Office of Family Assistance. Evaluation Resource Guide for Responsible Fatherhood Programs

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1 Office of Family Assistance Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

2 Contents Intoduction Backgound Pupose of Evaluation The Pocess of Pogam Evaluation Futhe Reasons fo Evaluating You Poject How to Use Evaluation Infomation What Pogam Evaluation Can Tell You Responsible Fathehood Pogam Model Implemented by the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) Activities to Pomote and Sustain Healthy Maiage and Co-Paent Relationships.. 12 Activities to Impove Paenting Skills and Knowledge Activities to Impove Economic Stability Activities to Incease Fathes Level of Involvement with thei Childen Activities to Facilitate Pesonal Tansfomation Activities to Impove Fathes Level of Connectedness with thei Community Defining You Pogam Model Pogam Theoy Developing a Logic Model What is a Logic Model? Why Develop a Logic Model? Components of a Logic Model Developing You Own Logic Model Evaluation Questions Pocess Evaluation Coe Concepts in Pocess Evaluation Planning You Pocess Evaluation Outcome Evaluation Planning You Outcome Evaluation The Diffeence Between Shot-Tem, Intemediate, and Long-Tem Outcomes Outcome Indicatos Potential Outcomes and Indicatos fo Responsible Fathehood Pojects fo Each of the Six Pogam Model Sevice Aeas Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

3 How Do We Measue Change? The Diffeence Between Desciptive and Compaative Evaluation Designs Oveview of Evaluation Designs Data Souces Oveview of Data Collection Methods Selecting You Evaluation Instuments Assessing Outcome Measues What to Conside When Selecting an Instument. 58 Outcome Measues Appopiate fo the Responsible Fathehood Pogam Models 59 Tips fo Developing You Own Suvey Sample Suvey Items to Measue Common Outcomes of Responsible Fathehood Activities Instuments Cited Bibliogaphy Figues Figue 1 1 The Pogam Evaluation Pocess Figue 2 1 Responsible Fathehood Conceptional Model Figue 4 1 Logic Model: A Visual Repesentation of You Poject Figue 4 2 Seven Reasons to Develop a Logic Model Figue 4 3 Basic Components of a Logic Model Figue 4 4 Sample Logic Model Elements fo a Responsible Fathehood Poject Figue 4 5 An Example of a Logic Model fo a Responsible Fathehood Poject Figue 7 1 Pocess and Outcome Evaluation in the Key Phases of the Evaluation Pocess Figue 7 2 Sample Outcome Indicatos fo the Responsible Fathehood Pojects Figue 7 3 Details of Outcome Indicatos Examples fom Fathehood Activities Figue 8 1 Summay of Commonly Used Data Souces Figue 8 2 Basic Components of a Data Collection Plan Figue 9 1 Types of Measuement Tools Used by Responsible Fathehood Pojects Table of Contents 3

4 Intoduction Backgound The Pesonal Responsibility and Wok Oppotunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 (PL ) was a landmak law, both with espect to the changing elationship between the State and Fedeal levels of govenment, and in the histoy of public pogams to help low-income families with childen. The law specifically eliminated any individual entitlement to o guaantee of assistance and ceated the Tempoay Assistance fo Needy Families (TANF) pogam. TANF eplaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Childen (AFDC); Job Oppotunities and Basic Skill Taining; and Emegency Assistance (EA) pogams. It equies wok in exchange fo time-limited assistance. The fou puposes of the TANF pogam, as descibed in Section 401 of the Social Secuity Act and 45 CFR of the TANF egulations, ae as follows: Povide assistance to needy families so that childen may be caed fo in thei own homes o in the homes of elatives. End the dependence of needy paents on govenment benefits by pomoting job pepaation, wok, and maiage. Pevent and educe the incidence of out-of-wedlock pegnancies and establish an annual numeical goal fo peventing and educing the incidence of these pegnancies. Encouage the fomation and maintenance of two-paent families. Since TANF s passage, states, tibes, and teitoies have the flexibility to implement ceative and innovative pogams that suppot the fomation and maintenance of two-paent maied families. When Congess enacted PRWORA and established the TANF pogam, states wee given the authoity to povide maiage suppot sevices as an acknowledgement that twopaent households ae the most effective envionment fo aising childen. The TANF pogam was enewed in the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 (S.1932), which was signed by Pesident Bush into law in Febuay The TANF and Related Pogams section of the DRA (Section 7103) authoizes the Administation fo Childen and Families (ACF), though the diect administation of the Office of Family Assistance (OFA), to povide competitive funding fo demonstation pojects that pomote healthy maiages and esponsible fathehood. In Septembe of 2006, the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) awaded demonstation gants to 226 oganizations to pomote the oveall well-being of childen and families. These gants wee made in two aeas: 1. Healthy Maiage pogams designed to povide couples with maiage education sevices to help fom and sustain healthy maiages, and 2. Responsible Fathehood pogams designed to pomote esponsible fathehood though healthy maiage education, esponsible paenting education, and fosteing economic stability. The Responsible Fathehood pogam was designed to help fathes ovecome baies that impede them fom becoming effective and nutuing paents while helping them impove thei elationships with thei childen. At the time the gants wee intoduced, fathehood pogams of this kind wee elatively new and unstuctued, so evaluation of fathehood initiatives was also in its infancy. Resouces and exemplas to guide in the planning and evaluation of these pojects wee ae o non-existent. Though its povision of pogammatic ovesight and technical assistance OFA and its contactos have been in a position to obseve the unfolding of these pojects, as well as the challenges the gantees faced in planning, implementing, and evaluating thei fathehood pogamming thus fa. The cuent document was developed in diect esponse to the emeging evaluation needs unique to the OFA s Responsible Fathehood pogamming and its goals. The pupose is to help fill the need fo esouces and models to aid in the planning and evaluation of the Responsible Fathehood pojects. 4 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

