concept of ecological monitoring and of the products developed by the network have persuaded a large number of the countries involved in the network as to the need to boost the development of environmental monitoring on the level of the countries. Indeed, the ROSELT/OSS has already been integrated in the NAP/CCD of several countries (Algeria, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia) and is in process of integration in the NAP/CCD of Egypt and of Kenya. The ROSELT/OSS methodologies are adapted and replicated in the framework of implementation of the national environmental monitoring devices (Niger, Mali) which are either based on, or which integrate, environmental monitoring observatories, such as the ROSELT/OSS observatories. Besides, Morocco and Tunisia 1 have undertaken to conduct two studies in order to assess the state of the art in the field of monitoring-evaluation of desertification (research projects, development projects...) and to use the results acquired for purposes of proposing an overall framework for an operational implementation of the NAP/CCD monitoring-evaluation systems. The substantial contribution of the ROSELT/OSS has been largely underscored, particularly with regard to control over the desertification process and to the promotion of development support actions. The results already obtained by the ROSELT/OSS in Tunisia (indicators, prospective simulations deriving from the LEIS- ROSELT/OSS and desertification risk index map) will be gradually displayed on the Tunisian site of the System of Information Sharing on Desertification and the Environment (SCIDE, updated in the framework of the SMAP project). More specific studies on the national environmental monitoring devices have been conducted in Algeria 2, Egypt 3 and Morocco 4 ; they are in process of validation by the National Coordination Institutions (ONC) in these countries. It is worth pointing out that the data and metadata bases in process of establishment in each of the member countries of the network represent a major asset for the countries in the field of management and dissemination of data that help in decision making. Finally, the whole set of the products developed and of the results obtained are regularly presented during international events (colloquia, seminars... ) and on the occasion of the Conferences of the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The information dissemination tools (web sites, brochures, posters...) are regularly updated in order to provide updated information to the various categories of stakeholders concerned by combating desertification. ROSEELLTT/ /OSS : AN ASSEETT FFOR TTHEE SEETT UP OFF NATTI IIONALL EENVVI IIRONMEENTTALL MONI IITTORI IING DEEVVI IICCEES The ROSELT/OSS programme is a complex, ambitious and exacting programme. It is complex, since it sets out to study not only the state of the dynamics of the ecological and socio-economic systems and their interactions, but also the causes and consequences of soil degradation. It is ambitious, since it seeks to bring concrete and practical answers to issues of development and of environmental protection in areas where the scarce resources are vulnerable. And it is exacting, since it requires several scientific specialities, team work within multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary teams, calling upon the contribution of the whole range of the stakeholders involved in combating desertification (planners, developers and development officials in general, including the populations concerned), and this within the framework of a participatory approach. Yet the ROSELT/OSS remains for all that an absolutely necessary programme to address the concern for monitoring and evaluation of the phenomena of degradation and, where necessary, to provide the countries with reliable and relevant data that can be generalised and/or extrapolated, and which are generated by the close interdependence between environment and sustainable development. To address this concern, only the set up of long term ecological monitoring devices would help to provide an answer. 1 On the occasion of the launch workshops of the SMAP project for «Setting up a monitoring-evaluation system in the Maghreb» held in Rabat (on 28 and 29 November 2002) and in Tunis (on 22 and 23 April 2003). 2 Les mécanismes de suivi de la désertification en Algérie. Proposition d un dispositif national de surveillance écologique à long terme en Algérie (Mechanisms for the monitoring of desertification in Algeria : Proposal for a National Long Term Ecological Monitoring device in Algeria), Pr. Dalila Nedjraoui. 3 Mechanisms for Monitoring the Desertification at the National Level of Egypt, Pr. Mohamed Abdelrazik 4 Projet de conception d un dispositif national de surveillance écologique au Maroc, (Conceptual project of ecological monitoring national device in Morocco), Mohamed Yassin.

