UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development FINAL REPORT. Shaping the Future We Want. DESD Monitoring and Evaluation ( ) United Nations

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1 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations l, Scientific and ral Organization Shaping the Future We Want UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development ( ) FINAL REPORT DESD Monitoring and Evaluation

2 Published in 2014 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, Paris 07 SP, France UNESCO 2014 ISBN This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/igo/). By using the content of this publication, the users accept to be bound by the terms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository (http://www.unesco.org/open-access/ terms-use-ccbysa-en). The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. This publication was developed by the Section of Education for Sustainable Development, Division for Teaching, Learning and Content, UNESCO. Authors: Carolee Buckler and Heather Creech Cover photos: UN Photo/Evan Schneider UN Photo/Logan Abassi UN Photo/Kibae Park UN Photo/Gill Fickling Photo credits: pp Shutterstock/Tom Wang pp Shutterstock/Zurijeta pp UN Photo/UNFCCC/Jan Golinski pp Shutterstock/Pressmaster pp UNESCO/Florida Valle pp UN Photo/Tobin Jones Graphic design: Aurélia Mazoyer Printed by UNESCO This printer is certified Imprim Vert, the French printing industry s environmental initiative. Printed in Luxembourg

3 Shaping the Future We Want UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development ( ) FINAL REPORT DESD Monitoring and Evaluation

4 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Foreword This Report comes at a critical time as UN Member States prepare to conclude negotiations on the global post-2015 agenda and launch a set of sustainable development goals. Deep economic and social inequalities, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, disruption caused by natural disasters and climate change are a litmus test for the global community. More than ever, this is a time when education can and must play a decisive role in providing learners across the world with the knowledge, skills and values to discover solutions to today s sustainability challenges. This carries benefit for present and future generations. It is a conviction that brings us together to the World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development in Aïchi-Nagoya in November There are many reasons to celebrate as this Final Monitoring and Evaluation of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) sets out to demonstrate. The Decade has activated hundreds of thousands of people to reorient education globally towards a central goal: to learn to live and work sustainably. ESD has spread across all levels and areas of education, in all regions of the world and is widely considered key in supporting sustainable development. International and national strategies dealing with the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development are beginning to reflect ESD as a crucial component. ESD has galvanized pedagogical innovation. Education policy, including curricula changes, now promotes learning for sustainable development in many countries from early childhood learning through to private sector training. Students are gaining direct experience of sustainability through a wide range of school-based learning by doing ESD initiatives that have been introduced in a number of countries. Extensive partnerships and networks within and between sectors have been key to the successful accomplishments of the Decade. Children, youth and students have played an important role as agents of change, participating actively in discussions that affect their future, advocating for a transformation in their learning environments and bringing the messages of sustainability and global citizenship home to parents and communities. Perhaps one of the most significant lessons learned during the Decade is that strong political leadership is instrumental to advancing ESD. But this is still work in progress. Leadership is essential for moving from policy commitments and demonstration projects to full implementation across the curriculum, teaching and operations, whether in formal systems or in non-formal learning and public awareness raising. The Decade provides a solid base for scaling up our efforts to prepare the citizens of tomorrow to respond to the challenges of today. ESD advances quality education through more innovative ways of teaching and learning and the engagement of all stakeholders. As a follow up to the Decade, UNESCO has developed a Global Action Programme on ESD, which was endorsed by the UNESCO General Conference in 2013 and will be launched in Nagoya. The Programme aims at scaling up action in ESD in order to accelerate overall progress towards sustainable development, and marks an important contribution to the global post-2015 development agenda. By analysing achievements, trends and challenges, this Report provides valuable direction for policy-makers, educators, experts and other stakeholders in their ongoing efforts to advance understanding and action on ESD. I would like to thank all of those involved, from governments and policy-makers to individual teachers and students across the world, for their significant and continued commitment towards ESD and for contributing to the success of the Decade. This continued engagement will ensure the successful implementation of the Global Action Programme, and to fulfilling our vision of a more peaceful, just and sustainable world. Irina Bokova Director-General of UNESCO 3