5 Backgound infomation fo this esouce guide was gatheed diectly fom OFA gantees at confeence sessions, othe meetings, and visits to the gantee sites. To develop the evaluation topics fo the guide, we dew fom simila handbooks including the Pogam Manage s Guide to Evaluation, a publication developed fo the Administation on Childen, Youth and Families. We also utilized vaious existing evaluation esouces such as the seies of Evaluation Biefs sponsoed by OFA and developed by its contactos. The authos have specifically focused on topics elated to Responsible Fathehood pogam gantees and this infomation should not be consideed an adequate guide to evaluating non OFA sponsoed fathehood pogamming effots. Futhemoe, it should be stessed that this evaluation esouce does not epesent an OFA s official equied evaluation template. No is it intended to eplace pofessional evaluatos o thei judgments. The infomation in this evaluation guide was developed pimaily fo the gantees, poject diectos, and poject staff of the Responsible Fathehood initiatives. While the taget audience fo this document is mainly the non-pofessional evaluato, pofessional evaluatos might also find it beneficial, though basic in some elements. The pupose of the guide is quite simple: To povide infomation and tools to those esponsible fo the planning, implementation, and evaluation of individual Responsible Fathehood pojects so that they can get the most out of thei evaluations. Concepts pesented hee ae einfoced by examples specific to Responsible Fathehood gantees. As this guide coves vaious subtopics elevant to evaluation of Responsible Fathehood pojects, some eades may want to ead it fom the beginning to end. Othes may pefe to sample specific sections of paticula elevance to them. The guide is oganized along the following chaptes: Chapte 1 intoduces the concept of pogam evaluation and pesents the easons fo evaluating you poject; what infomation you can expect to gain; and how to use evaluation infomation to infom you poject. Chapte 2 includes an oveview of the OFA s Responsible Fathehood initiative; intoduction of the Responsible Fathehood conceptual model; and a discussion on defining a pogam model fo you specific poject. Chapte 3 descibes the topic of pogam theoy. Chapte 4 includes a discussion of logic models and also povides tools fo developing a logic model fo you poject. Chapte 5 povides details to help you develop and eview you evaluation questions. Chapte 6 explains the coe concepts of pocess evaluation and povides guidance in pepaing fo pocess evaluation of you poject. Chapte 7 focuses on outcome evaluation and povides a detailed discussion on planning you outcome evaluation within the context of the Responsible Fathehood pogam. The chapte claifies shot-tem, intemediate, and long-tem outcomes and coesponding outcome indicatos. Also included ae tools fo identifying indicatos fo you poject s outcomes. Chapte 8 pesents moe discussion on how to measue you poject outcomes. The chapte explains the diffeence between desciptive and compaative evaluation designs, and offes an oveview of common evaluation designs and data souces applicable to Responsible Fathehood gantees. Finally, chapte 9 povides infomation on selecting appopiate instuments fo you poject evaluation as well offeing tips fo developing you own instuments. Intoduction 5

6 Chapte 1 Pupose of Evaluation Oganizations fom all sectos use pogam evaluation to stay well infomed about evey aspect of a wide ange of thei pogams. With fundes inceasing thei demand fo gantees to follow evidence-based pactices, oganizations poviding social sevice pogams ae also moving towad moe igoous pogam evaluation. Pogam evaluation is an essential component of the Responsible Fathehood pogam, and of Responsible Fathehood pojects funded though the Office of Family Assistance. Evaluation involves the systematic collection, analysis, and use of infomation to answe basic questions egading the oveall effectiveness of a pogam o about specific sevices o activities conducted though the pogam. The tem systematic efes to the stuctued and consistent manne of data collection and analysis that evaluation equies. Using a systematic pocess of collecting data can help you monito you pogam s daily opeations, as well as measue its oveall effectiveness. Pogam evaluation can povide you with cucial feedback that allows you to tack how you poject is woking, identify aeas fo pogam impovement, as well as aid futue planning. Pogam evaluation can also help stakeholdes undestand you poject fom vaious pespectives. As a pogam staff membe, you stive to un an effective pogam. You expeience the day-to-day tasks of opeating the pogam. Howeve, as someone who woks on the font lines, it is often difficult to take a step back and look at how you pogam is unning fom a diffeent point of view. Fo instance, a client o funde may not expeience you pogam the same way that you do, as they ae not able to witness the behind-the-scenes activity necessay to un the pogam. Pogam evaluation allows them to bette undestand what you and you staff expeience each day the successes as well as the challenges. Futhemoe, pogam evaluation can also give you insight into the pespectives of you clients who ae on the eceiving end of social sevices. Thei feedback can help to futhe impove the pogam. The Pocess of Pogam Evaluation Thee is a common misconception that pogam evaluation is simply a one-step pocess at the end of the pogam that answes the question, Did the pogam make an impact? Howeve, pogam evaluation is much moe; it is a pocess that can be used to ceate and sustain effective pogams. With inceasing competition fo funding and fewe available esouces fo needed social pogams, thee is little oom fo guesswok in pogam development. Pogam evaluation involves the sequential activities of needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. It can help oganizations implement pogams that have been shown to wok athe than povide sevices simply because they seem like they should wok. As a community gows, the needs of the population begin to change as well. Oganizations poviding social sevices must be awae of these changes in ode to tailo thei sevices to the populations they seve. Evaluation is a multi-step, ongoing pocess that can povide valuable infomation about a pogam s needs, pogess, impact, and efficiency. Evaluation should begin long befoe you pogam has been implemented, and it should continue thoughout evey phase of the pogam. Pogam evaluation is an iteative and continual pocess of pogam impovement (see figue 6 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

