Health Monitoring of DC link Capacitors


 Shon Knight
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 A publcaton of CHMICAL NGINRING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 33, 213 Guest dtors: nrco Zo, Pero Barald Copyrght 213, AIDIC Servz S.r.l., ISBN ; ISSN The Italan Assocaton of Chemcal ngneerng Onlne at: DOI: 1.333/CT Health Montorng of DC lnk Capactors Maawad Makdess*, Al Sar, Pascal Venet Laboratore Ampère UMR 55 CNRS, Unversté Claude Bernard  Lyon 1, Vlleurbanne Cedex, France lectrolytc and metallzed polypropylene flm (MPPF) capactors are among the most popular capactors used n electronc equpments. The choce of capactors s of major mportance because one of the most frequent causes of the equpment breakdowns results from the falure of capactors, and wll therefore determne the overall lfetme of the system. lectrolytc capactors present hgher capacty per volume unt and lower cost than MPPF capactors; however, they appear as the most lfelmtng components exhbtng a hgh falure rate. MPPF are a good alternatve to electrolytc capactors thanks to ther hgh delectrc breakdown strengths, low dsspaton factors and good stablty over a wde range of frequences and temperatures. ven though MPPF capactors are very relable components due to ther unque selfhealng capablty, they are not free of falures and they release noxous gases n ths case. Therefore, sutable dagnostc technques are needed to prevent catastrophc falures. The typcal falure mode of electrolytc and polypropylene flm capactors lays on the ncrease of the capactor quvalent Seres Resstance (SR) and the decrease of ts capactance. Ths paper presents an approach for the montorng of the capactor s electrcal parameters n functon of the ageng tme when used as DClnk capactors. A comparson between the flm and electrolytc technologes wll be also made n ths paper. 1. Introducton Capactors are one of the key components n power electroncs equpments; ther use extends over wde domans of applcatons and reaches the most crtcal operatng systems. lectrolytc capactors (C) assume a specal poston among the varous types of capactors snce ther prncple of operaton reles, n part, on electrochemcal processes. Ths structure, despte beng senstve to frequency and temperature varatons, provdes electrolytc capactors hgher capactance values, hgher volumetrc effcency and an excellent prce over performance rato (Joubert et al., 27). Therefore, C becomes the usual and the best choce for lowfrequency applcatons such as n power supply flters. Metallzed polypropylene flms (MPPF) capactors on the other hand, n vew of ther good delectrc breakdown strengths, low dsspaton factors and good stablty over a wde range of frequences and temperatures, becomes the preferred polymer materals for capactve energy storagedevces. They proved to be more relable components than C thanks to ther unque selfhealng propretes and are favored for hgh voltage applcatons and applcatons where hgh capactances are not requred such as n hgh frequency flterng, snubbers and resonant crcuts. However, capactors, whether belongng to electrolytc or metallzed flms technologes, reman one of the most unrelable components snce they are responsble of more than 3 % of the equpments breakdowns (Venet et al., 1999). Health montorng of these passve components becomes of paramount mportance; a good acquantance of ther deteroraton over tme would enable us to perform a predctve mantenance on the component and thus to mprove the avalablty of the whole system. The object of the present paper s to focus on the montorng of both electrolytc and MPPF capactors when used as DClnk capactors. Ths operaton, through adequate measurements and technques must ensure analyss of the components degradaton, an essental step to predct the capactor performance and ts remanng lfetme; the fnal nterest would be to provde warnngs n advance of catastrophc falures. Please cte ths artcle as: Makdess M., Sar A., Venet P., 213, Health montorng of dc lnk capactors, Chemcal ngneerng Transactons, 33, DOI: 1.333/CT
2 2. Prncples and Technologes 2.1 Alumnum electrolytc capactors Alumnum electrolytc capactors are composed of two alumnum fols, an electrolyte support (also called separator) and an alumnum oxde (AL 2 O 3 ) layer consttutng the delectrc (MartnezVega, 21). The composton of such a capactor s represented n Fgure 1 (a). Real electrolyte cathode Anode Alumnum fol Apparent cathode Alumnum fol Metallzaton +  Delectrc flms Alumnum oxde delectrc (Al 2 O 3 ) lectrolyte support: Paper mpregnated wth electrolyte Al 2 O 3 Mandrel Schoopage (a) (b) Fgure 1: Composton of alumnum electrolytc capactors (a), and MPPF capactors (b) As mentoned prevously, due to the thn oxde layer and the engravng structure of the alumnum fol consttutng the anode, capactance values for ths type of capactors can be very hgh. The alumnum oxde, consttutng the delectrc, s formed by electrolyss on the anode durng manufacturng processes. The electrolyte mbbng the paper has two man functons, t wll, n the frst hand, ensure electrc conducton between the alumnum fol (brought to the negatve potental) and the alumnum oxde, and on the other hand, t wll regenerate the ntegrty of alumnum oxde n case of default. 2.2 Metallzed polypropylene flms capactors Capactors usng a plastc flm as delectrc are wdespread and ther characterstcs depend on the materal that has been used. Plastc flms are themselves coated wth znc or alumnum of a few nanometers thckness to consttute the electrode (see Fgure 1 (b)). Metallzed flms are then wrapped together on a cylndrcal nsulated base called mandrel. To assure connectons wth an external crcut, a sprayed metal technque known as Schoopage s used on both sdes of the wndng. Metallzed flms capactors have been used snce the 195 s (Torta et al., 24) and were coveted for ther abltes of selfhealng; defects such as pnholes, embedded foregn partcles or even mcroflaws n the delectrc materal can lead to a localzed breakdown of the flm. Such a breakdown event results from a sudden and localzed dscharge of a porton of the stored charge under the nfluence of temperature and pressure. Durng ths ntense dscharge, a puncture s developed n the delectrc materal and the thn metallzaton layer near the defected ste wll be rapdly vaporzed and blown away and the ste becomes electrcally solated. Thus, metallzed flm capactors can undergo a large number of breakdowns wth as only vsble mpact a slght drft of ts electrcal parameters. Unlke electrolytc capactors, plastc flms capactors do not requre a gven polarzaton and behave well under hgh current and voltage condtons (lhussen et al., 23). Metallzed flms capactors are a very nterestng alternatve to electrolytc capactors (Buatt et al., 21) and present hgher relablty, hgher RMS currents and small capactance change regardless of the appled voltage. 2.3 quvalent electrcal crcut All real components ncludng capactors have parastc parameters not taken nto account n deal models. These factors can have a major mpact on electrcal behavour wthn a crcut. A model whch s smple and takes nto account parastc parameters nvolved s showed n Fgure
