SWEBOK Certification Program. Software Engineering Management

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1 SWEBOK Certification Program Software Engineering Management

2 Copyright Statement Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the Publisher. Permission to reprint/republish this material for commercial, advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from IEEE by writing to the IEEE Intellectual Property Rights Office, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ or pubs IEEE MAKES THIS DOCUMENT AVAILABLE ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND MAKES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO THE ACCURACY, CAPABILITY, EFFICIENCY MERCHANTABILITY, OR FUNCTIONING OF THIS DOCUMENT. IN NO EVENT WILL IEEE BE LIABLE FOR ANY GENERAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY, OR SPECIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF IEEE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 1

3 Software Engineering Management - Roadmap Initiation and Scope Definition Software Project Planning Software Project Enactment Review and Evaluation Closure Software Engineering Measurement Software Management Tools Software Engineering Management - Slide-2

4 Software Engineering Management As per (IEEE ), Software Engineering Management can be defined as the application of management activities planning, coordinating, measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting to ensure that the development and maintenance of software is systematic, disciplined, and quantified The following aspects complicate software engineering management Clients often a lack of appreciation for the complexity inherent in software engineering, particularly in relation to the impact of changing requirements Often software engineering processes themselves generate the need for new or changed client requirements As a result, software is often built in an iterative process rather than a sequence of closed tasks Software engineering necessarily incorporates aspects of creativity and discipline. Maintaining an appropriate balance between the two is often difficult The degree of novelty and complexity of software is often extremely high There is a rapid rate of change in the underlying technology Software Engineering Management - Slide-3

5 Content Area 1 Initiation and Scope Definition Software Engineering Management - Slide-4

6 Content Area 1: Initiation and Scope Definition Initiation and Scope Definition Software Engineering Management - Slide-5

7 Content Area 2 Software Project Planning Software Engineering Management - Slide-6

8 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-7

9 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-8

10 Process Planning Requirements define the end result of software development Project plan describes how to get from the stated requirements to the functioning software As per IEEE/EIA Std , project plan elements include Resources needed to execute the tasks Allocation of tasks Assignment of responsibilities Quality control measures to be used throughout Provision of environment and infrastructure Software Engineering Management - Slide-9

11 Lifecycle Models Waterfall (linear) Prototyping (iterative) Incremental (iterative) Evolutionary (iterative) Spiral (iterative) Software Engineering Management - Slide-10

12 Waterfall and Prototyping Model Implementation Test Installation and Checkout Operation and Maintenance Retirement Software Engineering Management - Slide-11 Prototyping model can be used with other models besides just waterfall

13 Iterative and Evolutionary Model Iterative Model Concept Exploration Defined for each iteration or just once Requirements Design Iterations Implementation Test Installation and Checkout Ongoing maintenance occurs as soon as the first tested implementation is in the Software Engineering Management - Slide-12 field. Evolutionary Model Partial Requirements Prototype Additional Requirements Operation Iterations Retirement

14 Spiral Model Iterations are independent, but knowledge gained is rolled over as project grows in size Spiral Model explicitly considers risk in every iteration Software Engineering Management - Slide-13

15 Risk Analysis against Selecting a Life-Cycle Model Once through (Waterfall) Incremental Evolutionary Risk Item Requirements not well understood System too large to do at once Rapid changes in technology anticipated may change requirements Limited staff or budget available now Risk Level H M H M Risk Item Requirements not well understood User prefers all capabilities at first delivery Rapid changes in technology anticipated may change requirements Risk Level H M H Risk Item User prefers all capabilities at delivery Risk Level M Source: IEEE/EIA Std Software Engineering Management - Slide-14

16 Risk Analysis for Selecting a Life-Cycle Model Once through (Waterfall) Incremental Evolutionary Opportunity Item User prefers all capabilities at first delivery User prefers to phase out old system all at once Opp Level M L Opportunity Item Early capability is needed System breaks naturally into increments Opp Level Opportunity Item Opp Level H Early capability is needed H M Funding/staffing will be incremental H System breaks naturally into increments Funding/staffing will be incremental User feedback & monitoring of technology changes is needed to understand full requirements M H H Source: IEEE/EIA Std Software Engineering Management - Slide-15