7 1 1) whee each of the fou evaluation aeas infoms the next. The fou aeas inheent to pogam evaluation ae: 1. Needs Assessment: Needs assessment detemines what sevices ae needed and the taget population that these sevices will benefit. It is conducted befoe a pogam is designed and leads to the development of the ultimate goals fo a (poposed) poject, the goals based on community needs and pioities. 2. Pogam Theoy and Logic Model: Thooughly descibes you pogam design (see Chapte 3: Pogam Theoy, and Chapte 4: Logic Models). 3. Pocess Evaluation: Analyzes pogam implementation and sevice delivey; often used to monito pogams and fo couse coection (see Chapte 6: Pocess Evaluation). While an impotant phase of pogam evaluation, needs assessment is not fully included hee since we pesume that the eades of this guide ae aleady past this phase in thei pogam development pocess. 4. Outcome Evaluation: Measues the impact and outcomes of the pogam on you taget population (see Chapte 7: Outcome Evaluation). Figue 1 1 The Pogam Evaluation Pocess Needs Assessment Identifies what sevices ae needed and the population in need of sevices Outcome Evaluation Measues impact/ outcomes of the pogam The Pogam Evaluation Pocess Pogam Theoy Descibes and ationalizes you pogam components Pocess Evaluation Analyzes pogam implementation and sevice delivey Pocess evaluation A pocess evaluation descibes who paticipated in the pogam, the sevices they eceived, and how those sevices wee povided. Pocess evaluation can povide ealy feedback as to whethe pogam implementation poceeded as intended. It can also identify any baies encounteed and/o the possible need fo changes to the oiginal sevice delivey model. Pehaps most impotantly, pocess evaluation can help to answe questions about why a pogam s intended outcomes wee o wee not achieved. Without a systematic pocess evaluation in place, poblems that occu duing pogam implementation may be ovelooked. Pocess evaluation data can be used to demonstate if changes took place as a esult of the intevention o due to othe factos. These data can help explain why change did o did not happen. This capacity to shed light on pogam esults is cucial in developing and maintaining effective social sevice pogams. Pupose of Evaluation 7

8 Sample Questions that Pocess Evaluation Can Answe 1. Was the poject implemented as planned at the staff level (e.g., staff eceived appopiate tainings; oganization was able to hie a taine on time)? 2. Was the poject able to each the estimated numbe of paticipants fom the taget population (e.g. the goal was to enoll 50 fathes in a budgeting wokshop, but the pogam was only able to ecuit 10 fathes and only 5 of these fathes completed the wokshop seies)? 3. Did the demogaphics of the taget population shift (e.g., the poject oiginally planned to only seve fathes but instead the poject povided sevices to entie families)? Outcome evaluation Outcome evaluation is used to measue the esults (outcomes) of a pogam, in a way that detemines whethe the poject poduced the intended changes fo individuals, families, o the community. Wheeas pocess evaluation can addess milestones such as the numbe of fathes who attend healthy paenting classes, it does not yield infomation about whethe changes have occued including, fo example, whethe fathes knowledge of healthy paenting has inceased. Outcome evaluation speaks to this issue by assessing whethe thee have been changes in paticipants knowledge, attitudes, skills, o behavios. Outcomes include changes that ae shot-tem, intemediate, and those that ae achieved ove the long-tem. Futhe Reasons fo Evaluating You Poject Accountability. Pogam evaluation can help ensue that you pogam is deliveing its sevices and activities in the way that you poposed to delive them. In cases whee pogam sevices need to be modified, pogam evaluation can help explain why these changes wee made. Shaing knowledge. By shaing you evaluation esults with othe oganizations in you field, you can help othes avoid e-inventing the wheel. You can also lean a geat deal fom othes evaluations about how to appoach difficult situations o challenges. Pogam impovement. A well-designed pogam evaluation pocess will help monito sevice delivey and sevice impact. The feedback fom pogam evaluation can povide you ideas on how to impove, coect, o modify aspects of you pogam to enhance effectiveness. Testing a theoy. Pogams typically opeate unde the assumption that the sevices and activities they povide will lead to specific outcomes fo thei taget population. Howeve, without pogam evaluation (a systematic way to collect infomation about you pogam), it is impossible to show that these assumptions ae coect. Facilitating infomed decisions. In the face of budget cuts, it is often difficult to make the decision as to which aspects of a pogam to cut. Pogam evaluation can help facilitate the decision by identifying the stengths and weaknesses of a pogam. Evaluation can also elicit infomation that can be used to modify pogams to become moe cost and time efficient. Sustainability. The data collected though pogam evaluation can povide evidence that you pogam is achieving success, theeby offeing you a solid basis fo pusuing futhe funding o othe suppot in ode to continue poviding sevices. Community suppot. As a community-based oganization, it is in you best inteest to gain suppot and buy-in fom those living in you community. By shaing esults of you pogam evaluation, you can gain cedibility within the community and make you oganization s pactices moe tanspaent to the public. This can help gain moe suppot fo fundaising events and help you obtain efeals to you pogam. 8 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