3 SR SL C Fgure 2: Smplfed electrcal model of C and MPPF capactors SR s the quvalent Seral Resstance takng nto account all losses n the component; SL represents the equvalent seral nductance due to the capactors wndngs and electrodes, whle C s the nomnal capactance of the capactor. 3. Mode and falure rates of capactors 3.1 Falure mode Falures are classfed nto two man parts, parametrc and catastrophc modes:  Parametrc falures, e.g. devces degradaton are defned as the change of the component characterstcs whch drfts out of ts specfc tolerances. The most current degradatons of capactors are the ncrease of the equvalent seres resstance SR or of the loss factor tanδ and the decrease n the capactance C.  Catalectc or catastrophc falures represent sudden falures correspondng to the dsappearance of the component functon. They are most often charactersed by a short or open crcut of the capactor. 3.2 Falure rate The falure rate λ(t) s the condtonal falure probablty of a component by unt of tme; t gves an ndcaton on the rsks for a devce to breakdown durng a tme nterval ]t, t+δt] when Δt tends to zero and by consderng that ths devce lasted untl tme t. The falure rate λ(t) s expressed n 16 /hour or 19 /hour (mpled: falure/1 6 h or falure/1 9 h) or n FIT (Falure In Tme wth 1 FIT = 1 falure/1 9 h). The falure rate λ(t) follows for many components the bathtub curve represented n Fgure 3. λ(t) t a t b t Fgure 2: Falure rate λ(t) as a functon of tme As t can be seen, the curve can be dvded nto three parts: The early falure perod (t t a ), whch s due to the youth defects of capactors, durng ths phase the falure rate λ(t) decreases; The ntermedary perod (t ]t a, t b [), where the falure rate s approxmately constant, t corresponds to the normal lfetme perod; The wear out perod (t t b ) where the falure rate λ(t) ncreases drastcally. In ths perod, the falures take a systematc character. Generally, they correspond to the falures by degradaton. 4. Accelerated Ageng tests Accelerated ageng tests methods are often used as a way to assess the effects of the degradaton process through tme. Montorng and analyzng the degradaton of these test components provdes nformaton on ther behavour under specfc stresses and allows the dentfcaton of dfferent falure mechansms. These nformaton can also be used as a way to retroact on the concepton of the component and thus to mprove ts relablty (lhussen et al., 23). Very often, for energy storage devces ncludng capactors, t s well recognzed that falure process s equvalent to a chemcal reacton. Its rate constant, accordng to Arrhenus law, s functon of the absolute temperature T (Lahyan et al., 1998). The typcal falure mode of capactors lays on the gradual ncrease of the capactor quvalent Seres Resstance (SR) and a decrease of ts man capactance C; a capactor s consdered at ts end of lfe when SR 117
4 becomes at least two tmes hgher than ts ntal value and/or when ts capactance C decreases of 2 % from ts orgnal value. Montorng the evoluton of these parameters through tme s of a major mportance and wll serve us as database to track the capactors ageng. 4.1 Ageng of alumnum electrolytc capactors As mentoned prevously, accelerated ageng tests allow studyng C and SR evoluton as functon of tme. For a 1 μf, 4 V alumnum electrolytc capactor, floatng ageng test at 85 C and 4 V was realzed. It conssts on applyng constant voltages and temperatures across the component termnals. Fgure 4 represents the nterpolated and extrapolated data wth the use of expermental measurements for SR and C parameters (Abdennadher et al., 21). xpermental measurements Interpolaton and extrapolaton xpermental measurements Interpolaton and extrapolaton SR ( ) C (Farad) Tme (hours) Tme (hours) Fgure 3: voluton of SR and C as functon of ageng tme for an electrolytc capactor (1μF / 4 V) These evolutons are manly due to the ageng of the electrolyte. In fact, lke all components based on lqud electrolyte, alumnum electrolytc capactor present a wear out perod, when t t b (see Fgure 3), falure occurs snce t becomes nevtable. As t can be seen from Fgure 4, the equvalent seres resstance SR s the parameter whch s the most affected by the component ageng. It manly depends on the resstance of the electrolyte mbbng the papers; when the electrolyte evaporates, the equvalent surface of ths latter decreases, leadng to an ncrease of SR and a decrease of C. It s of nterest to note that SR and C varaton as a functon of tme depends on the electrolyte type, on the component package and more partcularly on ts watertghtness. Several models descrbe SR and C evolutons as a functon of ageng tme. For example, for C, a lnear model can descrbe ts decrease versus ageng tme. Whle for SR more precse models descrbe these varatons accordng to exponental laws (Persse, 23). 4.2 Ageng of metallzed polypropylene flms capactors Snce most of the research done n the feld of ageng laws of capactors deals wth the electrolytc type, we wll focus n ths secton on the dentfcaton of MPPF capactors ageng law. It s based on the analyse of the degradaton of the capactors parameters over the ageng tme; wth respect to Fgure 3, we wll be n ths case n the thrd zone of the bathtub. Although Arrhenus model gves a good approxmaton of the operatng lfe of a component, t s lmted to a temperature effect. In fact, durng ther operaton, capactors are not only subjected to temperature stresses but also to crtcal operatng condtons such as voltages and currents that may affect ther lfetme. In order to mprove the knowledge of the ageng law of MPPF capactors, a more sophstcated one must be establshed. yrng theory generalzes Arrhenus law to many factors besdes the temperature (ndcott et al., 1965). quaton (1) descrbes yrng law when two supplementary stresses are consdered: α C a τ ( T,S,S ) = A T.exp( + ( B + ).S + ( D + ).S ) (1) f _ yrng kt T T Where, τ f_yrng s the useful lfe of the component (s), T the temperature stress n Kelvn (K), a the actvaton energy (ev), k Boltzmann constant ( ev.k 1 ), S 1 and S 2 are the supplementary consdered stresses, A, B, C, D, and are dfferent constants. By consderng the DC voltage as the only supplementary stress for our tests, q (1) can be smplfed as shown n equaton (2): 118