17 Discussion Question What is the difference between iterative and incremental software development? Software Engineering Management - Slide-16

18 Iterative Versus Incremental Incremental Staging & scheduling strategy Various parts of the system are developed and built at different improve parts of the product times Iteration is examined for Integrated as they are completed modification versus integrating in one go But not shipped Increments may be shipped Helps improve the development process Works well with waterfall or iterative approaches Iterative Rework scheduling strategy Rework strategy to revisit and Helps improve the product Works well with incremental development Reference: Software Engineering Management - Slide-17

19 Discussion Question What are the principal activities and elements of software project planning? Software Engineering Management - Slide-18

20 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-19

21 Determination of Deliverables Project plan specifies the project deliverables which may include, without being limited to: The operational software Customer requirements Functional specifications Design specifications Design documentation Source code User manuals Principles of operation Installation instructions Maintenance procedures Training materials Software Engineering Management - Slide-20

22 Make versus Buy Decisions To evaluate the relative merits of building, buying, or reusing software, the project manager has to consider the following Evaluate whether to reuse existing components or buy off the shelf components Plan for any use of third parties Procure software and select suppliers Determine training needs and how to address them Before purchasing or reusing software, the project manager must evaluate Whether the software truly satisfies the requirements Whether the software is compatible with the rest of the system Software Engineering Management - Slide-21

23 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-22

24 Estimation of Size Size in SLOC Size Measures Size in function points 1. Count features internal inputs or files; external outputs, inquiries, or interfaces) 2. Weight features for level of complexity 3. Adjust to account for 14 factors affecting functional size Gaffney and Cruikshank identify the following 14 factors for function point estimation: Data communications Distributed functions Performance Heavily used operational configuration Transaction rate Online data entry Design for end user efficiency Online update (for logical internal files) Complex processing Reusability of system code Operational ease Multiple sites Ease of change Reference: Thayer, Richard H. Software Engineering Project Management, 2nd ed. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society, 2000 Software Engineering Management - Slide-23

25 Estimation of Effort Effort estimation depend upon the project size estimation Combine size with productivity estimation to compute effort in person months SLOC/person month Productivity Measures Function points /person month Code statements /person month Software Engineering Management - Slide-24

26 Estimation of Schedule Project manager must create the most efficient schedule keeping in mind the available resources and the nature of tasks Milestone chart method (for smaller projects) Lists task completion time; does not show task interactions Critical Path Method (CPM) Critical path consists of all tasks that must wait for prior completion of other tasks. Other tasks can be run simultaneously in parallel Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Has a network of tasks like CPM but has project events as milestones instead of project activities. Can specifies probabilities for meeting deadlines for each event (this is especially useful when doing estimations for Research and Development projects where the causeeffect relationship is not very well established) Software Engineering Management - Slide-25

27 PERT/CPM Chart Reference: Software Engineering Management - Slide-26

28 Estimation of Schedule Gantt chart method Is a bar chart that illustrates start and end dates for all tasks Provides a visual representation of the degree to which tasks overlap in time Does not explicitly display the dependent tasks like PERT/CPM Full wall scheduling method Use a large wall containing a grid to indicate weeks of project time Post it notes are used by team members to indicate the start and end dates of tasks Invites most participation from team members than other methods Does not show task relationships Poorly adapts to revision when changes occur to tasks/times Software Engineering Management - Slide-27

29 Gantt Chart Reference: Gantt Chart Tutorial Software Engineering Management - Slide-28

30 Discussion Question When would you use a PERT chart or a GANTT chart? Explain. Software Engineering Management - Slide-29