9 Reducing guesswok. How did you oganization decide which sevices to povide? At times social sevice povides base thei decisions mainly on what they think would be helpful o needed. The poblem with this appoach, howeve, is that such decisions can be costly and not guaanteed to impact the taget population. Rathe than basing sevices on guesswok, effective pogam evaluation can help you detemine community needs and how those needs should be addessed. How to Use Evaluation Infomation Pogam evaluation yields impotant infomation that not only can help you identify actions needed to make coections o adjustments to you pogam, but also povides infomation to aid futue planning. Steps you take based on pogam evaluation findings can help you impove you pogam and incease its sustainability. Pogam Impovement How will you ensue that you pogam is addessing the eve-changing needs of the community? Once you have assessed the pogam s impact and client outcomes, the infomation gained fom you evaluation effots can be used to help you make infomed decisions about how the pogam can be futhe impoved to make an even stonge impact on the community in the futue. Fo pogams to succeed in the long un, they need to be designed to adapt to changes in the community. Changes that occu within the community (e.g., implementation of new laws, natual disastes, inceased unemployment) will inevitably impact the needs of you taget population. As a sevice povide, you must ensue that you evaluation pocess will yield the necessay feedback you pogam needs to adapt to the changes. Because social sevice pogams ae costly, it is impotant fo you oganization to focus on implementing effective sevices and fogo components that ae epetitive, ovely budensome, o ineffective. Evaluation makes it possible to identify which aeas of you pogam should be modified. You evaluation pocess should be designed to identify ed flags and challenges that you pogam is facing in ode fo you to undetake couse coections. Evaluation takes most of the guesswok out of pogam impovement and is theefoe moe time- and cost-efficient fo you oganization. Sustainability Once you pogam s funding peiod has ended, how will you ensue continuation of the sevices that you Responsible Fathehood poject is cuently poviding? Developing the capacity to continue pogam sevices is an issue of sustainability, which ensues the long-tem viability of you pogam. Sustainability moves a poject fom a pilot poject to the necessay pat of sevice delivey in the community. In building pogam sustainability, you endeavo to ceate a niche fo you sevices and develop patneships within the community to help suppot those sevices. Sustainability helps ensue that you pogam will have funding to suppot it long afte the funding peiod fo you Responsible Fathehood poject has come to an end. With solid evaluation suppoting the esults of you pogam, you ae moe likely to gain buy-in fom the community and obtain funding fom divese souces. Stakeholdes want to see that pogams opeating in thei community ae making a diffeence in the lives of those who use the sevices. Thus, you pogam can gain cedibility in the community and among fundes by having the data to backup you pogam s success stoies. Pupose of Evaluation 9

10 What Pogam Evaluation Can Tell You Geneating specific questions about you pogam that you would like to examine though you pogam evaluation pocess is an impotant pat of evaluation. Pogam evaluation can povide you oganization with feedback to the following evaluation questions: Planning and designing Is thee anothe oganization that is poviding o may povide the pogam o sevice you ae consideing? What is you taget population and what is its demogaphic pofile? (e.g., Ae they single fathes? Fathes who have been incaceated? What is thei age ange? Ae you seving families on welfae?) How many people in the community ae in need of you sevice? What ae the specific needs of this goup? Who ae the impotant pogam stakeholdes? What community esouces ae available to help suppot and supplement you pogam? Pogam monitoing Is the pogam eaching the intended taget audience? Ae paticipants satisfied with the sevices povided by the pogam? Ae you doing what you oiginally set out to do, o have you sevices veeed off the intended couse? How could the pogam be impoved? How well is the pogam woking? Do sevice gaps exist in the pogam? Is the pogam functioning as intended? Ae thee pogam aeas that ae unnecessay, duplicative, o minimally effective? Ae thee ways in which sevices could be deliveed in a moe cost- and time-efficient manne? Detemining pogam impact Does the pogam have an oveall positive outcome? What is you pogam s impact on the clients you seved? What have been the effects of you pogam on the community? Have the pogam s goals been eached? Do the pogam s goals need to be modified? The subsequent chaptes of this Evaluation Resouce Guide contain many of the tools you need to help you answe the above questions. 10 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