5 τ yrng ( θ,u θ U ) = τ.exp( θ U ) (2) Where, τ yrng represent the useful lfe of a component at a gven temperature (ºC) and a gven voltage U ; and U are respectvely the acceleratng coeffcents of the temperature and voltage, whle τ s the theoretcal useful lfe of the component at ºC and V. In order to determne τ, and U, three floatng ageng tests, have been acheved respectvely on a set of ten metallzed polypropylene flms capactors (1μF63V). The realzed accelerated tests are lsted below:  Floatng ageng 1: at 85 ºC 692 V  Floatng ageng 2: at 1 ºC 692 V  Floatng ageng 3: at 85 ºC 82 V Ths method s used to quantfy both temperature and voltage effects on the ageng of capactors. From the floatng ageng tests 1 and 3 we would be able to determne U, whereas from the floatng ageng tests 1 and 2, can be dentfed. Fgure 5 represent the evolutons of SR and C of MPPF capactors as functon of ageng tme when subjected to dfferent stresses. ΔSR/SR(%) Floatng ageng 85ºC 693V Floatng ageng 1ºC 693V Floatng ageng 85ºC 82V Lnearzaton and extrapolaton of the measurements ΔC/C(%) Floatng ageng 85ºC 693V Floatng ageng 1ºC 693V Floatng ageng 85ºC 82V Lnearzaton and extrapolaton of the measurements Tme (hours) Tme (hours) Fgure 4: SR and C evoluton as functon of ageng tme for MPPF capactors These evolutons are manly due to the selfhealng capabltes of MPPF capactors; when the metallzaton evaporates, the equvalent surface area of ths latter decreases, whch leads to an ncrease of SR and a slght decrease of C. Wth respect to the expermental plots shown n Fgure 5, τ, and U can be dentfed by extrapolaton of the measurements. By consderng an ncrease of SR of 1 % we can note 5 % reducton of the lfetme o MPPF capactors for an ncrease of 1 ºC or an ncrease of 17 V on the appled voltage (U = 245 V; = 14.4 ºC). Assumng ths trend fathful, we can establsh an expectaton lfetme of MPPF capactors n functon of voltage and temperature as shown n Fgure 6. xpectng lfetme (days) T= C T=2 C T=4 C T=6 C T=8 C T=1 C Voltage (V) Fgure 5: xpectng useful lfe of MPPF capactors as functon of temperature and DC voltage stresses 119
6 5. Health montorng of capactors Snce the drfts of the dfferent parameters are known and can be expressed as equatons, predctve mantenance systems can be elaborated (Abdennadher et al., 21). Some authors propose an ndvdual supervson of the capactors: by measurng ther mpedance near the resonance frequency, the equvalent seres resstance SR can be determned whlst functonng and compared to that of a healthy component. An example of such smart devce s gven on Fgure 7 (Venet et al., 22).The actual value of the SR s computed from the current flowng n the capactor and the voltage rpple. It s compared to the value of SR for a healthy capactor at the measured case temperature T c of the component. If the dfference s too hgh, a sgnal ndcates that the capactor s near ts endoflfe and should be replaced. Fgure 6: Smart electrolytc capactor 6. Concluson Ths paper presents a montorng approach for the capactor s electrcal parameters n functon of the ageng tme for both electrolytc and MPPF capactors. Furthermore, MPPF capactors ageng laws were dentfed usng yrng law as functon of the appled DC voltage and temperature. Ths latter can be mplemented n an algorthm allowng us to perform a predctve mantenance on the test capactors. However, snce DClnk capactors are subjected to gradents of temperature due to the electrcal stresses encountered durng ther normal operaton of the component, mprovements n yrng law should be made n order to take nto account the mpact of RMS current on the capactor ageng. References Abdennadher K., Venet P., Rojat G., Retf J.M., Rosset C., 21, A RealTme PredctveMantenance System of Alumnum lectrolytc Capactors Used n Unnterrupted Power Supples. Industry Applcatons, I Transactons on, 46, Buatt G.M., MartnRamos J. A., Garca C.H.R., Amaral A.M.R., Cardoso A.J.M., 21, An Onlne and Nonnvasve Technque for the Condton Montorng of Capactors n Boost Converters. Instrumentaton and Measurement, I Transactons on, 59, lhussen M.H., Venet P., AlMajd A., Fathallah M., Rojat G., Ferrera J.A., 23, Manufacturng technology effect on current pulse handlng performance of metallzed polypropylene flm capactors. Journal of Physcs D: Appled Physcs, 36, ndcott H., Hatch B., Sohmer R., 1965, Applcaton of the yrng Model to Capactor Agng Data. Component Parts, I Transactons on, 12, Joubert C., Rojat G., Venet P., 27, Capactors: revstng a classcal technology to face new challenges. 2nd edton of the nternatonal conference Automotve Power lectroncs, Pars. Lahyan A., Venet P., Grellet G., Vverge P.J., 1998, Falure predcton of electrolytc capactors durng operaton of a swtchmode power supply. Power lectroncs, I Transactons on, 13, MartnezVega J., 21, Delectrc Materals for lectrcal ngneerng. John Wley & Sons Inc, Chapter 18 lectrolytc capactors, P. Venet, Persse F., 23, tude et analyse des modes de défallances des condensateurs électrolytques à l alumnum et des thyrstors, applquées au système de protecton du LHC (Large Hardon Collder). Thess Unversty of Lyon. Torta J.H., Bonfac N., Denat A., 24, Dagnostc of the selfhealng of metallzed polypropylene flm by modelng of the broadenng emsson lnes of alumnum emtted by plasma dscharge. Journal of Appled Physcs. Venet P., Lahyan A., Grellet G., AhJaco A., 1999, Influence of agng on electrolytc capactors functon n statc converters: Fault predcton method. The uropean Physcal Journal  Appled Physcs, 5, Venet P., Persse F., lhussen M.H., Rojat G., 22, Realzaton of a smart electrolytc capactor crcut. Industry Applcatons Magazne, I, 8,
RELIABILITY, RISK AND AVAILABILITY ANLYSIS OF A CONTAINER GANTRY CRANE ABSTRACT
Kolowrock Krzysztof Joanna oszynska MODELLING ENVIRONMENT AND INFRATRUCTURE INFLUENCE ON RELIABILITY AND OPERATION RT&A # () (Vol.) March RELIABILITY RIK AND AVAILABILITY ANLYI OF A CONTAINER GANTRY CRANE
More informationCalculating the high frequency transmission line parameters of power cables
< ' Calculatng the hgh frequency transmsson lne parameters of power cables Authors: Dr. John Dcknson, Laboratory Servces Manager, N 0 RW E B Communcatons Mr. Peter J. Ncholson, Project Assgnment Manager,
More informationOnLine Fault Detection in Wind Turbine Transmission System using Adaptive Filter and Robust Statistical Features
OnLne Fault Detecton n Wnd Turbne Transmsson System usng Adaptve Flter and Robust Statstcal Features Ruoyu L Remote Dagnostcs Center SKF USA Inc. 3443 N. Sam Houston Pkwy., Houston TX 77086 Emal: ruoyu.l@skf.com
More informationModule 2 LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur
Module LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Lesson 3 Lossless Compresson: Huffman Codng Instructonal Objectves At the end of ths lesson, the students should be able to:. Defne and measure source entropy..
