2013 International Trade Statistics Yearbook Volume I Trade by Country

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1 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook Volume I Trade by Country E c o n o m i c & S o c i a l A ff a i r s United Nations

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3 ST/ESA/STAT/SER.G/62 (Vol. I) Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook Volume I Trade by Country United Nations New York, 214

4 DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of e United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in e economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in ree main interlinked areas: (i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which Member States of e United Nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates e negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on e ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in United Nations conferences and summits into programmes at e country level and, rough technical assistance, helps build national capacities. NOTE Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined wi figures. The designations employed and e presentation of material in is publication do not imply e expression of any opinion whatsoever on e part of e Secretariat of e United Nations concerning e legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its auorities, or concerning e delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Where e designation country or area appears in is publication, it covers countries, territories, cities or areas. In previous issues of is publication, where e designation country appears in e headings of tables, it should be interpreted to cover countries, territories, cities or areas. In some tables, e designation developed economies is intended for statistical convenience and does not necessarily express a judgement about e stage reached by a particular country or area in e development process. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.G/62 Vol. I UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.1.XVII.2 H ISBN eisbn ISSN X Enquiries should be directed to Sales and Marketing Section Outreach Division Department of Public Information United Nations New York 117 USA Internet: Copyright United Nations, 214 All rights reserved

5 PREFACE The 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook (213 ITSY) is e sixty-second edition of is yearbook. Its objective is to inform about e detailed merchandise and services imports and exports of individual countries (areas) by commodity and service category and by country (volume I), e world trade in individual commodities (3-digit SITC groups) (volume II) and total world merchandise trade - up to e year 213. The two volumes are prepared at different points in time during 214: Volume I - Trade by Country is made electronically available in June, and Volume II - Trade by Commodity, in December, as e preparation of e tables in Volume II requires additional country data which, normally, become available later in e year. Beginning wi 213 edition, trade in services data was introduced to e International Trade Statistics Yearbook: Volume I - Trade by Country. Therefore, e content and format of e yearbook were redesigned to take into account new additions of graphs/tables and analytical text. The data used in e tables and graphs in bo volumes of e yearbook are taken at a specific time (June 214) from e publicly available UN Comtrade (http://comtrade.un.org) and UN Service Trade (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/servicetrade) databases. Users are advised to visit ese databases for additional and more current information as ey are continuously updated. The International Trade Statistics Yearbook is prepared by e Trade Statistics Branch of e Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of e United Nations Secretariat. Under e general supervision of e Chief of Branch, Ronald Jansen, e programme manager is Markie Muryawan and e chief editor is Habibur Rahman Khan, assisted by Marjorie Imperial-Damaso. Bekuretsion Amdemariam has e leading role in e processing of e data for UN Comtrade and Htu Aung for UN Service Trade. Habibur Rahman Khan, Kenne Iversen, Nancy Snyder, Luis Gonzalez Morales, Michael Behrman and Markie Muryawan provided valuable contribution to e inclusion of trade in services data and e improvement of production processes. However, all staffs of e branch are involved in e generation of e data and e review/validation of e yearbook. Markie Muryawan, Salomon Cameo and Luis Gonzalez Morales developed e original software which is maintained by Michael Behrman and Daniel Eshetie. Matias Reister and Nelnan Koumtingue made very substantial contributions to earlier redesigned yearbook as its first programme manager and first chief editor of 28 edition, respectively. Comments and feedback on e yearbook are welcome. They may be sent to / or to United Nations Statistics Division, Trade Statistics Branch, New York, New York 117, USA. 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I iii