11 Chapte 2 Responsible Fathehood Pogam Model Implemented by the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) While the sevices povided by the OFA-implemented Responsible Fathehood pojects fall into one o moe of the thee authoized activity aeas (1. healthy maiage; 2. esponsible paenting; and 3. economic stability); the eality is that the sevices povided by these gantees ae much moe divese. These sevices can best be descibed as fitting into one o moe of the following six sevice categoies: 1. Pomoting and sustaining healthy maiage and co-paent elationships; 2. Developing paenting skills and knowledge; 3. Advancing economic stability; 4. Inceasing fathes level of involvement with thei childen; 5. Facilitating pesonal tansfomations in how men see themselves and thei oles as fathes; and 6. Connecting fathes with thei communities and available suppots. It is impotant to note that while the Responsible Fathehood pojects help fathes develop skills and impove thei lives, the ultimate goal of these OFA-funded pogams is to impact the academic, emotional, social, and economic well-being of childen (Bonte-Tinkew et. al., 2007; Dohety et. al., 1996; Lewin Goup, 1997). Significant social and psychological eseach has demonstated that sevices and activities aimed at inceasing esponsible fathehood positively impact child well-being (Matinson & Nightingale, 2008; NCOFF, 2002). Figue 2 1, below, pesents the conceptual model that illustates how the Responsible Fathehood pojects aim to positively impact the lives of men and thei families. In conducting this wok, many of the Responsible Fathehood pojects take a holistic appoach to seving fathes by poviding sevices fom moe than one of the categoies illustated in The Responsible Fathehood Conceptual Model. Fo example, paenting skills education is often paied with economic stability focused case management sevices to addess unemployment o non-compliance with child suppot odes. Responsible Fathehood Pogam Model Implemented by the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) 11

12 Figue 2 1 Responsible Fathehood Conceptual Model Economic Stability Social and emotional involvement Paenting skills and knowledge Pesonal tansfomation Healthy maiage and co-paenting Community connectedness The Responsible Fathe Child and Family Well-being Activities to Pomote and Sustain Healthy Maiage and Co-Paent Relationships Some Responsible Fathehood pogams aim to suppot the maital and co-paenting elationship because childen benefit when paents ae able to communicate and effectively esolve conflict (Belsky et al., 1995; Belsky & Feaon, 2004; Camaa & Resnick, 1988). A conflictual co-paent elationship can be a baie to the fathe s involvement, as mothes may sometimes limit the contact a fathe has with his child. Histoically, thee have been two appoaches to impoving the co-paent elationship. Both povide education to suppot the development of communication and conflict esolution skills between fathes and the mothes of thei childen. One of the appoaches focuses on suppoting maiages as a means to maintaining a stable family. The othe appoach povides sevices in suppot of communication and conflict esolution skills but does not emphasize omantic elationships, commitment, o maiage. Examples of healthy maiage and co-paent elationship activities: Skill-based elationship education Classes to povide goup o individual instuction on elationship skills, eithe using an established cuiculum o one designed fo the specific sevice population. Thee may o may not be an emphasis on divoce eduction, o on the impotance of maiage to childen s well-being Pemaital education This may include fomal maiage pepaation pogams, pemaital counseling, and use of maital inventoies to help pepae couples fo healthy maiage and co-paenting elationships. 12 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

13 Mentoing o infomal modeling To complement elationship skills education, co-paents may be matched with moe expeienced couples (o co-paents). Coaching Goup o one-on-one coaching to suppot inceased communication and conflict esolution skills in the co-paent elationship and to emove psychological, social, o emotional baies to a healthy co-paenting elationship. Advocacy fo two-paent involvement with childen This may involve disseminating infomation about the benefits of healthy maiage o co-paenting elationships and two-paent involvement fo childen. Potential outcomes of healthy maiage and co-paent elationship activities include: Co-paents lean new communication skills. Co-paents impove thei communication. Co-paents incease thei ability to esolve conflict. Co-paents epot fewe disageements and conflicts. Co-paents incease thei communication with each othe about thei childen. Maied co-paents epot inceased commitment to each othe. Maied co-paents epot inceased satisfaction with thei maiage. Activities to Impove Paenting Skills and Knowledge Effective paenting skills and knowledge ae an impotant pat of a healthy fathe-child elationship. Many fathes seved by the Responsible Fathehood pojects lack basic paenting skills and may be negatively influenced by poo paenting that they expeienced as childen. Consequently, a conestone of many Responsible Fathehood pojects is poviding fathes with compehensive sevices to impove thei paenting skills and knowledge. Futhemoe, some pojects emphasize child suppot and povide child suppot education o cout advocacy. In addition to sevices that focus on inceasing fathes ability to pay fomal child suppot, some pojects also povide paenting education on the impotance of infomal and non-monetay suppot as a way fo fathes to suppot thei childen and positively impact thei well-being (Geene & Mooe, 2000). Examples of paenting skills activities: Cuiculum-based paenting education Classes to povide goup o individual instuction on paenting, eithe using an established cuiculum o one designed specifically fo the sevice population. Mentoing o infomal modeling To complement paenting skills education, fathes ae matched with moe expeienced fathes. Coaching Goup o one-on-one coaching to foste emotional eadiness and develop a skill set of positive paenting techniques. Pomoting esponsible paenting Disseminating infomation about good paenting pactices as well as the causes of domestic violence and child abuse. Education on the impotance of esponsible child suppot to childen s well-being This may include pogams to pomote fathes paying child suppot and encouagement of infomal and non-monetay suppot (such as buying diapes o goceies o poviding childcae). Potential outcomes of paenting skills activities include: Fathes incease thei undestanding of esponsible paenting. This could include having appopiate expectations of childen and knowledge of and empathy towads childen s needs. Responsible Fathehood Pogam Model Implemented by the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) 13