More informationAn Alternative Way to Measure Private Equity Performance
An Alternatve Way to Measure Prvate Equty Performance Peter Todd Parlux Investment Technology LLC Summary Internal Rate of Return (IRR) s probably the most common way to measure the performance of prvate
More informationInterleaved Power Factor Correction (IPFC)
Interleaved Power Factor Correcton (IPFC) 2009 Mcrochp Technology Incorporated. All Rghts Reserved. Interleaved Power Factor Correcton Slde 1 Welcome to the Interleaved Power Factor Correcton Reference
More informationbenefit is 2, paid if the policyholder dies within the year, and probability of death within the year is ).
REVIEW OF RISK MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS LOSS DISTRIBUTIONS AND INSURANCE Loss and nsurance: When someone s subject to the rsk of ncurrng a fnancal loss, the loss s generally modeled usng a random varable or
More informationCity Research Online. Permanent City Research Online URL: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/1356/
Cooper, E. S., Dssado, L. A. & Fothergll, J. (2005). Applcaton of thermoelectrc agng models to polymerc nsulaton n cable geometry. IEEE Transactons on Delectrcs and Electrcal Insulaton, 12(1), pp. 110.
More informationThe circuit shown on Figure 1 is called the common emitter amplifier circuit. The important subsystems of this circuit are:
polar Juncton Transstor rcuts Voltage and Power Amplfer rcuts ommon mtter Amplfer The crcut shown on Fgure 1 s called the common emtter amplfer crcut. The mportant subsystems of ths crcut are: 1. The basng
More informationThe OC Curve of Attribute Acceptance Plans
The OC Curve of Attrbute Acceptance Plans The Operatng Characterstc (OC) curve descrbes the probablty of acceptng a lot as a functon of the lot s qualty. Fgure 1 shows a typcal OC Curve. 10 8 6 4 1 3 4
More informationTime Domain simulation of PD Propagation in XLPE Cables Considering Frequency Dependent Parameters
Internatonal Journal of Smart Grd and Clean Energy Tme Doman smulaton of PD Propagaton n XLPE Cables Consderng Frequency Dependent Parameters We Zhang a, Jan He b, Ln Tan b, Xuejun Lv b, HongJe L a *
More informationSafety instructions VEGAVIB VB6*.GI*******
Safety nstructons VEGAVIB VB6*.GI******* Kosha 14AV4BO0107 Ex td A20, A20/21, A21 IP66 T** 0044 Document ID: 48578 Contents 1 Area of applcablty... 3 2 General nformaton... 3 3 Techncal data... 3 4 Applcaton
More informationDamage detection in composite laminates using cointap method
Damage detecton n composte lamnates usng contap method S.J. Km Korea Aerospace Research Insttute, 45 EoeunDong, YouseongGu, 35333 Daejeon, Republc of Korea yaeln@kar.re.kr 45 The contap test has the
More informationDEFINING %COMPLETE IN MICROSOFT PROJECT
CelersSystems DEFINING %COMPLETE IN MICROSOFT PROJECT PREPARED BY James E Aksel, PMP, PMISP, MVP For Addtonal Informaton about Earned Value Management Systems and reportng, please contact: CelersSystems,
More informationPassive Filters. References: Barbow (pp 265275), Hayes & Horowitz (pp 3260), Rizzoni (Chap. 6)
Passve Flters eferences: Barbow (pp 6575), Hayes & Horowtz (pp 360), zzon (Chap. 6) Frequencyselectve or flter crcuts pass to the output only those nput sgnals that are n a desred range of frequences (called
More informationIMPACT ANALYSIS OF A CELLULAR PHONE
4 th ASA & μeta Internatonal Conference IMPACT AALYSIS OF A CELLULAR PHOE We Lu, 2 Hongy L Bejng FEAonlne Engneerng Co.,Ltd. Bejng, Chna ABSTRACT Drop test smulaton plays an mportant role n nvestgatng
More information7.5. Present Value of an Annuity. Investigate
7.5 Present Value of an Annuty Owen and Anna are approachng retrement and are puttng ther fnances n order. They have worked hard and nvested ther earnngs so that they now have a large amount of money on
More informationForecasting the Direction and Strength of Stock Market Movement
Forecastng the Drecton and Strength of Stock Market Movement Jngwe Chen Mng Chen Nan Ye cjngwe@stanford.edu mchen5@stanford.edu nanye@stanford.edu Abstract  Stock market s one of the most complcated systems
More informationAPPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT
APPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT Toshhko Oda (1), Kochro Iwaoka (2) (1), (2) Infrastructure Systems Busness Unt, Panasonc System Networks Co., Ltd. Saedocho
More information1 Battery Technology and Markets, Spring 2010 26 January 2010 Lecture 1: Introduction to Electrochemistry
1 Battery Technology and Markets, Sprng 2010 Lecture 1: Introducton to Electrochemstry 1. Defnton of battery 2. Energy storage devce: voltage and capacty 3. Descrpton of electrochemcal cell and standard
More informationViscosity of Solutions of Macromolecules
Vscosty of Solutons of Macromolecules When a lqud flows, whether through a tube or as the result of pourng from a vessel, layers of lqud slde over each other. The force f requred s drectly proportonal
More information"Research Note" APPLICATION OF CHARGE SIMULATION METHOD TO ELECTRIC FIELD CALCULATION IN THE POWER CABLES *
Iranan Journal of Scence & Technology, Transacton B, Engneerng, ol. 30, No. B6, 789794 rnted n The Islamc Republc of Iran, 006 Shraz Unversty "Research Note" ALICATION OF CHARGE SIMULATION METHOD TO ELECTRIC
More informationThe Development of Web Log Mining Based on ImproveKMeans Clustering Analysis
The Development of Web Log Mnng Based on ImproveKMeans Clusterng Analyss TngZhong Wang * College of Informaton Technology, Luoyang Normal Unversty, Luoyang, 471022, Chna wangtngzhong2@sna.cn Abstract.