31 Estimation of Cost Convert all preceding estimates into costs. This includes all resources required to complete all the designated tasks E.g. labor, tools, travel, facilities, material items (e.g., off the shelf software) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) allows bottom up costing This method supports Earned Value Management (EVM) approach to project management Costing should account for Peripherals when outsourcing Overhead (e.g., benefits, support staff) for internal labor Sample Chart showing Earned Value versus Planned Value versus Actual Cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-30

32 Discussion Question A software development project is behind schedule and requires 6 man months effort for completion. The team working on the project currently consists of 3 employees. In order to finish the project by the deadline which is in 1 month, the project manager decides to add 3 new software developers to the existing team. Do you think the project will be completed in time? Explain. Software Engineering Management - Slide-31

33 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-32

34 Resource Allocation Resources i.e. tools, people, facilities need to be assigned for specific tasks Allocation of people requires balance of expertise and personalities Training of team members can help Teams to become productive quickly Select leaders Improve communication skills Schedule/cost adjustment is needed if resources become unexpectedly unavailable Project manager may need to alter team size and structure so that concurrent activities can be effectively executed Software Engineering Management - Slide-33

35 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-34

36 Risk Management All project management activities can be seen as risk management E.g., Cost estimates mitigate the risk of losing money The ISO/IEC Std vocabulary defines risk management as: (1) an organized process for identifying and handling risk factors. (2) an organized means of identifying and measuring risk (risk assessment) and developing, selecting, and managing options (risk analysis) for resolving (risk handling) these risks. (3) organized, analytic process to identify what might cause harm or loss (identify risks); to assess and quantify the identified risks; and to develop and, if needed, implement an appropriate approach to prevent or handle causes of risk that could result in significant harm or loss. Software Engineering Management - Slide-35

37 Risk Management Process As per IEEE/EIA Std Plan and implement risk management Manage project risk profile Risk management plan is negotiated & accepted by all stakeholders. Assign resources and responsibilities. Perform risk analysis Identify project s risks as well as priority, status, threshold, and action requests for each risk Perform risk treatment Identify conditions that cause risks and consequences of those risks Perform risk monitoring Select, plan, monitor, and control actions to decrease risk exposure Evaluate risk management process Review/update risk levels, assess effectiveness of risk treatment, search for new risks & sources Inform stakeholders about the quality of risk management Software Engineering Management - Slide-36

38 Techniques to Manage Risks Once risks are identified, they can be managed in the following ways: Avoidance Avoid high risks E.g., Choose a component that performs acceptably but has a lower risk than another component Control Use traditional project management techniques to control risks E.g., Use QA, reviews, and audits Assumption If potential benefits are high enough and probability of risk occurrence is low, accept the risks Transfer If a risk seems high in one area, transfer it another area E.g., If subcontracting development involves a high risk of late delivery, bring offshore development to in house for tighter control Software Engineering Management - Slide-37

39 Discussion Question Identifying and managing risks are an important part of effective management of the software engineering effort. Risks are documented: A. In a concise statement of what went wrong and when they occurred in the project lifecycle B. As clearly defined tasks in the project schedule C. In a concise statement that includes the context, conditions, and consequences of risk occurrence D. As clearly defined line items in the project budget Answer: C Software Engineering Management - Slide-38

40 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-39

41 Quality Management Project manager works with all stakeholders to establish a quality plan for both the process and products As per IEEE/EIA Std , a quality assurance management plan should include: Quality standards, methodologies, procedures, and tools for performing the quality assurance activities (or their references in organization s official documentation). Procedures for contract review and coordination thereof. Procedures for identification, collection, filing, maintenance, and disposition of quality records. Resources, schedule, and responsibilities for conducting the quality assurance activities. Selected activities and tasks from supporting processes such as Verification, Validation, Joint Review, Audit, and Problem Resolution. More details are covered in Content Domain Software Quality Software Engineering Management - Slide-40

42 Project Planning Process 7. Planning to manage the plan 6. Developing a quality management process 5. Identifying and Managing risks Project Planning 4. Allocating resources (equipment, facilities, people) 1. Planning the process (lifecycle stages, methods, tools, tasks) 2. Determining deliverables (buy vs. develop vs. reuse) 3. Estimating effort, schedule and cost Software Engineering Management - Slide-41