14 Fathes lean new paenting skills. This could include positive discipline techniques and cultivating a child s independence. Fathes utilize new paenting skills with thei childen. Fathes incease thei undestanding of child development. Fathes incease thei consistency in poviding fomal, as well as infomal and non-monetay suppot fo thei childen. Activities to Impove Economic Stability Impoving economic stability has histoically been a pimay pupose of Responsible Fathehood appoaches. Responsible Fathehood pogamming continues to focus on educing the baies to economic stability that low-income men expeience by poviding sevices such as job eadiness taining, job placement assistance, and vocational skills taining. Howeve, as many economic factos ae complex and not easily contolled, impoving the economic well-being of a lage goup of men can be difficult. Examples of economic stability activities: Job eadiness taining Fomal o infomal education and infomation about appopiate wokplace behavio, looking fo wok, witing esumes, and inteviewing skills. Vocational taining Taining o education to povide new wok skills to fathes, such as compute skills taining o education in othe tades. This may include diect taining o efeals to established employment taining pogams in the community. Job placement assistance Diect suppot in finding appopiate employment. Financial liteacy Education to help fathes lean basic financial management skills to impove thei economic situation, such as how to manage a household budget and educe debt. Encouagement to povide financial esouces fo the benefit of the child Suppot fo utilizing available financial esouces to pay fomal child suppot as well as encouagement to povide infomal child suppot. Potential outcomes of economic stability activities include: Fathes lean job seeking skills. This could include esume witing, inteviewing, and job seach stategies. Fathes lean new job skills. This could include gaining pofessional cetifications. Fathes obtain o maintain employment. Fathes ae pepaed to succeed in a wok envionment. This could include leaning about pofessionalism, being on time, and conflict esolution. Fathes incease thei income. Fathes incease thei ability to financially suppot thei childen. Activities to Incease Fathes Level of Involvement with thei Childen A significant numbe of eseach studies connect child well-being with the level of fathe involvement (Paul Amato 1998, Geene & Mooe 2000, Paquette 2004). In esponse, Responsible Fathehood pojects help fathes connect with thei childen in a numbe of ways. Some pojects assist young fathes in establishing patenity as a fist step towads involvement in the child s life. Othe pogams help non-esident fathes establish visitation schedules, o incease telephone and witten contact if visitation is not possible. Resident fathes can also benefit fom pogams that aim to incease fathe involvement. With all fathes, pojects attempt to incease the quality of fathe-child inteaction and the fathe s emotional investment in the child s upbinging. 14 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

15 Examples of fathe-involvement activities: Suppot and advocacy fo navigating the legal system Education and encouagement to empowe fathes. This may involve helping fathes establish patenity o negotiate visitation ageements. Suppot goups and assistance Encouagement, education, and suppot to incease the fequency and quality of fathe-child inteactions. Coaching Goup o one-on-one coaching to impove emotional ties and to emove individual baies to the fathe-child elationship. Case management Collaboative appoach that tailos education, advice, and guidance aound specific needs of each individual fathe in addessing baies to the fathechild elationship. Potential outcomes of fathe-involvement activities include: Fathes establish patenity. Fathes establish visitation with thei childen. Fathes spend moe time with thei childen. Fathes spend moe time inteacting, eading to, talking with, and playing with thei childen. Fathes incease thei involvement in thei childen s education. Fathes epot geate emotional investment in thei childen s lives. Activities to Facilitate Pesonal Tansfomation Many fathes expeience multiple baies to being a esponsible fathe. Fo example, pesonal baies may include substance abuse o a ciminal backgound. Some pogams attempt to addess these pesonal baies by linking fathes with appopiate sevices available in the community. Additionally, fathes who expeienced poo paenting as childen o neve had a positive patenal ole model must wok to develop a positive image of fathehood and themselves as fathes. Responsible Fathehood pojects povide sevices that seek to change how these men see themselves and thei ole in thei families by addessing the undelying cultual, societal, and pesonal issues and expeiences that impact fathes peceptions of fathehood. Examples of pesonal tansfomation activities: Case management sevices Education, advice, and guidance tailoed to addess each individual fathe s specific social and emotional baies to well-being. Cuiculum-based esponsible fathehood education Classes to povide goup o individual instuction on fathehood, including the oles and esponsibilities of fathes and the benefits of fatheing. Mentoing and infomal modeling Fathes ae matched with moe expeienced fathes who seve as mentos and guide fathes in thei pesonal tansfomation. Coaching Goup and one-on-one coaching to help emove individual psychological, social, o emotional baies to fathe well-being and emotional stability. Suppot goups Men ae given the oppotunity to shae thei expeiences and suppot each othe in developing a positive self-image as a fathe. Substance abuse pevention Dug and alcohol education and individualized suppot to pevent and ovecome substance abuse. Tansition fom pison Individualized o goup suppot and education fo men tansitioning out of the pison system. Linkages to existing sevices Education on the sevices available to fathes and families and how to access these sevices. Responsible Fathehood Pogam Model Implemented by the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) 15