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... vii Concepts and definitions of International Merchandise Trade Statistics... viii Concepts and definitions of Statistics of International Trade in Services... x Description of world trade tables in part 1 (Tables A and D)... xiv Description of tables and graphs of Country profiles in part 2... xv Sources... xvii Meod of Estimation... xvii Conversion of classification... xviii Currency conversion and Period... xix Country Nomenclature and Country Grouping... xix Abbreviations and Explanation of symbols... xxiii Disclaimer... xxiv Contact... xxiv Part 1: World Trade Tables... 1 Total merchandise trade by regions and countries or areas (Table A)... 2 World merchandise exports by provenance and destination (Table D)... 2 Part 2: Country Trade Profiles... 7 Countries (or areas)... 8 European Union Page Part 2: COUNTRY TRADE PROFILES Page Afghanistan 8 Albania 6 Algeria 62 Antigua and Barbuda 64 Argentina 66 Armenia 68 Aruba 7 Australia 72 Austria 74 Azerbaijan 76 Bahamas 78 Bahrain 8 Page Bangladesh 82 Barbados 84 Belarus 86 Belgium 88 Belize 9 Benin 92 Bermuda 94 Bhutan 96 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 98 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 Botswana 12 Page Brazil 14 Brunei Darussalam 16 Bulgaria 18 Burkina Faso 11 Burundi 112 Cabo Verde 114 Cambodia 116 Cameroon 118 Canada 12 Central African Republic 122 Chile 124 China 126 iv 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

7 China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region China, Macao Special Administrative Region Page Colombia 132 Comoros 134 Congo 136 Cook Islands 138 Costa Rica 14 Côte d Ivoire 142 Croatia 144 Cyprus 146 Czech Republic 148 Denmark 1 Djibouti 12 Dominica 14 Dominican Republic 16 Ecuador 18 Egypt 16 El Salvador 162 Estonia 164 Eiopia 166 Faeroe Islands 168 Fiji 17 Finland 172 France including Monaco 174 French Polynesia 176 Gabon 178 Gambia 18 Georgia 182 Germany 184 Ghana 186 Greece 188 Greenland 19 Grenada 192 Guatemala 194 Page Guyana 196 Honduras 198 Hungary 2 Iceland 22 India 24 Indonesia 26 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 28 Ireland 21 Israel 212 Italy 214 Jamaica 216 Japan 218 Jordan 22 Kazakhstan 222 Kenya 224 Kiribati 226 Korea, Republic of 228 Kuwait 23 Kyrgyzstan 232 Latvia 234 Lebanon 236 Lesoo 238 Libya 24 Liuania 242 Luxembourg 244 Madagascar 246 Malawi 248 Malaysia 2 Maldives 22 Mali 24 Malta 26 Mauritania 28 Mauritius 26 Mexico 262 Mongolia 264 Montenegro 266 Page Montserrat 268 Morocco 27 Mozambique 272 Myanmar 274 Namibia 276 Nepal 278 Neerlands 28 New Caledonia 282 New Zealand 284 Nicaragua 286 Niger 288 Nigeria 29 Norway, including Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands 292 Oman 294 Pakistan 296 Panama 298 Papua New Guinea 3 Paraguay 32 Peru 34 Philippines 36 Poland 38 Portugal 31 Qatar 312 Republic of Moldova 314 Romania 316 Russian Federation 318 Rwanda 32 Saint Kitts and Nevis 322 Samoa 324 Saudi Arabia 326 Senegal 328 Serbia 33 Singapore 332 Slovakia 334 Slovenia 336 Solomon Islands International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I v

8 Page Sou Africa 34 Spain 342 Sri Lanka 344 State of Palestine 346 Sudan 348 Suriname 3 Sweden 32 Switzerland- Liechtenstein 34 Syrian Arab Republic 36 Thailand 38 Togo 36 Tonga 362 Trinidad and Tobago 364 Tunisia 366 Turkey 368 Page Turks and Caicos Islands 37 Uganda 372 Ukraine 374 United Arab Emirates 376 United Kingdom 378 United Republic of Tanzania United States of America, including Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands Page Uruguay 384 Vanuatu 386 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 388 Viet Nam 39 Yemen 392 Zambia 394 Zimbabwe 396 European Union (28 member states) 398 vi 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

9 INTRODUCTION 1. The International Trade Statistics Yearbook: Volume I - Trade by Country, provides an overview of e latest trends of trade in goods and services of most countries and areas in e world. The publication is aimed at bo specialist trade data users and common audience at large. The presented data, charts and analyses will benefit policy makers, government agencies, non-government organizations, civil society organizations, journalists, academics, researchers, students, businesses and anyone who is interested in trade issues. 2. The main content of e yearbook is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of two detailed world data tables on merchandise trade. One presents total merchandise imports and exports by countries, areas and regions in a time series up to e latest year, e oer shows world merchandise exports by group of commodity and by provenance and destination in many smaller time series sub-tables. Part 2 contains e country trade profiles for most countries and areas in e world. The profiles offer an insight into e merchandise and services trade performance of individual countries and areas by means of brief descriptive text, concise data tables and charts using latest available data. For furer information on data availability, please see e sources section of is Introduction. 3. The yearbook is also made available online at e publications repository of e UN Statistics Division (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs). For more detailed and latest available data, please consult UN Comtrade (http://comtrade.un.org) and UN ServiceTrade (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/servicetrade), which are e sources of e information presented in e yearbook, and which are continuously updated. 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I vii