More informationTrafficlight a stress test for life insurance provisions
MEMORANDUM Date 006097 Authors Bengt von Bahr, Göran Ronge Traffclght a stress test for lfe nsurance provsons Fnansnspetonen P.O. Box 6750 SE113 85 Stocholm [Sveavägen 167] Tel +46 8 787 80 00 Fax
More informationINVESTIGATION OF VEHICULAR USERS FAIRNESS IN CDMAHDR NETWORKS
21 22 September 2007, BULGARIA 119 Proceedngs of the Internatonal Conference on Informaton Technologes (InfoTech2007) 21 st 22 nd September 2007, Bulgara vol. 2 INVESTIGATION OF VEHICULAR USERS FAIRNESS
More informationLithiumion Rechargeable Battery
L  o n Lon Secondary Battery Lthumon Rechargeable Battery LITHIUMION RECHARGEABLE BATTERY Notes for Desgners Select the correct type of battery to match the operatng condtons such as load current,
More informationEfficient Project Portfolio as a tool for Enterprise Risk Management
Effcent Proect Portfolo as a tool for Enterprse Rsk Management Valentn O. Nkonov Ural State Techncal Unversty Growth Traectory Consultng Company January 5, 27 Effcent Proect Portfolo as a tool for Enterprse
More informationStudy on Model of Risks Assessment of Standard Operation in Rural Power Network
Study on Model of Rsks Assessment of Standard Operaton n Rural Power Network Qngj L 1, Tao Yang 2 1 Qngj L, College of Informaton and Electrcal Engneerng, Shenyang Agrculture Unversty, Shenyang 110866,
More informationAn InterestOriented Network Evolution Mechanism for Online Communities
An InterestOrented Network Evoluton Mechansm for Onlne Communtes Cahong Sun and Xaopng Yang School of Informaton, Renmn Unversty of Chna, Bejng 100872, P.R. Chna {chsun,yang}@ruc.edu.cn Abstract. Onlne
More informationInstitute of Informatics, Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology,Czech Republic
Lagrange Multplers as Quanttatve Indcators n Economcs Ivan Mezník Insttute of Informatcs, Faculty of Busness and Management, Brno Unversty of TechnologCzech Republc Abstract The quanttatve role of Lagrange
More informationFORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER
FORCED CONVECION HEA RANSFER IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEA EXCHANGER Dr. J. Mchael Doster Department of Nuclear Engneerng Box 7909 North Carolna State Unversty Ralegh, NC 276957909 Introducton he convectve heat
More informationOn the Optimal Control of a Cascade of HydroElectric Power Stations
On the Optmal Control of a Cascade of HydroElectrc Power Statons M.C.M. Guedes a, A.F. Rbero a, G.V. Smrnov b and S. Vlela c a Department of Mathematcs, School of Scences, Unversty of Porto, Portugal;
More informationComparative Study on Space Qualified Paints Used for Thermal Control of a Small Satellite
Iranan Journal of Chemcal Engneerng Vol. 6, No. 2 (Sprng), 2009, IAChE Comparatve Study on Space Qualfed Pants Used for Thermal Control of a Small Satellte A. Anvar, F. Farhan, K.S. Nak Department of Mechancal
More informationStudy on CET4 Marks in China s Graded English Teaching
Study on CET4 Marks n Chna s Graded Englsh Teachng CHE We College of Foregn Studes, Shandong Insttute of Busness and Technology, P.R.Chna, 264005 Abstract: Ths paper deploys Logt model, and decomposes
More informationAn Enhanced SuperResolution System with Improved Image Registration, Automatic Image Selection, and Image Enhancement
An Enhanced SuperResoluton System wth Improved Image Regstraton, Automatc Image Selecton, and Image Enhancement YuChuan Kuo ( ), ChenYu Chen ( ), and ChouShann Fuh ( ) Department of Computer Scence
More informationGRAVITY DATA VALIDATION AND OUTLIER DETECTION USING L 1 NORM
GRAVITY DATA VALIDATION AND OUTLIER DETECTION USING L 1 NORM BARRIOT JeanPerre, SARRAILH Mchel BGI/CNES 18.av.E.Beln 31401 TOULOUSE Cedex 4 (France) Emal: jeanperre.barrot@cnes.fr 1/Introducton The
More informationLinear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits
Lnear Crcuts Analyss. Superposton, Theenn /Norton Equalent crcuts So far we hae explored tmendependent (resste) elements that are also lnear. A tmendependent elements s one for whch we can plot an / cure.
More informationCourse outline. Financial Time Series Analysis. Overview. Data analysis. Predictive signal. Trading strategy
Fnancal Tme Seres Analyss Patrck McSharry patrck@mcsharry.net www.mcsharry.net Trnty Term 2014 Mathematcal Insttute Unversty of Oxford Course outlne 1. Data analyss, probablty, correlatons, vsualsaton
More information1E6 Electrical Engineering AC Circuit Analysis and Power Lecture 12: Parallel Resonant Circuits
E6 Electrcal Engneerng A rcut Analyss and Power ecture : Parallel esonant rcuts. Introducton There are equvalent crcuts to the seres combnatons examned whch exst n parallel confguratons. The ssues surroundng
More informationAn Isolated Feedback Circuit for a Flyback Charging Circuit
Proceedngs of the 007 WSEAS Int. Conference on Crcuts, Systems, Sgnal and Telecommuncatons, Gold Coast, Australa, January 1719, 007 35 An Isolated Feedback Crcut for a Flyback Chargng Crcut LI JIE, HUAG
More informationStatistical Methods to Develop Rating Models
Statstcal Methods to Develop Ratng Models [Evelyn Hayden and Danel Porath, Österrechsche Natonalbank and Unversty of Appled Scences at Manz] Source: The Basel II Rsk Parameters Estmaton, Valdaton, and
More informationMultiplePeriod Attribution: Residuals and Compounding
MultplePerod Attrbuton: Resduals and Compoundng Our revewer gave these authors full marks for dealng wth an ssue that performance measurers and vendors often regard as propretary nformaton. In 1994, Dens
More informationA DYNAMIC CRASHING METHOD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATIONBASED OPTIMIZATION. Michael E. Kuhl Radhamés A. TolentinoPeña
Proceedngs of the 2008 Wnter Smulaton Conference S. J. Mason, R. R. Hll, L. Mönch, O. Rose, T. Jefferson, J. W. Fowler eds. A DYNAMIC CRASHING METHOD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATIONBASED OPTIMIZATION
More informationFrequency Selective IQ Phase and IQ Amplitude Imbalance Adjustments for OFDM Direct Conversion Transmitters
Frequency Selectve IQ Phase and IQ Ampltude Imbalance Adjustments for OFDM Drect Converson ransmtters Edmund Coersmeer, Ernst Zelnsk Noka, Meesmannstrasse 103, 44807 Bochum, Germany edmund.coersmeer@noka.com,
More informationRecurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements
Recurrence 1 Defntons and man statements Let X n, n = 0, 1, 2,... be a MC wth the state space S = (1, 2,...), transton probabltes p j = P {X n+1 = j X n = }, and the transton matrx P = (p j ),j S def.