5 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Acknowledgements Developed by the Section of Education for Sustainable Development, Division for Teaching, Learning and Content, UNESCO, the completion of the 2014 Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) Final Monitoring and Evaluation Report is a collaborative effort with support and contributions from numerous experts. We are extremely grateful to the members of the DESD Monitoring and Evaluation Expert Group: Abelardo Brenes, Rangachar Govinda, Alex C. Michalos, Yoshiyuki Nagata, Roel van Raaij, Overson Shumba, Konai Thaman, Daniella Tilbury (Chair), Pierre Varcher, and Alcyone Vasconcelos. They provided guidance and supported the preparation for the three Monitoring and Evaluation reports over the period of the DESD. We also express great thanks to the researchers of the background papers commissioned to inform this report: Aaron Benavot; Heather Creech; Julie Davis; John Fien; Ahmed Legrouri and Khalid Sendide; Werner Mauch (UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning); Rosalyn McKeown and Charles Hopkins (York University); Dorcas Beryl Otieno; Juan Pablo Ramirez-Miranda; Kartikeya V. Sarabhai and Suneetha M. Subramanian; Cornelia N. S. Shaimemanya; Overson Shumba; John Siraj-Blatchford and Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson; Victoria W. Thoresen; Daniella Tilbury (University of Gloucestershire); Arjen Wals; and Gail Whiteman, Edward Kellow and Eva Rood (Rotterdam School of Management). Special thanks also go to the many peer reviewers (internal and external) of the commissioned background papers, in particular Khairoon Abbas, Edem Adubra, Salvatore Arico, Noha Bawazir, Abelardo Brenes Castro, Bernard Combes, Borhene Chakroun, Anna Dirksen, Lorna Down, Matthias Eck, Zinaida Fadeeva, Alashiya Gordes, Jonas Haertle, Julia Heiss, Frits Hesselink, Yukie Hori, Yoshie Kaga, Frans Lenglet, Shyamal Majumdar, Alex C. Michalos, Florence Migeon, Yoko Mochizuki, Yoshi Nagata, Kiichi Oyasu, Mahesh Pradhan, Michel Ricard, Jutaro Sakamoto, Madhu Singh, Florence Ssereo, Stephen Sterling, Sobhi Tawil, Vanessa Timmer, Hilligje Van t Land, Julia Viehofer, Moritz Weigel, and Aravella Zachariou. Authors of the background papers should also be acknowledged for peer reviewing one or more of the background papers. We extend our appreciation to the peer reviewers who provided invaluable insights and ideas on one or more sections of the final draft of the DESD report. A special thank you goes to Borhene Chakroun, Bernard Combes, Dhianaraj Chetty, Gerald Farthing, Julia Heiss, Matthew Hiebert, Simone Hofner, Astrid Hollander, Charles Hopkins, Lili Ji, Heila Lotz- Sisitka, Werner Mauch, Danilo Padilla, Juan Pablo Ramirez-Miranda, Yoko Mochizuki, Teiichi Sato, Overson Shumba, Stephen Sterling, Florence Ssereo, Sulieman Sulieman, Daniella Tilbury, Rachel Trajber, Pierre Varcher and Julia Viehofer. We are most grateful to the Japanese Government for providing generous financial support to this publication through the Japanese Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) to UNESCO. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) also provided generous financial support. Further support came from the Swedish National Commission for UNESCO. Without the support of these donors, this report would not have been possible. Last but not least, thanks go to the DESD 2014 Report team who coordinated the development of this publication: Carolee Buckler (publication coordinator and lead author), Heather Creech (lead author), Minjung Han (publication assistant), Solange Harpham (copy editor), Mathew Birch (copy editor), and Grant Moore (proofreader). 4

6 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Contents Foreword 3 Acknowledgements 4 Executive summary 9 List of acronyms INTRODUCTION Context: ESD and the DESD Purpose and outline Methodology KEY FINDINGS AND TRENDS, 10 YEARS ON Trends Challenges POLICY Global policy Regional policy National/subnational policy Local policy PEDAGOGY AND PRACTICE Early childhood care and education Primary and secondary education Technical and vocational education and training Higher education Non-formal education, public awareness campaigns and media Capacity-building and training STAKEHOLDERS AND PARTNERSHIPS Public sector Private sector Civil society Multi-stakeholder approaches THE FUTURE OF ESD Scaling up action Measuring future progress Concluding thoughts on the DESD 185 Bibliography 187 5