10 Concepts and definitions of International Merchandise Trade Statistics 4. The merchandise trade data in is Yearbook have been compiled by national statistical auorities largely complying wi e United Nations recommended International Merchandise Trade Statistics, Concepts and Definitions 21 (IMTS 21). 1 The main elements of e concepts and definitions are: i. Coverage: As a general guideline, it is recommended at international merchandise trade statistics record all goods which add to or subtract from e stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. The general guideline is subject to e clarifications provided in IMTS 21, in particular, to e specific guidelines in chapter 1 concerning e inclusion or exclusion of certain categories of goods. ii. Time of recording: As a general guideline, it is recommended at goods be recorded at e time when ey enter or leave e economic territory of a country. iii. Statistical territory: The statistical territory of a country is e territory wi respect to which trade data are being compiled. The definition of e statistical territory may or may not coincide wi e economic territory of a country or its customs territory, depending on e availability of data sources and oer considerations. It follows at when e statistical territory of a country and its economic territory differ, international merchandise trade statistics do not provide a complete record of inward and outward flows of goods. iv. Trade systems: Depending on what parts of e economic territory are included in e statistical territory, e trade data-compilation system adopted by a country (its trade system) may be referred to as general or special. a) The general trade system is in use when e statistical territory coincides wi e economic territory. Consequently, it is recommended at e statistical territory of a country applying e general trade system comprises all applicable territorial elements. In is case, imports include goods entering e free circulation area, premises for inward processing, industrial free zones, premises for customs warehousing or commercial free zones and exports include goods leaving ose territorial elements; b) The special trade system is in use when e statistical territory comprises only a particular part of e economic territory, so at certain flows of goods which are in e scope of IMTS 21 are not included in eier import or export statistics of e compiling country. The strict definition of e special trade system is in use when e statistical territory comprises only e free circulation area, at is, e part wiin which goods may be 1 At its forty-first session, held from 23 to 26 February 21, e Statistical Commission adopted e revised recommendations International merchandise trade statistics: concepts and definitions 21 (IMTS 21) which provide very important amendments while retaining e existing conceptual framework contained in e previous recommendations. The publication is available under Statistical Papers, Series M No. 2, Rev.3 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.1.XVII.13) and electronically at: viii 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

11 disposed of wiout customs restriction. Consequently, in such a case, imports include only goods entering e free circulation area of a compiling country and exports include only goods leaving e free circulation area of a compiling country. c) The relaxed definition of e special trade system is in use when (a) goods at enter a country for, or leave it after, inward processing, as well as (b) goods at enter or leave an industrial free zone, are also recorded and included in international merchandise trade statistics v. Classification: It is recommended at countries use e Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) for e collection, compilation and dissemination of international merchandise trade statistics as suggested by e Statistical Commission at its twenty-seven session (22 February to 3 March 1993). 2 The Harmonized System was adopted by e Customs Co-operation Council in June 1983, and e International Convention on e Harmonized System (HS Convention) entered into force on 1 January 1988 (HS 1988). 3 In accordance wi e preamble to e HS Convention, which recognized e importance of ensuring at e HS be kept up to date in e light of changes in technology or in patterns of international trade, e HS is regularly reviewed and revised. The fif edition, HS 212, came into effect 1 January The Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) which was in e past used by countries in data compilation and reporting has been recognized for its continued use in analysis. 6 vi. Valuation: At its fifteen session, in 193, e Economic and Social Council, taking e view at trade statistics must reflect economic realities, recommended at e Governments of Member States of e United Nations, wherever possible, use transaction values in e compilation of eir national statistics of external trade or, when national practices are based on oer values, endeavour to provide supplementary statistical data based on transaction values (Economic and Social Council resolution 469 B (XV)). To promote e comparability of international merchandise trade statistics and taking into account e commercial and data reporting practices of e majority of countries, it is recommended at: (a) The statistical value of imported goods be a CIF-type value; (b) The statistical value of exported goods be an FOB-type value; however, countries are encouraged to compile FOB-type value of imported goods as supplementary information. FOB-type values include e transaction value of e goods and e value of services performed to deliver goods to e border of e exporting country. CIF-type values include e transaction value of e goods, e value of services performed to deliver goods to e border of e exporting country and e value of e 2 See Official Records of e Economic and Social Council, 1993, Supplement No. 6 (E/1993/26), para. 162 (d). 3 See Customs Co-operation Council, The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, Brussels, See World Customs Organization, Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, Fif Edition (212), Brussels 21. Standard International Trade Classification, Original, Statistical Papers, Series M No.1, Second Edition, 191 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.1.XVII.1); subsequent editions are published as United Nations publications under Series M No See Official Records of e Economic and Social Council, 1999, Supplement No. 4 (E/1993/24), para. 24 (c). 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I ix