More informationAnswer: A). There is a flatter IS curve in the high MPC economy. Original LM LM after increase in M. IS curve for low MPC economy
4.02 Quz Solutons Fall 2004 MultpleChoce Questons (30/00 ponts) Please, crcle the correct answer for each of the followng 0 multplechoce questons. For each queston, only one of the answers s correct.
More informationComparison of Control Strategies for Shunt Active Power Filter under Different Load Conditions
Comparson of Control Strateges for Shunt Actve Power Flter under Dfferent Load Condtons Sanjay C. Patel 1, Tushar A. Patel 2 Lecturer, Electrcal Department, Government Polytechnc, alsad, Gujarat, Inda
More informationAnalysis of Premium Liabilities for Australian Lines of Business
Summary of Analyss of Premum Labltes for Australan Lnes of Busness Emly Tao Honours Research Paper, The Unversty of Melbourne Emly Tao Acknowledgements I am grateful to the Australan Prudental Regulaton
More informationA Design Method of Highavailability and Lowopticalloss Optical Aggregation Network Architecture
A Desgn Method of Hghavalablty and Lowoptcalloss Optcal Aggregaton Network Archtecture Takehro Sato, Kuntaka Ashzawa, Kazumasa Tokuhash, Dasuke Ish, Satoru Okamoto and Naoak Yamanaka Dept. of Informaton
More informationThe Effect of Mean Stress on Damage Predictions for Spectral Loading of Fiberglass Composite Coupons 1
EWEA, Specal Topc Conference 24: The Scence of Makng Torque from the Wnd, Delft, Aprl 92, 24, pp. 546555. The Effect of Mean Stress on Damage Predctons for Spectral Loadng of Fberglass Composte Coupons
More informationWhat is Candidate Sampling
What s Canddate Samplng Say we have a multclass or mult label problem where each tranng example ( x, T ) conssts of a context x a small (mult)set of target classes T out of a large unverse L of possble
More informationVRT012 User s guide V0.1. Address: Žirmūnų g. 27, Vilnius LT09105, Phone: (3705) 2127472, Fax: (3705) 276 1380, Email: info@teltonika.
VRT012 User s gude V0.1 Thank you for purchasng our product. We hope ths userfrendly devce wll be helpful n realsng your deas and brngng comfort to your lfe. Please take few mnutes to read ths manual
More informationForecasting the Demand of Emergency Supplies: Based on the CBR Theory and BP Neural Network
700 Proceedngs of the 8th Internatonal Conference on Innovaton & Management Forecastng the Demand of Emergency Supples: Based on the CBR Theory and BP Neural Network Fu Deqang, Lu Yun, L Changbng School
More informationRESEARCH ON DUALSHAKER SINE VIBRATION CONTROL. Yaoqi FENG 1, Hanping QIU 1. China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) yaoqi.feng@yahoo.
ICSV4 Carns Australa 9 July, 007 RESEARCH ON DUALSHAKER SINE VIBRATION CONTROL Yaoq FENG, Hanpng QIU Dynamc Test Laboratory, BISEE Chna Academy of Space Technology (CAST) yaoq.feng@yahoo.com Abstract
More informationEE201 Circuit Theory I 2015 Spring. Dr. Yılmaz KALKAN
EE201 Crcut Theory I 2015 Sprng Dr. Yılmaz KALKAN 1. Basc Concepts (Chapter 1 of Nlsson  3 Hrs.) Introducton, Current and Voltage, Power and Energy 2. Basc Laws (Chapter 2&3 of Nlsson  6 Hrs.) Voltage
More informationJoe Pimbley, unpublished, 2005. Yield Curve Calculations
Joe Pmbley, unpublshed, 005. Yeld Curve Calculatons Background: Everythng s dscount factors Yeld curve calculatons nclude valuaton of forward rate agreements (FRAs), swaps, nterest rate optons, and forward
More informationResearch of Network System Reconfigurable Model Based on the Finite State Automation
JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL., NO. 5, MAY 24 237 Research of Network System Reconfgurable Model Based on the Fnte State Automaton Shenghan Zhou and Wenbng Chang School of Relablty and System Engneerng, Behang
More informationChapter 6 Inductance, Capacitance, and Mutual Inductance
Chapter 6 Inductance Capactance and Mutual Inductance 6. The nductor 6. The capactor 6.3 Seresparallel combnatons of nductance and capactance 6.4 Mutual nductance 6.5 Closer look at mutual nductance Oerew
More informationWorld Economic Vulnerability Monitor (WEVUM) Trade shock analysis
World Economc Vulnerablty Montor (WEVUM) Trade shock analyss Measurng the mpact of the global shocks on trade balances va prce and demand effects Alex Izureta and Rob Vos UN DESA 1. Nontechncal descrpton
More informationTraffic State Estimation in the Traffic Management Center of Berlin
Traffc State Estmaton n the Traffc Management Center of Berln Authors: Peter Vortsch, PTV AG, Stumpfstrasse, D763 Karlsruhe, Germany phone ++49/72/965/35, emal peter.vortsch@ptv.de Peter Möhl, PTV AG,
More informationAN ONLINE SIMULATION TO LINK ASSET CONDITION MONITORING AND OPERATIONS DECISIONS IN THROUGHLIFE ENGINEERING SERVICES. Evandro Leonardo Silva Teixeira
Proceedngs of the 03 Wnter Smulaton Conference R. Pasupathy, S.H. Km, A. Tolk, R. Hll, and M. E. Kuhl, eds AN ONLINE SIMULATION TO LINK ASSET CONDITION MONITORING AND OPERATIONS DECISIONS IN THROUGHLIFE
More informationMinimal Coding Network With Combinatorial Structure For Instantaneous Recovery From Edge Failures
Mnmal Codng Network Wth Combnatoral Structure For Instantaneous Recovery From Edge Falures Ashly Joseph 1, Mr.M.Sadsh Sendl 2, Dr.S.Karthk 3 1 Fnal Year ME CSE Student Department of Computer Scence Engneerng
More informationSUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW.
SUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW. Lucía Isabel García Cebrán Departamento de Economía y Dreccón de Empresas Unversdad de Zaragoza Gran Vía, 2 50.005 Zaragoza (Span) Phone: 976761000
More informationAN APPOINTMENT ORDER OUTPATIENT SCHEDULING SYSTEM THAT IMPROVES OUTPATIENT EXPERIENCE
AN APPOINTMENT ORDER OUTPATIENT SCHEDULING SYSTEM THAT IMPROVES OUTPATIENT EXPERIENCE YuL Huang Industral Engneerng Department New Mexco State Unversty Las Cruces, New Mexco 88003, U.S.A. Abstract Patent
More informationLIFETIME INCOME OPTIONS
LIFETIME INCOME OPTIONS May 2011 by: Marca S. Wagner, Esq. The Wagner Law Group A Professonal Corporaton 99 Summer Street, 13 th Floor Boston, MA 02110 Tel: (617) 3575200 Fax: (617) 3575250 www.ersalawyers.com
More informationFuzzy Set Approach To Asymmetrical Load Balancing In Distribution Networks
Fuzzy Set Approach To Asymmetrcal Load Balancng n Dstrbuton Networks Goran Majstrovc Energy nsttute Hrvoje Por Zagreb, Croata goran.majstrovc@ehp.hr Slavko Krajcar Faculty of electrcal engneerng and computng
More informationLaddered Multilevel DC/AC Inverters used in Solar Panel Energy Systems
Proceedngs of the nd Internatonal Conference on Computer Scence and Electroncs Engneerng (ICCSEE 03) Laddered Multlevel DC/AC Inverters used n Solar Panel Energy Systems Fang Ln Luo, Senor Member IEEE
More information8.5 UNITARY AND HERMITIAN MATRICES. The conjugate transpose of a complex matrix A, denoted by A*, is given by
6 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES 5. Fnd the kernel of the lnear transformaton gven n Exercse 5. In Exercses 55 and 56, fnd the mage of v, for the ndcated composton, where and are gven by the followng
More informationNumber of Levels Cumulative Annual operating Income per year construction costs costs ($) ($) ($) 1 600,000 35,000 100,000 2 2,200,000 60,000 350,000
Problem Set 5 Solutons 1 MIT s consderng buldng a new car park near Kendall Square. o unversty funds are avalable (overhead rates are under pressure and the new faclty would have to pay for tself from
More informationVoIP Playout Buffer Adjustment using Adaptive Estimation of Network Delays
VoIP Playout Buffer Adjustment usng Adaptve Estmaton of Network Delays Mroslaw Narbutt and Lam Murphy* Department of Computer Scence Unversty College Dubln, Belfeld, Dubln, IRELAND Abstract The poor qualty
More informationUltranarrow Bandpass filters for infrared applications with improved angle of incidence performance
Ultranarrow Bandpass flters for nfrared applcatons wth mproved angle of ncdence performance Thomas D. Rahmlow, Jr., Markus Fredell, Sheetal Chanda, Robert Johnson, Jr. Omega Optcal nc. 2 Omega Drve, Brattleboro,
More informationAn Evaluation of the Extended Logistic, Simple Logistic, and Gompertz Models for Forecasting Short Lifecycle Products and Services
An Evaluaton of the Extended Logstc, Smple Logstc, and Gompertz Models for Forecastng Short Lfecycle Products and Servces Charles V. Trappey a,1, Hsnyng Wu b a Professor (Management Scence), Natonal Chao
More informationLecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuity
Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty Goals: Study contnuous compoundng and force of nterest Dscuss real nterest rate Learn annutymmedate, and ts present value Study annutydue, and
More informationSPECIALIZED DAY TRADING  A NEW VIEW ON AN OLD GAME
August 7  August 12, 2006 n BadenBaden, Germany SPECIALIZED DAY TRADING  A NEW VIEW ON AN OLD GAME Vladmr Šmovć 1, and Vladmr Šmovć 2, PhD 1 Faculty of Electrcal Engneerng and Computng, Unska 3, 10000
More informationRequIn, a tool for fast web traffic inference
RequIn, a tool for fast web traffc nference Olver aul, Jean Etenne Kba GET/INT, LOR Department 9 rue Charles Fourer 90 Evry, France Olver.aul@ntevry.fr, JeanEtenne.Kba@ntevry.fr Abstract As networked
More informationBERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS
OnLne Geometrc Modelng Notes BERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS Kenneth I. Joy Vsualzaton and Graphcs Research Group Department of Computer Scence Unversty of Calforna, Davs Overvew Polynomals are ncredbly useful
More informationECONOMICS OF PLANT ENERGY SAVINGS PROJECTS IN A CHANGING MARKET Douglas C White Emerson Process Management
ECONOMICS OF PLANT ENERGY SAVINGS PROJECTS IN A CHANGING MARKET Douglas C Whte Emerson Process Management Abstract Energy prces have exhbted sgnfcant volatlty n recent years. For example, natural gas prces
More informationCommunication Networks II Contents
8 / 1  Communcaton Networs II (Görg)  www.comnets.unbremen.de Communcaton Networs II Contents 1 Fundamentals of probablty theory 2 Traffc n communcaton networs 3 Stochastc & Marovan Processes (SP
More informationChapter 31B  Transient Currents and Inductance
Chapter 31B  Transent Currents and Inductance A PowerPont Presentaton by Paul E. Tppens, Professor of Physcs Southern Polytechnc State Unversty 007 Objectves: After completng ths module, you should be
More informationPublished: 20030101. Link to publication
A Thermodesorber for Onlne studes of Combuston Aerosols  Influence of partcle dameter, resdence tme and mass concentraton Dahl, Andreas; Pagels, Joakm Publshed: 20030101 Lnk to publcaton Ctaton for
More informationTransients Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Component for Fault Diagnosis
A publcaton of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 33, 213 Guest Edtors: Enrco Zo, Pero Barald Copyrght 213, AIDIC Servz S.r.l., ISBN 978889568242; ISSN 19749791 The Italan Assocaton of Chemcal
More informationA practical approach to combine data mining and prognostics for improved predictive maintenance
A practcal approach to combne data mnng and prognostcs for mproved predctve mantenance Abdellatf Bey Temsaman +32 (0) 16328047 abdellatf.beytemsaman@ fmtc.be Marc Engels +32 (0) 16328031 marc.engels@