43 Plan Management Project management plan helps assess how the project is faring. Therefore, as the project progresses, the plan must be updated to reflect Revised requirements Extended schedules Changes in testing procedures Modified software functionality Adherence to the plan must be systematically directed, monitored, reviewed, reported, and revised Project management plans are configuration items and are part of the program baseline Thus, changes to a plan should be analyzed, scoped, and submitted to the Change Control Board (CCB) for disposition Software Engineering Management - Slide-42

44 Discussion Question Paul has drafted a software project management plan. Which of the following items should be discussed in this plan? I. Schedule II. Budget III. Requirements IV. Staffing A. I, III, IV only B. I, II, III only C. I, II, IV only D. I, II, III, IV Answer: C Software Engineering Management - Slide-43

45 Content Area 3 Software Project Enactment Software Engineering Management - Slide-44

46 Content Area 3: Software Project Enactment Project Enactment After the project plan has been prepared and approved by stakeholders, the project manager has to implement the plan Enactment involves the following project manager duties: Managing any supplier contracts Monitoring adherence to the plan to discover any significant variances Controlling any problems discovered by monitoring Reporting adherence to the plan to stakeholders both on and outside the team Software Engineering Management - Slide-45

47 Content Area 3: Software Project Enactment Supplier Contract Management Managing agreements with subcontractors who either sell or develop software components introduces special demands on the project manager Process for handling supplier contracts as per IEEE Std. 1062: 1998 Planning organizational strategy Implementing organization s process Determining software requirements Identifying potential suppliers Preparing contract documents Evaluating proposals and selecting suppliers Managing supplier performance Accepting the software Using the software Software Engineering Management - Slide-46

48 Content Area 3: Software Project Enactment Monitoring Plan Adherence At predetermined intervals, the project manager assesses the status of the process to see if there are any variances from the plan Successful monitoring includes the following activities: Analysis of outputs and completion conditions for each task Evaluation of deliverables in terms of required characteristics (such as by reviews and audits) Investigation of effort expenditure, schedule adherence & costs to date Examination of resource usage Among the types of variance that may require action are cost overruns, schedule slippage, incomplete delivery of an item, failure to meet quality standards, status or risks, and risk reports Software Engineering Management - Slide-47

49 Content Area 3: Software Project Enactment Control Process & Reporting To control problems discovered by monitoring, the following needs to be done: Accurate assessment of the real cause of the problems Identification of the side effects of those problems using an appropriate project management model such as CPM/PERT diagrams Making suitable decisions to address the problems as well as their side effects Updating the schedule and cost estimates based on the new decisions Documenting the decisions and communicating them to all relevant parties Reporting is essential for proper monitoring and control of the project The project manager is responsible for establish reporting procedures for the project. These procedures include: Timing, nature, distribution list, and media of communication for the reports Software Engineering Management - Slide-48

50 Content Area 4 Review and Evaluation Software Engineering Management - Slide-49

51 Content Area 4: Review and Evaluation Review and Evaluation Satisfied users provide the ultimate measure of success for a software engineering project. So, it is important to regularly assess progress towards user satisfaction Formal reviews at major milestones help Detect variances from the plan Address the identified variances Communicate the problems and adopted solutions to stakeholders Record review data in a central database Periodic performance reviews help assess concerns such as Individual performance to date Readiness for performing future tasks Relationships within the team and hierarchy The process, itself, should also be subjected to review and revision Software Engineering Management - Slide-50

52 Content Area 5 Closure Software Engineering Management - Slide-51

53 Content Area 5: Closure Software Project Closure The following are project closure criteria: Tasks specified in the plans have been completed, and satisfactory achievement of completion criteria has been confirmed All planned products have been delivered with acceptable characteristics Requirements are checked off and confirmed as satisfied Project objectives have been achieved Closure activities include: Archiving of project materials Updating the organization s measurement database with final project data followed by post project analyses Undertaking the project postmortem so that all issues, problems, and opportunities encountered during the process (particularly via review and evaluation) are analyzed. Lessons are drawn from the process and fed into organizational learning and improvement endeavors Software Engineering Management - Slide-52