12 services performed to deliver e goods from e border of e exporting country to e border of e importing country. vii. Partner country: It is recommended at in e case of imports, e country of origin be recorded; and at in e case of exports, e country of last known destination be recorded. The country of origin of a good (for imports) is determined by rules of origin established by each country. The country of last known destination is e last country - as far as it is known at e time of exportation - to which goods are to be delivered, irrespective of where ey have been initially dispatched to and wheer or not, on eir way to at last country, ey are subject to any commercial transactions or oer operations which change eir legal status. Furer, it is recommended at country of consignment be recorded for imports as e second country attribution, alongside country of origin; e compilation of export statistics on e country of consignment basis is only encouraged, depending on a country s needs and circumstances.. The pages containing e country profiles (Part 2 of is publication) indicate e trade system, valuation and attribution each country is following. For more detailed information on national practices in e compilation and dissemination of international merchandise trade data please go to Concepts and definitions of Statistics of International Trade in Services 6. The trade in services data in is Yearbook have been compiled by national statistical auorities or central banks largely complying wi e Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services 21 (MSITS 21) The main elements of e concepts and definitions of MSITS 21 are: i. Definitions: In general, MSITS 21 respects e 28 SNA use of e term services, which is defined as follows (28 SNA, para. 6.17): a) Services are e result of a production activity at changes e conditions of e consuming units, or facilitates e exchange of products or financial assets. These types of service may be described as change-effecting services and margin services, respectively. Change-effecting services are outputs produced to order and typically consist of changes in e conditions of e consuming units realized by e activities of producers at e demand of e consumers. They can also be referred to as transformation services. Change-effecting services are not separate entities over which ownership rights can be established. They cannot be traded separately from eir 7 At its forty-first session, held from 23 to 26 February 21, e Statistical Commission adopted e revised Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (MSITS 21), which sets out an internationally agreed framework for e compilation and reporting of statistics of international trade in services and align wi e revisions of well-established revised international statistical standards. The publication is available under Statistical Papers, Series M No. 86, Rev.1 (United Nations publication, Sales No.E.1.XVII.14) and electronically at x 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

13 production. By e time eir production is completed, ey must have been provided to e consumers. b) MSITS 21 defines international trade in services as trade in services between residents and non-residents of an economy, as well as e supply of services rough foreign affiliates established abroad and e supply of services rough e presence of foreign individuals, eier as foreign service suppliers emselves or as employees of a foreign service supplier. Importantly, e services data included in is Yearbook only reflect trade in services between residents and non-residents. ii. Concept and definition of residence: The residence of an institutional unit is e economic territory wi which it has e strongest connection, constituting its centre of predominant economic interest. Each institutional unit is a resident of one and only one economic territory, as determined by its centre of predominant economic interest. An institutional unit is resident in an economic territory when ere exists, wiin e economic territory, some location, dwelling, place of production, or oer premises on which or from which e unit engages and intends to continue engaging, eier indefinitely or over a finite but long period of time, in economic activities and transactions on a significant scale. The location need not be fixed as long as it remains wiin e economic territory. Actual or intended location for one year or more is used as an operational criterion. While e choice of one year as a specific period is somewhat arbitrary, it is adopted to eliminate uncertainty and facilitate international consistency. More specific criteria for determining residence are given in e MSITS 21. iii. Valuation: The market price is used as e basis for valuation of transactions in international trade in services. Market prices for transactions are defined as amounts of money at willing buyers pay to acquire someing from willing sellers. The exchanges are made between independent parties and based on commercial considerations only and are sometimes called at arm s leng transactions. These transactions will generally be valued at e actual price agreed between e supplier and e consumer. iv. Time of recording of transactions: The appropriate time for recording transactions in services is when ey are delivered or received (e accruals basis ). Some services, such as certain transport or hotel services are provided wiin a discrete period, in which case ere is no problem in determining e time of recording. Oer services are supplied or take place on a continuous basis, for example, construction, operating leasing and insurance services. When construction takes place wi a prior contract of sale, e ownership of e structure is effectively transferred progressively as e work proceeds. When services are provided over a period of time (such as freight, insurance and construction), ere may be advance payments or settlements at later dates for such services. The provision of services should be recorded on an accrual basis in each accounting period, at is to say it should be recorded when e service is rendered and not when e payment occurs. 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I xi