More informationRiskbased Fatigue Estimate of Deep Water Risers  Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechanics, Spring 2008
Rskbased Fatgue Estmate of Deep Water Rsers  Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechancs, Sprng 2008 Chen Sh Department of Cvl, Archtectural, and Envronmental Engneerng The Unversty of Texas at Austn
More informationPredicting Archival Life of Removable Hard Disk Drives
Predctng Archval Lfe of Removable Hard Dsk Drves Paul Wllams; ProStor Systems, Inc.; Boulder, CO., USA / Davd S. H. Rosenthal; Stanford Unversty Lbrares; Stanford, CA., USA / Mema Roussopoulos; Insttute
More informationPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304C) Lecture 12
14 The Chsquared dstrbuton PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304C) Lecture 1 If a normal varable X, havng mean µ and varance σ, s standardsed, the new varable Z has a mean 0 and varance 1. When ths standardsed
More informationSIMULATION OF THERMAL AND CHEMICAL RELAXATION IN A POSTDISCHARGE AIR CORONA REACTOR
XVIII Internatonal Conference on Gas Dscharges and Ther Applcatons (GD 2010) Grefswald  Germany SIMULATION OF THERMAL AND CHEMICAL RELAXATION IN A POSTDISCHARGE AIR CORONA REACTOR M. Mezane, J.P. Sarrette,
More informationMoving Beyond Open Markets for Water Quality Trading: The Gains from Structured Bilateral Trades
Movng Beyond Open Markets for Water Qualty Tradng: The Gans from Structured Blateral Trades Tanl Zhao Yukako Sado Rchard N. Bosvert Gregory L. Poe Cornell Unversty EAERE Preconference on Water Economcs
More informationMultiple stage amplifiers
Multple stage amplfers Ams: Examne a few common 2transstor amplfers:  Dfferental amplfers  Cascode amplfers  Darlngton pars  current mrrors Introduce formal methods for exactly analysng multple
More informationA hybrid global optimization algorithm based on parallel chaos optimization and outlook algorithm
Avalable onlne www.ocpr.com Journal of Chemcal and Pharmaceutcal Research, 2014, 6(7):18841889 Research Artcle ISSN : 09757384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 A hybrd global optmzaton algorthm based on parallel
More informationEffective Network Defense Strategies against Malicious Attacks with Various Defense Mechanisms under Quality of Service Constraints
Effectve Network Defense Strateges aganst Malcous Attacks wth Varous Defense Mechansms under Qualty of Servce Constrants Frank YeongSung Ln Department of Informaton Natonal Tawan Unversty Tape, Tawan,
More informationOverview of monitoring and evaluation
540 Toolkt to Combat Traffckng n Persons Tool 10.1 Overvew of montorng and evaluaton Overvew Ths tool brefly descrbes both montorng and evaluaton, and the dstncton between the two. What s montorng? Montorng
More information1.1 The University may award Higher Doctorate degrees as specified from timetotime in UPR AS11 1.
HIGHER DOCTORATE DEGREES SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL CHANGES General changes None Secton 3.2 Refer to text (Amendments to verson 03.0, UPR AS02 are shown n talcs.) 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Unversty may award Hgher
More informationA system for realtime calculation and monitoring of energy performance and carbon emissions of RET systems and buildings
A system for realtme calculaton and montorng of energy performance and carbon emssons of RET systems and buldngs Dr PAAIOTIS PHILIMIS Dr ALESSADRO GIUSTI Dr STEPHE GARVI CE Technology Center Democratas
More informationFault tolerance in cloud technologies presented as a service
Internatonal Scentfc Conference Computer Scence 2015 Pavel Dzhunev, PhD student Fault tolerance n cloud technologes presented as a servce INTRODUCTION Improvements n technques for vrtualzaton and performance
More informationThe Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey,
Busness Brths and Deaths Impact of busness brths and deaths n the payroll survey The CES probabltybased sample redesgn accounts for most busness brth employment through the mputaton of busness deaths,
More informationFeature selection for intrusion detection. Slobodan Petrović NISlab, Gjøvik University College
Feature selecton for ntruson detecton Slobodan Petrovć NISlab, Gjøvk Unversty College Contents The feature selecton problem Intruson detecton Traffc features relevant for IDS The CFS measure The mrmr measure
More informationSTANDING WAVE TUBE TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING THE NORMAL INCIDENCE ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT: COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS.
STADIG WAVE TUBE TECHIQUES FOR MEASURIG THE ORMAL ICIDECE ABSORPTIO COEFFICIET: COMPARISO OF DIFFERET EXPERIMETAL SETUPS. Angelo Farna (*), Patrzo Faust (**) (*) Dpart. d Ing. Industrale, Unverstà d Parma,
More informationAn Empirical Study of Search Engine Advertising Effectiveness
An Emprcal Study of Search Engne Advertsng Effectveness Sanjog Msra, Smon School of Busness Unversty of Rochester Edeal Pnker, Smon School of Busness Unversty of Rochester Alan RmmKaufman, RmmKaufman
More informationFREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF CERTAIN CHEMICAL CLASSES OF GSR FROM VARIOUS AMMUNITION TYPES
FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF CERTAIN CHEMICAL CLASSES OF GSR FROM VARIOUS AMMUNITION TYPES Zuzanna BRO EKMUCHA, Grzegorz ZADORA, 2 Insttute of Forensc Research, Cracow, Poland 2 Faculty of Chemstry, Jagellonan
More informationFaraday's Law of Induction
Introducton Faraday's Law o Inducton In ths lab, you wll study Faraday's Law o nducton usng a wand wth col whch swngs through a magnetc eld. You wll also examne converson o mechanc energy nto electrc energy
More information