# Basics. active : convert sun s energy from heat to other useful form, such as electricity and hot water

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1 Solar Power

2 Basics 2 types: active : convert sun s energy from heat to other useful form, such as electricity and hot water passive : direct use of sun s heat energy for home heating, etc. No R/P, solar is renewable Potential is large, but we need to see how solar fits into use

3 How much is there Average amount of energy received at the top of the atmosphere is 1,400 Joules per meter squared per second (1,400 J/(m 2 sec)) A joule is a unit of energy, like calories, Btu s etc.

4 How much is there? About 50% of this energy makes it to the Earth s surface, the rest is reflected by clouds and aerosols, or is absorbed in the atmosphere. This means 700 J/(m 2 sec) is available at the Earth s surface this already takes in consideration average weather conditions and clouds.

5 How does this compare with 1. Global calculation needs? Global energy consumption is about 3.5 x10 20 J/ year Total surface area of the earth is 5.1 x10 14 m 2 Total amount of sun s energy per year over all earth is 1.1 x J/year we need to reduce this in half as only half of the Earth gets sun at any time

6 Global comparison So we get about 16,000 times more solar energy than total energy used worldwide. If we only use land area (1.5 x m 2 ) then we get about 5,000 times more solar energy than total energy used worldwide. This is interesting, but it does not tell us about useful solar energy

7 US comparison 2. Energy use in United States Compare US energy use with incoming solar in US US energy consumption is about 0.8 x10 20 J/year We have 9 x m 2 of land surface This yields 1 x J/year from sun, or about 1,000 times more solar energy than energy used in US This number is less (about 600) as US gets only an average of 8 hours of useful light per day (why?)

8 US comparison View this another way; how much area of the US do we need to cover with photovoltaic cells (converts sun s energy to electricity) to meet US energy needs with solar? Answer: about 1/600 th of land area, if photovoltaic cells are 100% efficient. Photovoltaic cells are about 10% efficient, so we need about 1/60 th of US area, or 1.5 x m 2. This is half of Colorado.

9 Another example How much solar energy hits your roof compared with the amount of energy you use at home? Numbers we need: 8 x J/year Total US energy use 1/6 th of this is used in homes 75,000,000 homes This gives about 2 x J/year per home

10 Another example part 2 There is 6 x 10 9 J/(m 2 year) incoming sun (on average 8 hour day) If we have a useable roof area of 10m by 10m, or 100m 2 of useable roof area, then we have 6 x J/roof per year So we have about 3 times more energy from the sun on the roof than we use in the house.

11 Caveats Factors to consider Efficiency with which solar energy is converted to useful energy in the home Passive and active use of solar in the home; passive is more efficient

12 Caveats How much energy is actually used in the home (we have used an average), more insulation, etc., less energy needed. How well we can store solar energy for night use and for use on cloudy days Seasonality of sun's energy

13 Caveats Where you live: Southwestern US gets almost twice as much sun as Northeastern US Incoming solar energy in watts/square meter

14 Bottom line Overall Conclusion: solar energy is very abindant. It can meet much of home energy needs as well as other sectors via electricity (or other storage form) but we need a backup, storage system and/or excess capacity for cloudy days, and for areas with less sun

15 Passive Solar Primarily home heating but water heating is also sometimes considered a form of passive solar energy

16 Passive solar Orientation of home is important (south and west) this can be a problem in modern, planned neighborhoods Maintenance free Initial cost (if any) is usually recovered in a few years

17 Insulation Amount of energy in winter coming in through a10ft by 10ft window is about 10 to 20% of the average home heating needs in winter. For newer, highly insulated homes, amount of energy in winter from 10ft by 10ft window is 80% or more of the home heating needs in winter.

18 Homes and passive solar Keep in mind that homes last for 50 to 100 years (or more). Older, less energy efficient homes are going to be with us for a long time. Consider: We probably use far more passive solar for home heating than is acknowledged. We just don t count it.

19 Active solar Hot water 100 gallons of water a day can be heated with a typical collector of 5 ft x 20ft

20 Solar hot water

21 Active solar: photovoltaics These are devices that convert the sun s energy directly to electricity

22 Photovoltaics Sandwiches of silicon, doped with an impurity to help electrons flow (electricity) n-type doped with arsenic, antimony or phosphorous, these add an extra electron p-type doped with boron, aluminum or iridium, these want to take up an electron

23 Photovoltaics Sunlight provides the energy to make the current flow from the n-type side to the p- type side Each sandwich produces only a small amount of electricity, about 0.5 volts. Group 40 or 50 sandwiches to make a solar cell of 20 to 25 volts

24 Types of Photovoltaics Crystalline silicon: expensive to make as silicon must be very pure, but these are most efficient, about 10 to 15%. Maximum efficiency is about 25%. Amorphous silicon: newer technology than crystalline silicone, lower efficiency, about 5%, but can be improved by stacking layers to get about 10% efficiency. Very durable. Can be made into roof shingles, for example.

25 Flexible, amorphous PVs

26 Rigid, crystalline PVs

27 Solar shingles PVs don t have to look bad!

28 Cost of solar electricity Costs of PV electricity: Commercial system: Sunny day: 20 cents/kwhr, 50 cents on a cloudy day Home systems: Sunny day: 35 cents/kwhr, 80 cents on a cloudy day Compare this with electricity from coal: Peak cost: \$0.15/kilowatt-hour Off-peak cost: \$0.10/kilowatt-hour or less

29 Solar and subsidies Photovoltaics will not be able to compete given this cost differential without help (i.e. subsidies) Subsidies are common in energy industry. President Carter gave tax breaks for passive and active solar use in the 1980's in response to the OPEC oil "shocks" at that time. Solar hot water added to White House Cost of solar cells drops by 100% President Reagan takes office. Removes the solar hot water heaters Cost of solar cells does what??

30 How to improve cost competitiveness of solar 1. Concentrators: these are mirrors that concentrate the sun s energy to improve efficiency

31 How to improve 2. Hybrid solar systems: combine solar with other forms of energy production to make overall reliability higher and cost cheaper. For example, solar-wind:

32 How to 3. Take cost of pollution into account. Cost of coal based electricity is cheaper in part because pollution is not factored into cost. Pollution from solar would add much less (some pollution in manufacturing). CO 2 tax or carbon trading

33 Bottom line for solar Solar is best used at home and possibly industry. Without electric cars, it cannot work for transportation needs. Solar cannot meet all demands for domestic and industrial energy. Reliability is an issue in winter and in cloudy areas. If we build new homes without considering solar, we are making a mistake that will last for decades to centuries. Solar in our future: optimistic estimate would be that solar can supply 30% of domestic energy needs within a decade and a lesser fraction of industrial energy needs but it could be more

Solar Power for Agriculture and Our Experiences at the Middlesex County EARTH Center Rutgers Cooperative Extension William T. Hlubik Agricultural and Resource Management Agent Rutgers Cooperative Extension

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