14 v. Framework and scope: MSITS 21 recommends at e Six Edition of e Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6) 8 recommendations on e principles of recording (regarding residence, valuation, time of recording, currency of recording and conversion) should be followed. The Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS) is a more detailed classification an at of BPM for international trade in services between residents and non-residents, by breaking down a number of e BPM service items. The main components of e EBOPS classification are presented in paragraph 7.vii below. vi. Partner country: It is recommended at e breakdown by economy for services transactions between residents and non-residents be recorded, e aim being to report detail, first, at e level of services trade as a whole and, second, for each of e main types of services in EBOPS and (as a longer-term goal) for e more detailed EBOPS items. Partner country data for trade in services are not included in is publication, as most countries do not currently compile ese data by country. vii. Classification: In 1996, OECD and Eurostat, in consultation wi IMF, developed for use by eir members a more detailed classification an at presented in e IMF s Balance of Payments Manual (BPM) for international trade in services between residents and non-residents, by breaking down a number of e BPM service items. This more detailed classification is termed e Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS). The EBOPS classification was published in 22 in e MSITS 22 and was subsequently revised to e EBOPS 21 classification, as published in e MSITS 21. The services data in is Yearbook follow e EBOPS 22 classification (which corresponds to e BPM recommendations) due to e fact at most countries have not yet transitioned to e EBOPS 21 classification (which corresponds to e BPM6 recommendations). The 11 main EBOPS 22 standard services components (as presented in e MSITS 22) are: 9 a) : covers all transportation services at are performed by residents of one economy for ose of anoer and at involve e carriage of passengers, e movement of goods (freight), rentals (charters) of carriers wi crew, and related supporting and auxiliary services. Some related items at are excluded from transportation services are freight insurance (included in insurance services); goods procured in ports by nonresident carriers and repairs of transportation equipment (bo are treated as goods, not services); repairs of railway facilities, harbours and airfield facilities (included in 8 International Monetary Fund. Six Edition of e Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6) The previous edition of is manual was e Fif Edition of e Balance of Payments Manual (BPM), which was published in https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bopman/bopman.pdf. 9 The full detailed EBOPS 22 classification is available as an on-line annex to e MSITS 22. xii 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

15 construction services); and rentals or charters of carriers wiout crew (included in operational leasing services). b) Travel: covers primarily e goods and services acquired from an economy by travelers during visits of less an one year to at economy. Includes business and personal travel, which includes heal-related expenditure (total expenditure by ose travelling for medical reasons), education-related expenditure (i.e., total expenditure by students), and all oer personal travel expenditure. c) Communications services: covers postal and courier services (which cover e pick-up, transport and delivery of letters, newspapers, periodicals, brochures, oer printed matter, parcels and packages, including post office counter and mailbox rental services) and telecommunications services (which cover e transmission of sound, images or oer information by telephone, telex, telegram, radio and television cable and broadcasting, satellite, electronic mail, facsimile services etc., including business network services, teleconferencing and support services). It does not include e value of e information transported. Also included are cellular telephone services, Internet backbone services and on-line access services, including provision of access to e Internet. d) Construction services: covers work performed on construction projects and installation by employees of an enterprise in locations outside e territory of an enterprise. e) Insurance services: covers e provision of various types of insurance to non-residents by resident insurance enterprises, and vice versa. These services are estimated or valued by e service charges included in total premiums raer an by e total value of e premiums. f) Financial services: covers financial intermediation and auxiliary services, except ose of life insurance enterprises and pension funds (which are included in life insurance and pension funding) and oer insurance services at are conducted between residents and non-residents. Such services may be provided by banks, stock exchanges, factoring enterprises, credit card enterprises and oer enterprises. g) Computer and information services: covers hardware and software-related services and data-processing services; news agency services include e provision of news, photographs, and feature articles to e media; and database services and web search portals (search engine services at find internet addresses for clients who input keyword queries). h) Royalties and license fees: covers international payments and receipts of franchising fees and e royalties paid for e use of registered trademarks and international payments and receipts for e auorised use of intangible, non-produced, non-financial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights and industrial processes and designs) and wi e use, rough licensing agreements, of produced originals or prototypes (such as manuscripts, computer programs, and cinematographic works and sound recordings). 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I xiii