11 SYNTHESIS x However, while the long term vision of land use planning and the management of resources represents an attractive conceptual framework, its implementation needs to overcome several obstacles which the ROSELT/OSS has not been spared. Indeed, ecological monitoring requires fairly considerable human and material means, as well as stable and sound institutions. However, such conditions are often difficult to find in developing countries, particularly in Africa. The lack of synergy between the national institutions has often proved to be an impediment to a proper progress of the programme and has induced, at its inception, a slackening of the pace of the implementation of its activities. Much effort had to be invested in order to get the message across to the institutions concerned that the OSS is not a funding agency and that the means that they provide need, on the one hand, to incept a national effort in this regard and, on the other hand, to build up the teams and the institutions involved. The implementation of this unusual approach has been arduous, resulting in certain cases in delays due to the insufficiency of the means provided in view of the efforts required. Yet, in spite of such handicaps, which seem a priori to be difficult to overcome, the ROSELT/OSS programme was launched and it became established in several OSS member countries. This inception phase has been, above all, a phase of training, set up of teams and finalisation from a conceptual and methodological point of view. The active work of the network, the exchanges between the members, not to forget the strengthening of the North-South partnership and the building of national capacities have made it possible to extend, to the countries of the South, the methodological and technological developments indispensable for a mastery over the dissemination of information that help in decision making. Concrete results have thus been achieved in the past 4 years. The tools (data and metadata bases, Local Environment Information Systems (LEIS) and products developed by the network already contribute in : o the harmonisation of the data collection and processing methods (methodological guidebooks) ; o the development of a diagnosis of the state of desertification in the circum-saharan zones of the OSS region ; o the definition of a specific minimum data set for each «observatory» and the minimum set of data common to the «network» which need to be collected at lower cost with a view to developing specific and necessary indicators on the local and regional levels. The dynamics that has developed within the network, the appropriation of the ROSELT/OSS methodologies and of long term environmental monitoring by the national institutions, the drafting of a charter on the management and dissemination of data within the network, and the gradual implementation of computer tools constitute a major step toward the strengthening of the network and its integration within the national environmental monitoring devices. The ROSELT/OSS programme constitutes an additional asset for African countries and for the subregional and regional institutions in combating desertification and in mitigating drought effects, and in particular as a key component of the national environmental monitoring devices, which themselves constitute the major pillars of the monitoring-evaluation of the NAP/CCD. 5 Accordingly, the OSS does not spare any effort to clarify and further the debate on the concept of monitoring evaluation and to make visible the contribution of the ROSELT/OSS in the implementation of development and environmental protection programmes. The products that help in decision making which are gradually developed in the framework of the ROSELT/OSS programme will be made available to the NAP/CCD Monitoring-Evaluation Systems that are gradually set up, particularly in Tunisia and in Morocco, in the context of the implementation of the conventions on combating desertification and on biological diversity. On the international and European level, the ROSELT/OSS now emerges as an indispensable African network in the field of ecological monitoring. The North-South scientific rooting of the network has been considerably strengthened, particularly thanks to the set up of a ROSELT/OSS specific «Desertification» Service Unit within the Research Institute for Development (IRD, formerly ORSTOM) 5 Such as recommended by the CCD, and designed by the OSS and its partners : The CILSS, UMA and 7 African pilot countries, which have been joined by GRULAC and China in the framework of a working group that was set up following a recommendation by the CoP4.

12 SYNTHESIS xi and to the involvement of the ROSELT/OSS programme in the draft applications eligible to the European Commission. These initiatives are likely to promote scientific cooperation on desertification among the specialised institutions from both North and South and will help toward the sustainability of the network and the mobilisation of the means allotted to this complex issue. Monitoring-Evaluation (M&E) of NAP and SRAP to combat desertification

