Focus on the Structure of Higher Education in Europe 2006/07 National Trends in the Bologna Process

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1 Directorate-General for Education and Culture Focus on the Structure of Higher Education in Europe 2006/07 National Trends in the Bologna Process European Commission

2 ANCE Initiated in 1999, adjustments to the higher appropriate. The Master s degree and market- in the field of medicine and engineering, are education system in accordance with the oriented Bachelor s degree, in accordance still based on the long-cycle structure). principles of the Bologna Process have been accompanied by a series of regulations published since April Among the most noteworthy is the 8 April 2002 decree to adapt the French higher education system to the development of the EHEA (European Higher Education Area) for the purpose of implementing the -master-doctorat (LMD, or Bachelor-Master-Doctorate) reform. In addition to its impact on the degree system, this decree also promotes the widespread use of ECTS and the Diploma Supplement. The old degree system was based on three main cycles (with a shorter cycle within the first cycle lasting two years and leading to an intermediate diploma), but did not correspond to the structure as described in the framework of the Bologna Process. The new structure based on three main cycles with the modular organisation of degrees in credits for Bachelor s (180 ECTS credits) and Master s degrees (120 ECTS credits, i.e. 300 credits after the baccalauréat, or secondary school diploma) does, however, correspond. with the agreed on principle, for the EHEA, of employability especially for first-level studies, were introduced in The conditions for being awarded a Master s degree were defined in the decree of 25 April The (marketoriented or research-oriented) Master s degree was introduced in the 2002/03 academic year and requires 120 ECTS credits after the Bachelor s degree, i.e. 300 credits after the baccalauréat, thus marking the Bac + 5 level of studies. For the first time, with the Master s degree, the structure of higher education is applicable to both universities and grandes écoles. The LMD reform involves all higher-education institutions (HEIs). Its implementation has been effective since the beginning of the 2006 academic year for all universities, following the negotiation of four-year contracts between universities and the state. The restructuring of architecture studies, which were once provided as long-cycle studies, has been effective since the 30 June and 20 July 2005 decrees. By 2010, ISCED level 5B programmes are also provided in certain HEIs. They are usually organised as single-cycle studies lasting two years (or up to four years for paramedical studies). A second cycle lasting one year (leading to a market-oriented Bachelor s degree) is offered for technology studies. A Bachelor s/master s structure does not exist, however, at ISCED level 5B. Degrees at this level may provide access to studies at ISCED level 5A via bridging courses and the recognition of prior learning (studies and/or professional experiences), allowing ECTS credits to be taken into account and exemption from all or some ISCED level 5A programmes (Bachelor s and/or Master s). Doctoral studies were also restructured in April 2002 and August Organized in doctoral schools, they are accessible after graduation with a master degree or by special authorisation to students who have completed the equivalent level of studies abroad or who benefit from the recognition of prior Each higher education institution was free the LMD reform will apply to all HEIs and most learning. Doctoral schools provide doctoral to propose the programme deemed most of their programmes (some branches, mostly candidates with doctoral programmes useful 159

3 ANCE to their research projects as well as doctoral partnerships was expanded to all levels of implementation of the process, support training courses required to get acquainted degrees by the decree dated 11 May and advice may be provided by institutional with a widened scientific knowledge. As a general rule, after three years, these studies lead to a PhD s degree after a thesis defence. PhD s degrees are issued by universities, Écoles Normales Supérieures (grandes écoles for sciences and letters) and public HEIs accreditated (habilités) to do so alone or jointly, by decree from the minister in charge of higher education and research. Approximately 40 % of students who begin doctoral studies benefit from employment contracts (as research scholarship s holders, temporary teaching and research assistants, or beneficiaries of a CIE contract). The possibility to prepare a PhD. within the framework of joint international thesis supervision has been widened since the 6 January 2005 decree. In the same respect, following an agreement of principle between the Ministère de l éducation nationale, de l enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (MENESR, or Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research) and the three HEI conferences concerned, The Répertoire national des certifications professionnelles (RNCP, or National Repertory for Qualifications), representing the National Framework for Qualifications (diplomas, degrees and certificates), was introduced by the 17 January 2002 law. Institutions have begun an overhaul of programmes offered in ECTS credits since the 8 April 2002 decree, and of the organisation of modular programmes allowing more flexibility and better gradual study guidance of students. ECTS is already used for transfer and accumulation and will be fully implemented by 2007/08 for all programmes related to the LMD system. Within the framework of the LMD reform, the Diploma Supplement (DS) is being implemented progressively by all HEIs. By 2008, it will be issued automatically by all institutions free of charge, in French and in another language chosen by the institution. Incentives have been introduced by the public authorities in view of the widespread advisers and education advisers within the framework of the contractual agreement initiated by the MENESR, in collaboration with the team of Bologna promoters. At the financial level, if no such incentive measures exist, the negotiation of fouryear contracts may allow support to be provided for certain elements involved in the implementation of LMD, and less frequently for the implementation of ECTS and the DS. By virtue of the evaluation/ negotiation/ contract process, the contractual agreement represents a control/follow-up measure used by the MENESR to ensure the widespread implementation of the three-cycle structure, ECTS and the DS. With regard to quality assessment, the general principle established by regulations in 2002 is that of regular internal and external assessments of HEIs as well as programmes and qualification award measures. The regulation is based on periodic assessment, and no measures (recognition, labelling, the granting of joint degrees or double implementation of the three-cycle structure, funding) are taken by the state without such degrees in the context of international ECTS and the DS. In order to facilitate the an external evaluation. 160