16 Potential outcomes of pesonal tansfomation activities include: Fathes epot inceased self-esteem. Fathes incease thei undestanding of esponsible fathehood and the ole of a fathe. Fathes lean how to manage stess. Fathes educe thei dug use. Fathes incease thei access to sevices though community sevice povides. Incaceated fathes expeience a successful tansition to family life and ae not eincaceated. Activities to Impove Fathes Level of Connectedness with thei Community Many fathes, paticulaly low-income and young fathes, may be unawae of and disconnected fom the sevices available in thei local community. This disconnect exists, in pat, because many social sevice pofessionals have moe expeience woking with women and childen than they have with men. In addition, some men have had negative expeiences with sevice povides who may see fathes as baies to poviding sevices to women and childen athe than as the potential beneficiaies of sevices. In esponse, Responsible Fathehood pojects povide education and infomation to suppot fathes navigating the social sevice systems, paticulaly in the aeas of visitation, child suppot, and child potective sevices. Some pojects also povide outeach and education to incease the knowledge and skills of sevice pofessionals in thei wok with fathes. Examples of community connectedness activities: Linkages to existing sevices Education on community sevices available to fathes and families and how to access these sevices. Advocacy Individualized assistance in the navigation of social sevice systems on issues such as child suppot o child welfae. Tainings fo community sevice povides about the needs of fathes Infomation and taining povided to community sevice povides to incease thei staff s awaeness of the needs of low-income fathes and the impotance of cultually appopiate, fathefiendly sevices. Potential outcomes of community connectedness activities include: Fathes incease thei undestanding of sevices available to them in the community. Fathes incease thei undestanding of sevices available to thei child in the community. Fathes and thei families epot inceased access to sevices. Fathes and thei families incease thei utilization of sevices. Fathes incease thei undestanding of how to navigate complex social sevices systems. Community sevice povides staff membes incease thei knowledge of the needs of fathes and the potential baies fathes encounte when seeking sevices. Defining You Pogam Model To succeed, evey pogam and evey poject needs a solid foundation. One of the cucial tasks at the poject-planning phase is detemining the conceptual famewok within which you poject fits. 16 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

17 How will you poject pomote esponsible fathehood and ultimately enhance child and family well-being??????? The Responsible Fathe Child and Family Well-being The pupose of the Responsible Fathehood Pogam is to pomote esponsible fathehood by funding pogams that will ultimately enable fathes to impove thei elationships and econnect with thei childen. As discussed peviously, the sevices povided by the Responsible Fathehood pojects geneally fall into one o moe of the six sevice categoies: healthy maiage and co-paenting elationships; paenting skills and knowledge; economic stability; social and emotional involvement; pesonal tansfomation; and community connectedness. Which sevices does you Responsible Fathehood poject aim to suppot? Sevice categoies Yes/No 1. Healthy maiage and co-paenting elationships 2. Paenting skills and knowledge 3. Economic stability 4. Social and emotional involvement 5. Pesonal tansfomation 6. Community connectedness 7. Othe: You pogam model succinctly descibes what you plan to do (i.e., how you Responsible Fathehood poject will aim to impact the lives of men and thei families), and illustates why you expect you poject activities to affect you eventual outcomes. Once the pogam model undelying you poject is defined it will povide the foundation fo you pogam theoy (see chapte 3) and you logic model (see chapte 4). You logic model will in tun fom the basis fo you evaluation. Both pogam models and logic models can help facilitate undestanding of the theoy behind you poject as well as you poject s chaacteistics and objectives. Responsible Fathehood Pogam Model Implemented by the Office of Family Assistance (OFA) 17

18 Chapte 3 Pogam Theoy A pogam theoy is a desciption of what the intended outcomes of you pogam ae; how the pogam will help achieve these outcomes; and why you believe the sevices you pogam povides can help bing about these outcomes. This desciption, o pogam theoy, explains the sevices and activities you oganization will implement in ode to help you taget population achieve identified outcomes. It also helps explain why you believe these sevices will lead to intended outcomes as well as whee and when you will collect data to check whethe these outcomes have been met. Essentially, you pogam theoy seves as a oadmap of you pogam. A pogam theoy is often epesented gaphically in a logic model (see chapte 4). Befoe poceeding with design and implementation, it is impeative to undestand the basic constucts o dimensions of pogam theoy. Think of the development of pogam theoy as a 4-step pocess with basic questions to answe at each step: Step 1: Detemine you pogam inputs: You pogam inputs, the esouces you have available, constitute the aw mateials you will need to pefom you pogam activities and offe you sevices. Theefoe, the fist step is to detemine which esouces ae available fo the poject you wish to undetake. These esouces ae called the pogam inputs. Questions to ask in Step One: Which esouces ae available fo implementing you pogam? What ae you financial esouces (cuent and/o upcoming funding souces)? Ae the financial esouces sufficient to undetake you poject activities? What office space, buildings, equipment, etc. ae available fo the poject? What expeience and taining do you need to implement the pogam? Do you cuently have the necessay expeience and taining? 18 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