16 i) Oer business services: covers merchanting, oer trade-related services, operational leasing services, legal services, accounting, auditing, bookkeeping and tax consulting services, business and management consulting and public relations services, advertising, market research and public opinion polling, research and development, architectural, engineering and oer technical services, waste treatment and de-pollution, agricultural, mining, and oer on-site processing services, oer business services, and services between related enterprises, not included elsewhere (n.i.e.). j) Personal, cultural, and recreational services: covers services and associated fees related to e production of motion pictures (on film or videotape), radio and television programmes (live or on tape) and musical recordings services, as well as ose services associated wi museums, libraries, archives and oer cultural, sporting and recreational activities. k) Government services, not included elsewhere (n.i.e.): covers government transactions (including ose of international organizations) not contained in e oer components of EBOPS as defined above. Included are all transactions (in bo goods and services) by embassies, consulates, military units and defence agencies wi residents of economies in which e embassies, consulates, military units and defence agencies are located and all transactions wi oer economies. Excluded are transactions wi residents of e home economies represented by e embassies, consulates, military units and defence agencies, and transactions in e commissaries, post exchanges and ese embassies and consulates. Description of world trade tables of part 1 (Tables A and D) 8. Table A: Total merchandise trade by regions and countries or areas in U.S. dollars: It provides a breakdown of merchandise imports, exports and trade balance for world, regional groupings, selected economic and/or trade groupings and individual countries or areas. 9. Table D: World merchandise exports by provenance and destination in U.S. dollars: In addition to total, table D also provides details by SITC sections or groupings of sections by regions and countries or areas (brief description of SITC sections can be found in e country profiles in Part 2). 1. The totals of imports and exports presented in table A on e one hand and table D and e country profiles on e oer hand are not necessarily identical as IFS and UN Comtrade are based on different data collection systems wi different aims, procedures, timetable and sources for update and maintenance. Nevereless, discrepancies are in general minor and usually do not affect e overall comparability of information provided in ese tables. A systematic comparison of e figures from bo sources (which includes e description of known and relevant conceptual differences) is available at Overall, e discrepancy in e world total or world aggregate of exports in table A and table D is around. percent or less in average, which is minor, given e differences between e two sources. 11. A slightly different version of Table A containing quarterly and monly data is published on a monly basis as table 34 in e United Nations Monly Bulletin of Statistics xiv 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

17 (MBS). Updated, alough different versions of Table D, are published as table 4, 41 and 42 in e July, September and November editions of e MBS. An updated version of ese tables will be published in Volume 2 of e 213 ITSY which will be produced later is year. Description of tables and graphs of Country profiles in part Part 2 contains detailed data for individual countries or areas. In addition, given e economic importance of e European Union (EU), separate pages have been included for e external trade of e EU (wi its 28 members) as a whole. 13. Not all countries have data up to 213 and not all countries have data for imports and exports for all years. The inclusion of a country (or area) in part 2 requires at at least some data are available for any year from 29 onwards. Depending on e availability of data e following tables and graphs usually appear for each country or area: 14. Graph 1: Total merchandise trade, by value: This graph presents e trend of merchandise imports, exports and trade balance over e last 14 years. 1. Graph 2: Total services trade, by value: This graph presents e trend of services imports, exports and trade balance over e last 14 years. 16. Graph 3: Exports of services by EBOPS category: This graph presents e shares of total exports of services accounted for by each service category for e latest year such data are available. 17. Graph 4: Merchandise trade balance by MDG Regions: This graph presents, in e most recent year for which information on exports and imports are available, e trade balance by regions according to e regional groups used in e Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Indicator Database (see paragraph 38). 18. Graph : Partner concentration of merchandise trade: This graph shows e concentration of imports and exports for e latest available year. Graph presents e top 2 s which usually account for a very large share of exports or imports for most countries. On e horizontal axis from e center to e right are e cumulative percent of exports and from e center to e left e cumulative percent of imports. On e vertical axis is e cumulative number of s ranked by total value of exports and imports in a decreasing order. So, on each side, e first bar represents share accounted for by e largest ; second bar represents share accounted for by e largest two s and so on. 19. Graph also presents e Herfindahl-Hirschman (HH) Index for imports and exports which is a measure of concentration. In e case of exports (imports), e HH index is e sum of squares of e s share of total exports (imports): HH Index = n i= 1 X i X International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I xv