7 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Figures, tables and text boxes FIGURES Figure 1.3.1: Combined response level to Questionnaire 1 and 2 Member States Figure 1.3.2: Combined response level to Questionnaire 1 and 2 Key Stakeholders Figure : ESD mechanisms in Member States Figure 4.1: Types of learning associated with ESD, as identified through the GME Q Figure : Average rating of ECCE in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in ECCE in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Average rating of primary and secondary education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in primary education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in secondary education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : The whole-school approach Figure : Average rating of teacher education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in teacher education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Average rating of TVET in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in TVET in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Key aspects of successful TVET for SD Figure : Average rating of higher education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in higher education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Average rating of non-formal education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in non-formal education in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Average rating of public awareness in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in public awareness in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Average rating for capacity-building and training in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Status of ESD in capacity-building and training in 2005 and 2013 for Member States Figure : Progress on ESD in strategy or policy for UN agencies TABLES Table 1.3.1: Additional surveys and semi-structured interviews Table : Examples of types of legislation, curriculum directives and standards related to ESD (national/ subnational) Table 4.1: Rating scale for UNESCO questionnaire Table : Higher education declarations and commitments during the DESD Table : Adult education included in a sustainable development strategy Table : Increase of ESD-related mentions in UNDAF reports TEXT BOXES Box 1.1.1: Four major thrusts of ESD and seven strategies for ESD Box : The inclusion of ESD in major sustainable development conventions and agreements Box : Suggested actions 6

8 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Box : Suggested actions Box : Mauritius Profile of success in embedding ESD into SD policies Box : Costa Rica Profile of success in embedding ESD into SD policies Box : Finland Profile of success in embedding ESD in education policies Box : Kenya Profile of success in embedding ESD in education policies Box : Scotland, United Kingdom Profile of successful leadership Box : Manitoba, Canada Profile of successful leadership Box : Suggested actions Box : Suggested actions Box : Uruguay Siembras project Box : Republic of Korea Musim Stream project Box : Suggested actions Box : Viet Nam Life skills in the curricula Box : Japan ESD pedagogies enhancing learning outcomes Box : Young Masters Programme: Flexible learning approach Box : Bhutan Green Schools for Green Bhutan Programme Box : Making sustainability a strong focus of school plans Box : Jamaica Pre-service teachers learning through ESD community action projects Box : Suggested actions Box : Mauritius TVET curriculum innovation Box : Colombia Improving the lives of rural youth Jóvenes Rurales Emprendedores Box : Suggested actions Box : United Kingdom Leadership incentives for ESD Box : Africa North-South partnership: Education for Sustainable Development Africa (ESDA) Box : Africa ESD networks bridging North-South-South dialogue Box : GUPES Strengthening curriculum and research through partnerships Box : Canada ESD research-based partnerships Box : Suggested actions Box : Brazil Spring s Seeds: Exercising citizenship since childhood Box : The Lake Victoria catchment environmental education programme Box : Tostan Empowering rural women in Africa Box : Nepal ESD literacy initiative Box : Japan Raising local awareness in Okayama Box : Suggested actions Box : Viet Nam Employees learning to be sustainable Box : Uruguay Climate change training for decision-makers in South America Box : Suggested actions Box : Examples of key UN achievements Box : Germany Training future ESD leaders Box : Kenya and Israel Mobilizing capacity and resources for ESD Box : Mongolia and Switzerland Mobilizing capacity and resources for ESD Box 5.2.1: Asia and the Pacific region ESD toolkit for success Box 5.2.2: Viet Nam Shaping a more sustainable future Box 5.3.1: Plan International Educating for resilience 7

9 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Box 5.4.1: Germany Effective coordination for ESD Implementation Box 5.4.2: China Effective coordination for ESD implementation Box 5.4.3: RCE Advancing ESD at the local level Box 5.4.4: The Grenelle Round Table A multi-stakeholder approach to TVET for SD Box 5.4.5: SADC REEP Linking policy and practice for SD Box 5.4.6: Suggested actions 8

