EPA s SmartWay Technology Program & Tire Testing Updates. Dennis Johnson, U.S. EPA

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1 EPA s SmartWay Technology Program & Tire Testing Updates Dennis Johnson, U.S. EPA

2 EPA s SmartWay Technology Program and Tire Testing Update Dennis Johnson, Director Technology Assessment Center Transportation and Climate Division 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 68

3 Topics Background Heavy-duty GHG Regulations SmartWay Technology Program & Updates Tire Research & Testing Future Communication Objectives 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 69

4 Background EPA Priorities Improving public health Reducing exposure to pollutants Improving air quality Reducing diesel engine emissions HC, CO, NOx, CO2 Particulate matter (PM) 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 70

5 Health Benefits Studies show reducing PM2.5 (including BC) prolongs life and promotes health: Fewer missed work days Fewer visits to health care providers Reduction in asthma symptoms Increased average life expectancy at birth Prevent premature deaths Health and environmental co-benefits accrue locally (in the region where emissions are reduced) 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 71

6 PM (g/hp-hr) EPA Exhaust Emissions Standards for Diesel Trucks & Buses uncontrolled NOx (g/hp-hr) 72

7 Highway-Source Total PM10 Annual emissions (tons) PM10 Total, Exhaust and Brake and Tire Wear MOVES2010b MOVES pollutantname Primary PM10 - Tirewear Particulate Primary PM10 - Brakewear Particulate Primary Exhaust PM10 - Total Increase in Total PM10 in MOVES2014 compared to MOVES2010b 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 73

8 Why GHG Emissions Matter Global Temperature and CO2 Emissions Global Temperature by Decade Figure source: updated from Karl et al Figure source: NOAA NCDC 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 74

9 US Transportation Related GHG Emissions /16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 75

10 HD#GHG#Phase#1# #Divided#diverse#MD/HD# vehicle#sector#into#4#dis8nct#categories# Semi#tractors,#### ###no#trailers# Full<size#pickup# trucks#&#work# vans# Voca8onal# vehicles,#regulated# via#the#chassis# HD# Engines# 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 76

11 Phase 1 Pollutants addressed and flexibilities! EPA regulates CO 2, N 2 O, CH 4 and HFCs.! NHTSA regulates fuel consumption.! Both agencies offer manufacturers flexibilities including credit Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT), among other provisions 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 77

12 Phase#2# #Rulemaking#Objec8ves#Discussed# in#phase#1#rule# Joint#NHTSA#/#EPA#rulemaking#process#consistent#with#applicable# law#with#no8ce#and#opportunity#for#public#review#and#comment.### As#discussed#in#the#Phase#1#Final#Rule:### #### Consider#regula8ng#trailers#and#voca8onal#vehicle#second#stage# manufacturers## Consider#refining#test#procedures#and#the#GEM#vehicle#simula8on# compliance#model# Consider#new#and#advanced#technologies,#along#with#more#stringent# standards#and#8ming# Update#technology,#economic#and#environmental#assessments### Consider#upda8ng#flexibili8es# 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 78

13 Technology Assessment Center Technology Assessment Center (TAC) combines Clean Diesel and SmartWay Technology programs Comprehensive approach to reducing emissions (criteria and GHG) from HD fleets. Research, test and evaluate emission and fuel-saving technologies and strategies Protocol Development Technology Verification 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 79

14 EPA Verification Program SmartWay & National Clean Diesel Campaign Highway and Non-Road Test Protocols SmartWay Designation Tractors and Trailers Verified Lists Aerodynamics Idle Control Tires After-Treatment Devices Closed Crankcase Systems Exhaust Gas Recirculation Engine upgrades 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 80

15 SmartWay Technology Program & Updates USEPA s SmartWay-designated tractors and trailers represent the most fuel-efficient models available SmartWay-designated trailers 53 dry & reefer* van trailers > 5% Aerodynamic improvements Low rolling resistance tires Elite* SmartWay-designated trailers > 9% Aerodynamic improvements Low rolling resistance tires Technology Verification Aerodynamic devices: 1%, 4%, 5% & 9%* Tires: New & Retreads * New Additions 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 81