4 ANCE HIGHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 19 France 2006/07 HIGHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2006/07 Medicine Dental studies Pharmacy Midwifery Veterinary medicine Architecture Humanities, sciences, engineering, commerce Humanities, languages, human and social sciences, engineering, law, economics, science and technology Technology Production and services Paramedical training First and second cycles Third cycles and further courses Notional ages/length corresponding Length of studies to full-time studies UNIVERSITÉ DF2CEM DE de docteur en médecine + DES ÉCOLE DE SAGES-FEMMES LYCÉE (CPGE) ÉCOLE VÉTÉRINAIRE ÉCOLE NATIONALE D'ARCHITECTURE DETA LYCÉE (CPGE) / GRANDE ÉCOLE / ÉCOLE SUPÉRIEURE ÉCOLE SUPÉRIEURE (cycle intégré) UNIVERSITÉ master recherche (M1) master professionnel (M1) DEUG professionnelle IUT / UNIVERSITÉ DUT professionnelle LYCÉE (STS) UNIVERSITÉ / ÉCOLE SPÉCIALISÉE UNIVERSITÉ BTS professionnelle DE / certificat DE DEA diplôme / master master recherche (M2) master professionnel (M2) DE DE de docteur en chirurgie dentaire DE de docteur en chirurgie dentaire + AEA AHU DSA HMNOP doctorat DE de docteur en pharmacie DE de docteur en pharmacie + DES Source: Eurydice. ISCED 5A (1st or 2nd programme) ISCED 6 programme Selection procedure/limitation of places at institutional level ISCED 5B (1st or 2nd programme) Further qualification Selection procedure/limitation of places at national/regional level AEA Attestation d Études Approfondies DEA Diplôme d État d Architecte(conférant le grade de master) DSA Diplôme de Spécialisation et d Approfondissement AHU Année Hospitalo-Universitaire DES Diplôme d Études Spécialisées DUT Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie BTS Brevet de Technicien Supérieur DETA Diplôme d Études en Architecture Habilitation de l architecte diplômé d État à l exercice HMNOP (conférant le grade de ) de la maîtrise d œuvre en son nom propre CPGE Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Écoles DEUG Diplôme d Études Universitaires Générales IUT Institut Universitaire de Technologie DE Diplôme d État DF2CEM Diplôme de fin de deuxième cycle des études médicales STS Section de Techniciens Supérieurs The highly selective classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) are of a literary, commercial or scientific nature. Their main purpose is to prepare students for the competitive entrance examinations for the grandes écoles. For students who do not pass the exams, the classes are still generally recognised by universities, which may permit graduates of the CPGE to enter at the level. The most prestigious of the grandes écoles are the écoles normales supérieures (ENS), the écoles d ingénieurs, the écoles de commerce et de gestion, and the instituts d études politiques (which involve just one year of preparation in a fully integrated course; a fully integrated course can consist of any form of preparation offered within the institution itself). This diagram does not include the écoles and instituts that provide professional education (accessible to applicants who have achieved a diplôme national d enseignement supérieur after three years of study, or are state-remunerated public sector trainees, and who have passed the competitive entrance examination). The professional education institutions most particularly concerned are the École Nationale d Administration (ENA), the Instituts Régionaux d Administration (IRA), the École Nationale de la Magistrature (ENM), the École Nationale de la Santé Publique (ENSP) and the Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres (IUFM), which will soon be integrated into the universities. 161