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14 LIST OF ROSELT/OSS PRODUCTS xiii LIST OF ROSELT//OSS PRODUCTS Beside all publications mentionned in references, the ROSELT/OSS products may be distributed as follows : o Previous achievements : development of reference conditions under the form of thematic maps, such as «land use» maps, and «physical features» maps; o The scientific documents which are gradually issued as part of the «ROSELT/OSS Scientific and Technical Collection», such as : the methodological guidebook and its thematic leaflets (such as flora and vegetation, socio-economic features, fauna,... ); technical and concept-related documents; national scientific and technical reports; o Local Environment Information System LEIS - ROSELT/OSS; o The metadata base; o The Charter on the management and dissemination of data and products within ROSELT/OSS; o Indicators at local and regional levels; o Prospective simulations and desertification risk index maps. The products are proposed in more detail in 4. ROSEELLTT/ /OSS SCCI IIEENTTI IIFFI IICC AND TTEECCHNI IICCALL CCOLLLLEECCTTI IION SCCI IIEENTTI IIFFI IICC DOCCUMEENTTS ROSELT/OSS Document Scientifique 1 : Conception, organisation et mise en oeuvre de ROSELT. Collection ROSELT/OSS, première parution en 1995, nouvelle édition ROSELT/OSS Scientific Document 1: Conceptual, organizational and operational framework of ROSELT/OSS. Collection ROSELT/OSS, first edition in 1995, new edition ROSELT/OSS, Document Scientifique 2 : ROSELT/OSS : Organisation, Fonctionnement et Méthodes de ROSELT/OSS. Édition 2001, révisée ROSELT/OSS, Scientific Document 2 : ROSELT/OSS : Organisation, Operation and Methods, Edition 2001, revised in ROSELT/OSS, Document Scientifique 3 : Concepts et méthodes du SIEL ROSELT (Système d Information sur l Environnement à l Échelle Locale). ROSELT/OSS, Scientific document 3 : Concepts and methods of ROSELT LEIS (Local Environment Information System). ROSELT/OSS, Document Scientifique 4 : Indicateurs écologiques ROSELT/OSS. Une première approche méthodologique pour la surveillance de la biodiversité et des changements environnementaux. (Scientific Document 4 : ROSELT/OSS ecolological indocators. A frst methodological apporach for the monitoring of biodiversity and environmental changes). TTEECCHNI IICCALL CCONTTRI IIBUTTI IIONS ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique n 13 : Etat comparé de l environnement dans les observatoires ROSELT/OSS du Maghreb. (Technical Contribution n 13 : Comparative State of the Environment in the ROSELT/OSS Observatories of the Maghreb). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 1 : Guide ROSELT/OSS pour l évaluation et la surveillance de la végétation. (ROSELT/OSS Guidebook for the Assessment and Monitoring of Vegetation).

15 LIST OF ROSELT/OSS PRODUCTS xiv ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 2 : Guide ROSELT/OSS pour l évaluation et le suivi des pratiques d exploitation des ressources naturelles. (Technical Contribution 2 : ROSELT/OSS Guidebook for the Assessment and Monitoring of uses of natural resources). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 3 : Manuel d utilisation de l outil SIEL - ROSELT (version 1.3). (Technical Contribution 3 : Instructions Manual for LEIS in ROSELT/OSS ( version 1.3)). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution technique 4 : Application des indicateurs écologiques de la dégradation des terres à l'observatoire de Menzel Habib (TUNISIE). (Technical Contribution 4 : Application of Ecological Indicators of Land Degradation in the Observatory of Menzel Habib (Tunisia)). ROSELT/OSS, Technical contribution 5 : Surveillance of ecological changes in the ROSELT/OSS observatory of El Omayed (EGYPT) : first results. ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 6 : Recherche des indicateurs de changement écologique et de la biodiversité dans l observatoire de Oued Mird (MAROC) / : premiers résultats. (Technical contribution 6 : Research of ecological indicators changes and of biodiversity in the Oued Mird Observatory (MOROCCO) : first results). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 7 : Surveillance des changements écologiques dans l observatoire ROSELT/OSS de Haddej Bou Hedma (TUNISIE) : premiers résultats. (Technical contribution 7 : Monitoring of ecological changes in the ROSELT/OSS Observatory of Haddej Bou Hedma (TUNISIA) : first results). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 8 : Espaces-ressources-usages : première application du Système d Information sur l Environnement à l échelle Locale sur l observatoire ROSELT/OSS de Banizoumbou (NIGER). (Technical Contribution 8 : Space resources uses : first application of the Local Environment Information System in the ROSELT/OSS Observatory of Banizoumbou (NIGER)). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 9 : Recherche d indicateurs de désertification par analyse comparative de quelques observatoires ROSELT/OSS. (Technical contribution 9 : Development of Desertification Indicators by Comparative Analysis of a Few ROSELT/OSS Observatories). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 10 : Une approche spatiale pour la surveillance de la faune - Etude de cas au Sud du Maroc : la vallée de l oued Mird. (Technical Contribution 10 : A spatial approach for the Monitoring of the Fauna. Case Study in Southern Morocco : The Valley of Oued Mird). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 11 : Guide ROSELT/OSS pour l évaluation et la surveillance des États de surface et des sols. (Technical Contribution 11 : ROSELT/OSS Guidebook for the Assessment and Monitoring of the Surface State and Soils). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 12 : Système de circulation de l information ROSELT/OSS : Définition des métadonnées et élaboration des catalogues de référence.. (Technical Contribution 12 : ROSELT/OSS Information Circulation System : definition of metadata and development of reference catalogue). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 13 : Guide ROSELT/OSS pour la cartographie dynamique de la végétation et des paysages. (Technical Contribution 13 : ROSELT/OSS Guidebook for the dynamic cartography of vegetation and of landscape). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 14 : Fiches Techniques pour la construction des indicateurs écologiques ROSELT/OSS. (Technical Contribution 14 : Technical Cards for the development of ROSELT/OSS ecological indicators). ROSELT/OSS, Contribution Technique 15 : Synthèse comparative de quatre années de surveillance environnementale sur trois observatoires ROSELT/OSS du Nord de l Afrique : El Omayed, Haddej Bou Hedma et Oued Mird. (Technical Contribution 15 : Comparative synthesis of four years of environmental monitoring within three ROSELT/OSS observatories of North Africa : El Omayed, Haddej Bou Hedma and Oued Mird).