18 2. n is e number of trading s for exports (imports) and X i is e value of exports (imports) to country i and X is e total value of exports (imports). The lower e HH index, e lower e concentration, and vice versa. If ere is only one trading e HH index would equal It should be noted at e HH index for a given country s exports (imports) depends on e distribution of share of exports (imports) among its s. Hence a country wi few major s might have a lower HH index value, indicating low concentration, an a country wi more s if e former has its trade more evenly distributed among its s an e latter. 22. Graph 6: Imports of services by EBOPS category: This graph presents e shares of total imports of services accounted for by each service category for e latest year such data are available. 23. Table 1 and table 4: 1 export and import commodities: These tables present e top 1 commodities in terms of 4-digit HS headings for exports and imports, respectively, using e aggregate of trade values for e last ree reporting years as available. For countries which reported e last ree years of data in HS 27 e data in ese tables follow HS 27. For most oer countries e data in ese tables are presented in HS 22 wi data for some years converted from HS 27 into HS 22 as required (see paragraph 33). For a few countries e table contains data according to e HS 1996 or even HS For e convenience of users e last column shows e SITC group (3 digits) at corresponds to e HS heading. The SITC group is identified based on e correlation and conversion tables between HS and SITC, Rev In addition to trade values, e table 1 and table 4 also present unit values. Unit values are expressed in U.S. dollars (US$) per unit (kg, unit, Megawatt-hours (Mwh), pair, litre, carat etc.). The calculation of unit values on e heading level requires e availability of value and quantity information for all of e underlying detailed data (6-digit subheadings). In some cases e quantity information for some sub-headings was estimated (see paragraph 32) and us e unit value for e heading appears in italics. If quantity information appears incorrect it is not shown. 2. Table 2 and table 3: Merchandise Exports and Imports by SITC sections: These tables show e structure of exports and imports in 213 (or e latest available year) by SITC sections in terms of value, share of e total, grow in respect to e previous year and annual average grow for e last four years which is calculated as e geometric mean. 1 For e application of HH index to measure concentration in merchandise trade, no resholds are known to be established. Users might wish to define a specific limit of e HH index to indicate low concentration and a limit to indicate high concentration. However, based on e analyses of e data presented in e yearbook, following resholds were applied to determine level of concentration of merchandise trade, bo exports and imports: HH <.1 Diversified;.1 < HH <.2 Moderately concentrated; HH >.2 Highly concentrated. 11 The conversion tables are available on e website of UNSD at xvi 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