16 New SmartWay Trailer Aerodynamics Verification Scope# Trailer# Designa8on# Levels# Aero#Device# Performance# Bins# 53 #Van#trailers# SmartWay(Trailer(( (5%(fuel(savings(from(aero)( (1%(fuel(savings(from(:res)( 9% or more fuel savings 5% ( ) fuel savings 4% ( ) fuel savings 1% ( ) fuel savings 53 #Refrigera8on#trailers# SmartWay( Elite (Trailer(( (9%(fuel(savings(from(aero)( (1%(fuel(savings(from(:res)( ( Test# Methods# New#Track#Test# Coastdown& Tunnel& CFD& Choice&of#new)2014) test)method#for# verifica8on#and#op8on# to#supplement#with# addi8onal#test# methods# Web&table# indica8ng#all# methods#used#to# verify#a#device# 82

17 SmartWay-Designated Tractors Look Like - Aerodynamic Technologies (roof fairing, side extenders) Auxiliary Power Unit reducing idle emissions EPA-compliant Engine Aerodynamic Technologies (grill, hood, bumper, mirror, side chassis fairing) Low Rolling Resistance Tires 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 83

18 Tire Performance Targets (Rolling Resistance Coefficient in kg/ton) ISO#28580#and#SAE#J1269# J 1269 Application Test Point# EPA Tire Verification Steer# Drive# Trailer# 6.6 # 7.0# 5.5# J1269 Test Point 2# 6.7# 6.9# 5.5# J point average# 6.9# 7.0# 5.6# ISO (2 meter drum)# 6.5# 6.6# 5.1# Retread Performance Target (Rolling Resistance Coefficient in kg/ton) ISO 28580# Drive# Trailer# Test Casing# 7.2# 6.0# Alternate Casing# 6.5# 5.4# 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 84

19 Tire Testing & Research Road testing to quantify relationship between rolling resistance and fuel Tire testing Auditing verified tires & tires tested at different labs Comparing test methods & sources of variability Development of final retread test protocol 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 85

20 Truck FE Testing With Tires Test and Control truck Portable Scale With/without portable tank 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 86

21 Truck ballasted to gross vehicle weight of about 66,000 lbs Axle distribution- 18% steer, 40% drive, 42% trailer Vehicle Average Rolling Resistance= 0.18 x Steer x Drive x Trailer Baseline Test Vehicle Average Rolling Resistance U.S Environmental Protection Agency 87

22 Fuel Savings vs Rolling Resistance 12 Percent Reduction in Fuel Consumption LRR tires on tractor & trailer LRR tires on tractor only y = x R² = LRR tires on trailer only Baseline tires -2 Vehicle Coefficient of Rolling Resistance, kg/ton /16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 88

23 Rolling Resistance Tests ISO and SAE J1269 Comparison to results from verification request Evaluating retread protocols Comparing test methods and data points 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 89

24 Initial New Tire Testing AXLE##Posi8on# Measured#Crr## Target#Values# # Steer# 5.36#±#0.23# 6.5# Drive## 5.9#±#0.14# 6.6# Trailer# 4.66#±#0.20# 5.1# Are all results below target values OK? How much difference from verification is a concern? Has there been a change in production? Do results from other labs need special consideration? 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 90

25 Retread Performance on Different Casings Axle Position& Baseline Tire Crr Buffed Casing Crr& Retread Tire (drive) Crr Tread Difference (retread&crr& & buffed&casing&crr)& Steer& 6.29# 3.78# 6.58# 2.80# Steer& 5.84# 4.75# 7.23# 2.48# Drive& 6.05# 4.11# 6.40# 2.29# Trailer& 5.00# 4.73# 7.35# 2.62# & # # Average# 2.54# & # # St. Dev.# 0.22# ISO 28580, kg/ton 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 91

26 Looking Forward Updates to Test Protocols & Verification Increased communication with manufacturers Coastdown testing Other comparisons Impacts of load, pressure, temperature, speed, and tire size on RR and emissions Tire composition and particle characterization 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 92

27 Communication & Input Needs What information is needed by stakeholders? How should we monitor RR performance? What is needed in retread verification updates? Who has RR data at different test points and methods? Can tire particles be reduced and how might they be characterized? 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 93

28 Contact: Dennis Johnson, Director Technology Assessment Center Transportation and Climate Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality U.S. EPA Reference: Bachman, L., Erb, A., and Sellers, J., "Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires," SAE Technical Paper , 2014, doi: / USEPA 4/16/15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 94

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