10 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Executive summary The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development ( ) (DESD) aimed at integrating the principles and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, to encourage changes in knowledge, values and attitudes with the vision of enabling a more sustainable and just society for all. The mandate of the DESD has energized a vast number of stakeholders across Member States, UN agencies, the education sector, the private sector and civil society to work in partnership to reorient education systems towards sustainable development. This final DESD Global Monitoring and Evaluation Report (GME) provides an assessment of progress towards embedding Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) into education systems and into sustainable development efforts. Building on the findings of the past two DESD GME reports, and based upon Member States and other stakeholders assessments of the current state of ESD, this report maps the achievements and challenges of a decade of progress and action on ESD at the global, regional, national and local levels and within all areas and levels of education. Accomplishments over the DESD can be seen in a variety of forms, but most notably, ESD s visibility in national policies and international agreements has increased. In many countries, governments are integrating ESD into education to prepare their citizens to address the sustainability challenges that lie ahead. Meanwhile, individuals, schools, institutions of higher education, community-based organizations, international NGOs and the private sector have all joined in the challenge to advance learning towards a broader and deeper understanding and practice of sustainability. A growing number of higher education institutions are applying their teaching and research towards sustainability solutions, particularly within their local communities. In tandem, businesses now recognize the value of having a knowledgeable and skilled workforce that can contribute to developing greener economies. Moreover, positive advances can be seen in early childhood care, even at the earliest stages of education. Investments are being made in both policy and practice to strengthen the capacities of people of all ages and from all walks of life. There is now an increased recognition at the international policy level that education is essential to the advancement of sustainable development, with many countries committed to continuing to work to advance ESD at the national and local levels. A solid foundation has been laid for ESD at the end of the DESD, achieved by raising awareness, influencing policies and generating significant numbers of good practice projects in all areas of education and learning. At the end of 10 years of work, 10 key findings and trends have emerged that will guide ESD into the future: ESD, an enabler for sustainable development 1. Education systems are addressing sustainability issues 2. Sustainable development agendas and education agendas are converging Importance of stakeholder engagement for ESD 3. Political leadership has proven instrumental 4. Multi-stakeholder partnerships are particularly effective 5. Local commitments are growing ESD is galvanizing pedagogical innovation 6. Whole-institution approaches help practise ESD 7. ESD facilitates interactive, learner-driven pedagogies ESD has spread across all levels and areas of education 8. ESD is being integrated into formal education 9. Non-formal and informal ESD is increasing 10. Technical and vocational education and training advances sustainable development 9

11 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Despite the successes that have been achieved during the DESD, Member States and other stakeholders have indicated considerable challenges remain in realizing the full potential of ESD: the need for further alignment of education and sustainable development sectors; the need for more work towards institutionalizing ESD to ensure strong political support for implementing ESD on a systemic level; and finally, the need for more research, innovation, monitoring and evaluation to develop and prove the effectiveness of ESD good practices. While much has been done to advance the ethos and values of ESD, a full integration of ESD into education systems has yet to take place in most countries. As the DESD comes to an end, and Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approach the target date in 2015, ESD becomes crucial as a catalyst for a transition in education, teaching, learning and professional development towards more holistic, integrative and critical ways of tackling sustainability issues. The endorsement of the Global Action Programme (GAP) for ESD by UNESCO Member States in 2013 as a follow-up to the DESD will continue to build on the momentum of stakeholders jointly seeking change, innovation and transition towards a shared vision of sustainability. 10

12 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT List of acronyms AASHE AASHE-STARS AAU ACCU AEETAP ALE AMCEN ARIES ARIUSA ASEAN ASPnet AuSSI CCE CEDEFOP CEPA CLC CNESDWG CODEP CONFINTEA COP CRISTAL CSO CSR DESD DRR ECCE ECI EE EFA EFMD EfS ELIAS ESD EU FAO GAP GME GTCS GUNi GME Q GMR GRALE Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education AASHE Sustainability Tracking Assessment and Rating System Association of African Universities Asia-Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO African Environmental Education and Training Action Plan Adult Learning and Education African Ministerial Conference on the Environment Australian Research Institute for Environment and Sustainability Alianza de Redes Iberoamericanas de Universidades por la Sustentabilidad y el Ambiente Association of South-East Asian Nations Associated Schools Project Network Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative Climate Change Education European Centre for the Development of Technical Training Communications, Education and Public Awareness Program Community Learning Centres (Nepal) China National ESD Working Group Coping with Desertification Project International Conference on Adult Education Conference of Parties Common References in Sustainable Training in Adult Learning Civil Society Organization Corporate Social Responsibility Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Disaster Risk Reduction Early Childhood Care and Education Earth Charter International Environmental Education Education for All European Foundation for Management Development Education for Sustainability Environmental Leadership Initiatives for Asian Sustainability Education for Sustainable Development European Union Food and Agriculture Organization Global Action Programme Global Monitoring and Evaluation General Teaching Council for Scotland Global University Network for Innovation Global Monitoring and Evaluation Questionnaire Global Monitoring Report Global Report on Adult Learning and Education 11