54 Content Area 6 Software Engineering Measurement Software Engineering Management - Slide-53

55 Content Area 6: Software Engineering Measurement Software Engineering Measurement Accurate measurement is critical for effective project management ISO/IEC Std identifies four steps in establishing and applying a measurement system: Establish and sustain measurement commitment Plan the measurement process Perform the measurement process Evaluate measurement Software Engineering Management - Slide-54

56 Content Area 6: Software Engineering Measurement Establish & Sustain Measurement Commitment Accept requirements for measurement based on objectives accepted by all relevant parties Create a plan for measuring progress towards each objective Specify the scope of measurement: identify what is to be measured Obtain a formal agreement from management and staff Commit resources for measurement Assign people to carry out specific measurement related tasks Provide funds, training, and tools Software Engineering Management - Slide-55

57 Content Area 6: Software Engineering Measurement Plan the Measurement Process Planning the measurement process includes the following activities: Characterize the organizational unit in terms of organizational processes, application domains, technology, and organizational interfaces Identify and prioritize information needs based on goals, constraints, risks, and problems of the organizational unit Select measures from candidate measures with clear links to information needs, basing selection on priority of information needs and other practical criteria Define data collection, analysis, and reporting procedures Define criteria for evaluating the information products Review, approve, and provide resources for measurement tasks: All stakeholders must review the plan Resources should be made available for implementing the planned and approved measurement tasks Acquire and deploy supporting technologies Software Engineering Management - Slide-56

58 Content Area 6: Software Engineering Measurement Perform the Measurement Process The measurement process can be broken down into four phases: Integrate measurement procedures, such as data collection, with relevant project processes. This may involve changing processes to accommodate the measurement activity or to minimize additional effort required of team members Collect, verify, and store data Analyze data and develop information products. This involves aggregation, transformation, or recording of data as part of analysis. This results, typically, in graphs, numbers, or other indications that must be interpreted to yield conclusions for presentation to stakeholders Communicate results to users and other stakeholders Software Engineering Management - Slide-57

59 Content Area 6: Software Engineering Measurement Evaluate Measurement As the project progresses and measurements are taken, the measurement activities and products can be evaluated and improved as necessary. The project team may: Evaluate information products against criteria to determine their strength or weakness, and seek feedback from users. Record lessons in a database Evaluate the measurement process, and include feedback from users. Record lessons in a database Identify potential improvements Software Engineering Management - Slide-58

60 Content Area 7 Software Management Tools Software Engineering Management - Slide-59

61 Content Area 7: Software Management Tools Software Management Tools Software engineering management tools can be very helpful in monitoring and measuring the program process Software engineering management tools can be divided into three categories Project planning and tracking tools Used in software project effort measurement, cost estimation, and scheduling E.g. Primavera, MS Project etc. Risk management tools Used to identify, estimate, and monitor risks Measurement tools Assist in performing activities related to the software measurement program Software Engineering Management - Slide-60

62 Module 3 Chapter Debrief Software Engineering Management Software Engineering Management - Slide-61 End of Module 4

63 Suggested Reading & References Boehm, Barry W. A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement. Computer, Vol. 21, Issue 5, May 1998 Brooks, Frederick P. The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1975 Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK), 2004 ed. Los Alamitos, California: Press, 2004 Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering, 8th ed., Addison Wesley, 2006 Thayer, Richard H. Software Engineering Project Management, 2nd ed. Los Alamitos, California:, 2000 Thayer, Richard H., and Mark J. Christensen, eds. Software Engineering, Volume 1: The Development Process, 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley/Los Alamitos, California: Press, 2005 Thayer, Richard H., and Merlin Dorfman, eds. Software Engineering, Volume 2: The Supporting Processes, 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley/Los Alamitos, California: Press, 2005 Software Engineering Management - Slide-62

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