19 Sources 26. Data on e total merchandise imports and exports of countries (or areas) presented in world table A are mainly taken from International Financial Statistics (IFS) published monly by e International Monetary Fund (IMF). They are supplemented wi data from oer sources such as national publications and websites and e United Nations Monly Bulletin of Statistics Questionnaire for e following countries: Andorra, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Gibraltar, Montenegro (beginning 26), Niue, Russian Federation (beginning 1994), Serbia and Montenegro (before 26), State of Palestine, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos, Tuvalu and Uzbekistan. Data on world merchandise exports by provenance and destination presented in world table D are derived from UN Comtrade data supplemented by estimated data for nonavailable countries and areas. 27. The data in e country profiles in part 2 of e publication (country trade profiles) are obtained from data directly submitted by countries to e United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). All data published in e country profiles is available in UN Comtrade (http://comtrade.un.org) and UN ServiceTrade (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/servicetrade). 28. In some cases, original countries data are received via international and regional organizations, such as e Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), e Food and Agriculture Organization of e United Nations (FAO), e International Monetary Fund (IMF), e International Trade Centre (ITC), e Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat, e Common Market of Eastern and Souern Africa (COMESA), e Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and e UN regional commissions such as e Economic Commission for Latin America and e Caribbean (ECLAC) and e Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). Data for e European Union (EU-28) is received from e Statistical Office of e European Union (Eurostat). 29. Table A shows data as available by end of May 214 and table D uses data as available on UN Comtrade by end of May 214. The country tables and graphs contain data available in UN Comtrade and UN ServiceTrade by mid-june 214. Meod of Estimation 3. Estimates for missing data in Table A are made in order to arrive at regional totals, but estimated data are not shown. The estimation process is automated using quarterly year-on-year grow rates for e extrapolation of missing quarterly data, unless quarterly data can be estimated using available monly data wiin e quarter. Regional totals containing estimated data are printed in bold. Estimates are reviewed and adjusted where necessary. 31. Data for missing reporters in Table D are estimated eier rough e extrapolation of e data of e two adjacent years, or, if is is not possible, rough e use of e data reported by e trading s, at is, rough mirror data. Mirror statistics are also used in case e distribution or confidential data make it necessary to adjust e reported data. All estimates are reviewed and adjusted where necessary. 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I xvii

20 32. For part 2, e country trade profiles, modifications to e received data are only made in cases where e provided data are obviously incomplete, in particular in e case of unreported petroleum oils exports in merchandise data. Quantity information at is missing or does not comply wi e World Customs Organization s recommendations are estimated and flagged in UN Comtrade accordingly. For data processed before June 29 some quantity information at were identified as extreme meaning far outside a pre-defined normal range were replaced in UN Comtrade wi estimates. The estimation of quantities is eier based on e country s own data or uses standard unit values (SUVs) which are derived from e available information for all countries in e previous year. Conversion of classification 33. Conversion of classification for merchandise data: All countries follow recommendation to report eir detailed merchandise trade data according to e Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) (see paragraph 4.C.v). In order to provide comparable time series data in UN Comtrade for all countries, e data reported in e latest HS classification is converted into earlier versions of e HS, and to corresponding or earlier versions of e Standard International Trade Classification (SITC). 12 The latest edition of e HS classification was its fif and was released in 212. The commodities in is publication are mostly presented according to e one-digit sections of SITC, Rev.3 as e SITC sections provide a limited set of economically meaningful main categories. 13 In addition, data according to SITC, Rev.3 is available for long time series. In two tables, commodities are presented in terms of four-digit headings of e HS, often according to e 27 version of HS but in many cases also in earlier HS versions. 14 The HS headings provide a meaningful description of traded commodities at a relatively detailed level and also allow e presentation of quantity information. 34. Conversion of classification for trade in services data: For services data, most countries are still compiling data according to e EBOPS 22 classification and, erefore, all services data presented in is Yearbook are presented according to is classification. For e cases in which a country has transitioned to e EBOPS 21 classification (as presented in MSTIS 21) and did not provide UNSD wi data based on EBOPS 22, and for ose countries for which e IMF is e only data source, 1 e data were converted to e EBOPS 22 classification in order to maintain consistency across countries. The conversion was based on e IMF s BPM- to-bpm6 Conversion Matrix (available at Detailed information on e data conversions used for UN Comtrade can be found on e website of e United Nations Statistics Division at: 13 Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 3, Statistical Papers, Series M No.34/Rev.3, (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.86.XVII.12). SITC, Revision 4 was accepted by e United Nations Statistical Commission at its irty-seven session in March 26 (see Official Records of e Economic and Social Council, 26, Supplement No. 4, (E/CN.3/26/32), chapter III, para. 26 (b)). Yet, it will require several years until a time series of data according to SITC, Revision 4 will be sufficiently long for publication. 14 World Customs Organization, Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, Third Edition (22) (HS 22); World Customs Organization, Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, Second Edition (1996) (HS 1996); World Customs Organization, Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (1992) (HS 1992). 1 The IMF is only presenting data on a BPM6 basis (which corresponds to e EBOPS 21 classification) for data from 29 onwards. xviii 213 International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Vol. I

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