13 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT GRLI GSSL GUPES HEFCE HEI HESI HIV and AIDS IAC IAU IBE ICT IEA IFC IGES IIS ILO INFEA ITP IUCN IN TEI LMTF M&E MDGs MEEG MESA MEXT MOOC MOU MS NaDEET NGO NUS OECD OMEP OWG PISA PRME ProSPER.Net RCE SADC SADC REEP SEAMO SD SDC SDGs SIDA SME SMME Globally Responsible Leadership Initiative Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability Higher Education Funding Council for England Higher Education Institutions Higher Education Sustainability Initiative Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome United Nations Inter-Agency Committee International Association of Universities International Bureau of Education Information and Communication Technology International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Finance Corporation Institute for Global Environment Strategies International Implementation Scheme International Labour Organization Environmental Education, Information, Training (Italy) International Training Programme International Union for Conservation of Nature International Network of Teacher Education Learning Metrics Task Force Monitoring and Evaluation Millennium Development Goals Monitoring and Evaluation Expert Group Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability in Africa Ministry of Education (Japan) Mass Open Online Course Memorandum of Understanding Member State Namib Desert Environmental Education Trust Non-Governmental Organization National Union of Students (UK) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Organisation mondiale pour l éducation préscolaire Open Working Group Program for International Student Assessment Principles for Responsible Management Education Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network Regional Centre of Expertise The Southern African Development Community SADC Regional Environmental Education Programme South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization Sustainable Development Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Sustainable Development Goals Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Small, Micro and Medium-sized Enterprises 12

14 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT TEI TVET UCINS UCLG UIS UK UN UNCBD UNCCD UNCED UNDAF UNDP UNECE UNEP UNESCO UNEVOC UNFCCC UNGC UNICEF UNISDR UNLD UNU USA WBCSD WHO WWF Teacher Education Institution Technical and Vocational Education and Training UNESCO Chair International Network of TEIs Survey United Cities and Local Governments UNESCO Institute for Statistics United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United Nations United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Development Assistance Framework United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UN Global Compact United Nations Children's Fund United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Literacy Decade United Nations University United States of America World Business Council for Sustainable Development World Health Organization World Wildlife Fund 13

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16 Chapter 1 Introduction

17 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT Chapter 1: Introduction Education is the most powerful path to sustainability. Economic and technological solutions, political regulations or financial incentives are not enough. We need a fundamental change in the way we think and act. Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO (2012) 1.1. Context: ESD and the DESD The history of ESD links to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), where 178 Member States agreed on a framework for action in Agenda 21 chapter 36, recognizing that education, training and public awareness are critical tools for the transition to sustainable development; and calling for reorienting education towards sustainable development (UN, 1992: paragraph 36). UNESCO was assigned as task manager for chapter 36. Parallel articles on education, training and public awareness were agreed to in the three Rio Conventions (the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC], the UN Convention on Biological Diversity [UNCBD] and the UN Convention to Combat Desertification [UNCCD]), with programmes of work agreed to by Member States. Agenda 21 principles and underpinning frameworks continue to guide conceptual thinking and planning for ESD, from the global level through to regional actions and Local Agenda 21 initiatives. The launch of the DESD in 2005 marked the beginning of 10 years of an explicit global movement towards improving and reorienting education systems towards sustainable development, building on earlier commitments to ESD in Agenda 21. Through the adoption of Resolution 57/254 in 2002, the UN General Assembly declared the DESD, to take place from 2005 to 2014 and tasked UNESCO as the lead agency. The DESD called on governments to consider the inclusion of measures to implement the Decade in their respective educational strategies and action plans (UN, 2002). UNESCO Member States agreed to this commitment, with Japan, Sweden, Germany, and Denmark, among others, championing and supporting the work through extra-budgetary funds to UNESCO (UNESCO, 2013a, p. 5). ESD prepares people of all walks of life to plan for, cope with, and find solutions for issues that threaten the sustainability of our planet. UNESCO framed its efforts to promote ESD within an International UNESCO (2005a, p. 7) Implementation Scheme (IIS) (UNESCO, 2005a), approved by Member States to facilitate collective ownership of the DESD and to connect various global initiatives to promote education (UNESCO, 2005a), including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Education for All (EFA) and the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD). The IIS was based on the four major thrusts of ESD, and seven strategies: 16