5 ANCE The external evaluation system is administrative authority with the mission to Currently, the CNE, for the evaluation of undergoing a complete overhaul with the creation of the Agence d évaluation de la recherche et de l enseignement supérieur (AERES, or Agency for the Evaluation of Research and Higher Education), which will launch its activities in Until 2006/07, national periodic external assessment of research as well as programmes and degrees, within the framework of the contractual agreement concerning HEIs, is developed by different authorities. The results of the external evaluation of all activities scientific, educational and management are considered during negotiation of the four-year contract between a university or HEI and the state. They are also taken into account when the state, which guarantees the quality of degrees, takes decisions regarding the habilitation (a kind of accreditation) to award them. Engineering, business and management programmes must assess public HEIs. The goal of its activity is to make overall evaluations of institutions with a view to helping them exercise and develop their autonomy and their quality. The evaluation of an institution by the CNE, accompanied with evaluation reports and made available to the public on the internet (www.cne-evaluation.fr), is based on an internal evaluation (self-evaluation) report provided by the institution. To help institutions undertake internal evaluations, a Livre de Références (Handbook of Standards for Quality) was prepared by a working group from the CNE and the Inspection générale de l administration de l éducation nationale et de la recherche (General Inspectorate for National Education and Research), in collaboration with the Conférence des présidents d université (CPU, or French Rectors institutions, and the Commission des titres d ingénieur (CTI, or Commission for the Engineer s Degree), for the accreditation of engineering programmes are preparing for an external evaluation of their activities. In terms of internal evaluations, the methods for evaluating the training and teaching provided by universities are set by the administrative board upon proposal from the board for curricular and student life, boards on which elected student representatives sit. The systematic participation of these student representatives in the various internal boards within universities and their components enable students to be involved in defining the main lines of the institutional policy and life. In accordance with the principles of the Bologna Process, the contractual agreement with universities and other HEIs has emphasised the reinforcement of internal evaluation systems be assessed by specific national committees in order for institutions to receive the habilitation to award national degrees. The AERES will in particular be in charge of activities ensured since 1984 by the Comité Conference), and was published in November Members of the CNE include foreign academics. Academic and non-academic experts from France or abroad are asked to participate in evaluations. Students take part as a priority. From 2007, the new agency, AERES, created by the research programme law of 18 April 2006, will cover all external evaluation activities. It will take over the current activities national d évaluation (CNE, or National in the boards of the institutions through their of the CNE (for evaluation of HEIs and research Evaluation Committee, an independent elected representatives. institutions), the Comité national d évaluation 162

6 de la recherche (CNER, or National Research Evaluation Committee, for the evaluation of national research organisations), and the Mission scientifique, technique et pédagogique (MSTP, or Scientific, Technical and Educational Mission, for the evaluation of research teams, study programmes and degrees). AERES, an independent administrative authority, will therefore cover Legislative and/or official references ANCE activities related to studies and/or research at HEIs as well as national research organisations. The composition and responsibilities of its council as well as its operational policy were specified in the 3 November 2006 decree. The CNE and the CTI have been members of the European Association for Quality Assurance for Higher Education (ENQA) since 2000 and 2005 respectively. The CNE is also a member of the International Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (INQAAHE). The AERES, which is taking over the activities of the CNE, will have to apply for ENQA membership. The agencies or bodies responsible for quality assurance at the national level are not subject to peer review. Date Term in English Term in national language 8 April 2002 Decree No related to university diplomas and degrees and national degrees Décret n relatif aux grades et titres universitaires et aux diplômes nationaux Decree No concerning adjustments to the French higher education system to develop the European Higher Education Area 16 April 2002 Decree No related to the recognition of higher education studies completed in France or abroad Décret n portant application au système français d enseignement supérieur de la construction de l Espace européen de l enseignement supérieur Décret n relatif à la validation d études supérieures accomplies en France ou à l étranger 23 April 2002 Decree related to university studies leading to a Bachelor s degree Arrêté relatif aux études universitaires conduisant au grade de 24 April 2002 Decree No related to the recognition of prior learning by higher education institutions 25 April 2002 Decree related to the national Master s degree Decree related to doctoral studies Décret n relatif à la validation des acquis de l expérience par les établissements d enseignement supérieur Arrêté relatif au diplôme national de master Arrêté relatif aux études doctorales 6 January 2005 Decree related to joint international thesis supervision Arrêté relatif à la cotutelle internationale de thèse 163

7 ANCE Date Term in English Term in national language 11 May 2005 Decree No related to the awarding of degrees in international partnerships Décret n relatif à la délivrance de diplômes en partenariat international 30 June 2005 Decree No related to studies in architecture Décret n du 30 juin 2005 relatif aux études d architecture 20 July 2005 Decree related to architecture studies leading to a Bachelor s degree and Master s degree in architecture Decree related to the structuring and validation methods of architecture studies 3 August 2005 Decree related to the university degree in technology in the European Higher Education Area 18 April 2006 Planning law No for research (notably articles 8 to 11 concerning the Agency for the Evaluation of Research and Higher Education) Arrêté relatif aux cycles de formation des études d architecture conduisant au diplôme d études en architecture conférant le grade de et au diplôme d Etat d architecte conférant le grade de Master Arrêté relatif à la structuration et aux modalités de validation des enseignements dans les études d architecture Arrêté relatif au diplôme universitaire de technologie dans l Espace européen d enseignement supérieur Loi de programme n pour la recherche (notamment articles 8 à 11 relatifs à l agence d évaluation de la recherche et de l enseignement supérieur) 7 August 2006 Decree related to doctoral studies Arrêté relatif à la formation doctorale 3 November 2006 Decree No related to the organisation and functioning of the Agency for the Evaluation of Research and Higher Education 11 avril 2007 Decree n related to the brevet de technicien supérieur general guidelines. Décret n relatif à l organisation et au fonctionnement de l Agence d évaluation de la recherche et de l enseignement supérieur Décret n relatif au règlement général du brevet de technicien supérieur. 164

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