16 A COMMON DEVIICE FOR THE MONIITORIING OF DESERTIIFIICATIION IIN CIIRCUM SAHARAN AFRIICA ACHIIEVEMENTS AND RESTROSPECTIIVE OVERVIIEW

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18 CONTENTS 3 CONTENTS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...5 ROSELT/OSS SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COLLECTION... XIII SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTS... XIII TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTIONS... XIII 1- CONTEXT AND ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING THE LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OBSERVATORIES NETWORK (ROSELT/OSS) GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION AND OPERATING OF ROSELT/OSS THE CHOICE OF SITES THE NETWORK EFFECT ACTIVITIES PROGRAMME AND OBJECTIVES A MODEL ACTIVITIES PROGRAMME SINCE A NEW CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR PROGRAMMING ACTIVITIES AS FROM THE YEAR PRODUCTS SUMMARY OVERVIEW OF PAST ACHIEVEMENTS METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS AND BASES THE METHODOLOGICAL GUIDEBOOK THE CONCEPTUAL AND TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REPORTS THE LEIS-ROSELT/OSS THE METADATA BASE THE CHARTER ON TO THE MANAGEMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF DATA AND PRODUCTS METHODOLOGICAL BASES AND TRAINING THE INDICATORS INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND DESERTIFICATION ON THE LOCAL SCALE SYNTHETIC INDICATOR ON REGIONAL SCALE PROSPECTIVE SIMULATIONS AND DESERTIFICATION RISK INDEX INTEGRATION OF ROSELT/OSS IN THE NAP/CCD (NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMME TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION) AND USE OF ITS PRODUCTS BY THE NETWORK MEMBER COUNTRIES COMMUNICATION AND DISSEMINATION OF ROSELT/OSS PRODUCTS CONCLUSIONS...41 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES...45

19 CONTENTS 4 DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS DEVELOPED AT REGIONAL LEVEL...45 DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS DEVELOPED BY THE COUNTRIES...46 PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIA AND WORKSHOP REPORTS...48 POSTERS AND BROCHURES ROSELT/OSS...49 OTHER REFERENCES...49

20 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 5 AFD CILSS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Agence Française de Développement (French Development Agency) Comité Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Sécheresse au Sahel (Permanent Inter-State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel ) CIRAD Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (International Centre of Agronomic Research for Development) CoP Conference of the Parties COT Land Cover Map CRSTRA CSE DDC DREF FFEM GEMS GRULAC Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique des Régions Arides (Centre for Scientific and Technical Research on Arid Areas) Centre de Suivi Ecologique (Ecological Monitoring Centre) Direction du Développement et de la Coopération du département Fédéral suisse des Affaires Etrangères (Directorate of Development and Cooperation of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs) Division de Recherches et Expérimentations Forestières (Department of Forestry Experimental Research) Fonds Français pour l Environnement Mondial (French Fund for World Environment) Global Environment Monitoring System Groupe des Etats d Amérique Latine et des Caraïbes (Latin American and Caribbean States Group) GTOS Global Terrestrial Observing System IARE Institut des Aménagements Régionaux et de l Environnement (Regional Land Planning and Environment Institute) IER Institut d Economie Rurale (Rural Economy Institute) IGADD Intergovernmental Authority on Drylands and Development IGBP International Geosphere Biosphere Programme INIDA Instituto Nacional de Investigacao et Desenvolvimento Agrario (National Institute for Research and Agricultural Development) INSAH Institut du Sahel (Sahel Institute) IRA Institut des Régions Arides (Institute of Arid Zones) IRD Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (Research Institute for Development) LEIS Local Environment Information System LTER Long Term Ecological Research MAB/UNESCO UNESCO s «Man and the Biosphere» Programme MAE Ministère français des Affaires Etrangères (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs) MEDD Ministère de l Ecologie et du Développement Durable (Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development)

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