19 Step 2. Identify you pogam activities: It is impotant to identify as explicitly as possible specific sevices, activities, o inteventions that constitute you pogam. The moe pecise the definition of each sevice o activity, the easie it will be to fomulate a coesponding measue that is discete and meaningful. Once specific sevices o activities have been aticulated, ty to quantify how often you plan on poviding you sevices o activities. You quantification of each of these activities is called an output. Questions to ask in Step Two: What sevices, activities, o inteventions will you povide? Who will eceive these sevices? Povide desciptive statistics such as ace, gende, age, maital status, education, employment status, income, and numbe of childen. How often will you povide these sevices? What models o effective pactices will you sevices be based on? Step 3. Addess the impact of you activities: Once you have identified specific pogam activities, addess how these sevices will impact you taget population. Biefly state the esult o consequence of each activity. This pat seves as an impotant conceptual bidge between discete pogam activities and you assumptions about how paticipants will be impacted by these activities. Questions to ask in Step Thee: What type of impact does the pogam expect to have? What ae some shot-tem, intemediate, and long-tem outcomes you expect you pogam to achieve? What changes do you expect to see at the oganizational, individual, o community level because of you sevices? Step 4. Explain you pogammatic decisions: With an inceasing demand fo pogams to follow best pactices, fundes want to see evidence that suppots you decision to implement these activities and sevices. Utilize data fom pevious eseach conducted in the topic aea and othe statistics to help justify you decision. Questions to ask in Step 4: Of all the diffeent sevices you could have povided, why did you choose to povide these specific sevices? How will these sevices lead to you intended outcomes? What makes these sevices effective? How ae you sevices going to bette the community? Pogam Theoy 19

20 Chapte 4 Developing a Logic Model What is a Logic Model? A logic model is a visual epesentation of the poject fom inputs to outcomes (see figue 4 1). It povides a way to systematically and logically potay a sequence of events, beginning with the poject activities and thei immediate effects, and then pogessing towads the intended intemediate and longe-tem outcomes. Figue 4 1 Logic Model: A Visual Repesentation of You Poject Poject inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Poject planning Intended esults A logic model is an effective planning and evaluation tool that can be used by poject diectos and evaluatos to descibe thei pogams and the effect of thei pogams. The logic model is a visual epesentation of how a poject o pogam woks, as well as the theoy and the assumptions that undelie the poject. The model illustates a sequence of cause-and-effect elationships linking outcomes with a poject s activities and the theoetical assumptions of the poject. Why Develop a Logic Model? Building the logic model is a citical step in developing you pogam evaluation, as the logic model will function as the oadmap that guides you evaluation. Futhemoe, developing a logic model can pomote consensus among poject staff and othes about the poject s focus, activities, and desied outcomes. Spending the time and effot to collaboatively develop a thoughtful logic model can also pove helpful in a numbe of othe ways (see figue 4 2). Fo example, you may gain a deepe undestanding of you poject and its ultimate goals as the esult of negotiating what should be the key aeas epesented by you logic 20 Evaluation Resouce Guide fo Responsible Fathehood Pogams

21 model. The pocess can also help claify the poject s stengths and weaknesses, theeby ceating oppotunities fo fine-tuning poject activities o impoving the oveall poject design in ode to help ensue the likelihood of successfully obtaining poject goals. Lastly, the logic model itself can act as an ancho to keep the poject on tack ove time. Figue 4 2 Seven Reasons to Develop a Logic Model 1. A logic model helps stuctue an evaluation by poviding a oadmap of key pogam activities and sevices and of the outcomes expected as a esult of these activities and sevices. A logic model helps ensue that thee is a clea undestanding of what sevices ae being implemented, what goals pogam staff membes hope to achieve, and how the pogam s success will be measued. 2. A logic model helps build consensus among gantees, evaluatos, fundes, and othe stakeholdes egading the evaluation. Specifically, stakeholdes can each ageement on the intended goals of the pogam and the appopiate and meaningful pogam outcomes. A logic model povides an oppotunity fo stakeholdes to jointly assess the feasibility and pacticality of measuing change in selected pogam outcomes. 3. A logic model offes a concise, easy-to-undestand visual summay of the pogam, which can seve as a handy efeence that outlines key pogam featues and expected outcomes. A logic model can be disseminated to inteested thid paties to povide a synopsis of pogam goals and activities. 4. A logic model can be used to identify gaps and inconsistencies in a pogam s design and evaluation. A logic model can help identify aeas in which planned sevices o inteventions need to be aticulated o claified. It can be used to identify logical gaps o inconsistencies between pogam activities and expected outcomes. 5. A logic model can seve as a efeence point fo poposed pogam modifications by compaing poposed changes with the oiginal logic model to detemine if changes ae being made to coe elements of the pogam. A logic model will allow you to assess whethe the poposed changes affect linkages to anticipated pogam outcomes. 6. A logic model can seve as a pogam monitoing tool and help you identify key questions and answes: Have key pogam components been implemented? What ae the pogam s outputs to date? Ae elevant data being collected? What outcomes have been achieved to date? Ae elevant data being collected? 7. Logic models can facilitate compaisons acoss pogams by identifying similaities and diffeences in pogam inteventions. Logic models can identify common outcomes of inteest as well as common indicatos, measuement tools, and data souces. Developing a Logic Model 21

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