18 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 Box 1.1.1: Four major thrusts of ESD and seven strategies for ESD Four major thrusts of ESD 1. Improving access and retention in quality basic education 2. Reorienting existing educational programmes to address sustainability 3. Increasing public understanding and awareness of sustainability 4. Providing training to advance sustainability across all sectors Seven strategies for ESD 1. Vision-building and advocacy 2. Consultation and ownership 3. Partnership and networks 4. Capacity-building and training 5. Research and innovation 6. Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 7. Monitoring and evaluation Source: UNESCO (2005a). UNESCO recognized that two complementary advocacy approaches would be needed in advancing the DESD: the first, to support the education community in its role in the transition to sustainable development; the second, to support stakeholders working on sustainable development to incorporate education into their work. With these two approaches in mind, UNESCO has focused its efforts in four main areas: Advocating with UNESCO Member States and across the UN system on education as a critical implementation tool for sustainable development, reaching out to both education and sustainable development communities; Providing policy support and advice to Member States, using the lens of ESD to reorient their education systems and to progress towards and attain the MDGs and EFA commitments; Championing a global debate on ESD through networking and interaction among stakeholders in ESD, thereby promoting an exchange between practitioners and experts around the world; Developing approaches for the assessment of progress in ESD. To guide its work, UNESCO established groups of stakeholders and experts to advise on DESD implementation generally (High-Level Panel on DESD until January 2011 and the Reference Group for the DESD), on the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD (Monitoring and Evaluation Expert Group, MEEG); and on the preparations for the UNESCO World Conferences on ESD in 2009 and 2014 (each called International Steering Group) (UNESCO, 2009a). In order to catalyze and coordinate efforts with other UN agencies, UNESCO established the Inter-Agency Committee (IAC) for the DESD. Fifteen agencies agreed to participate at the start of the DESD, which stands at 22 members at the end of the DESD. A review of the DESD shows its implementation can be divided into two distinct phases. The first years, from , were invested in defining and promoting ESD, identifying actors and activities already underway, developing networks and partnerships and putting monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in place. The second phase, the beginning of which was marked by the 2009 World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development, led to a turning point where the emphasis shifted towards a renewed focus on advancing ESD in the context of quality education. This included an emphasis on teaching, learning and content, and the relevance of education to work and life. Based on the outcome document of the World Conference 2009, the Bonn Declaration and a newly elaborated Strategy for the Second Half of the Decade, UNESCO focused its work in ESD on three key sustainable development issues: climate change, biodiversity and disaster risk reduction, to be addressed through education. This Strategy for the Second Half of the UN DESD has guided the work from 2009 to 2014 (UNESCO, 2010a). In the early days of the DESD, ESD was understood as primarily related to the reorientation of formal curriculum and sustainable development content. By the end of the DESD, a richer understanding of the process of ESD is leading to the exploration and implementation of new forms of teaching and learning (UNESCO, 2012a) across all sectors and interests. 17

19 UN DECADE OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( ) FINAL REPORT The DESD Milestones World Education Forum The international community affirmed its commitment to achieving Education for All (EFA) by 2015 through the adoption of the Dakar Framework for Action. The Framework focuses on six EFA goals, the last goal being to improve all aspects of quality education. World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg Summit) Member States and global stakeholders reviewed the outcomes of the 1992 Earth Summit and made recommendations for future actions including, recommend[ations] to the UN General Assembly that it consider adopting a Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, starting in 2005 (UN, 2002, para. 124d). United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD, ) The UNLD was proclaimed at the 56th session of the UN General Assembly (2001) to support collective efforts to achieve the goals of EFA by Europe/North America regional launch of the DESD This high-level meeting of environment and education ministers in Vilnius, Lithuania, saw the adoption of the UNECE Strategy for Education for Sustainable Development and marked the launch of the DESD in Europe and North America region. Asia-Pacific regional launch of the DESD The Asia-Pacific regional launch of the DESD and the Asia- Pacific Regional Strategy for ESD took place at the UNU/ UNESCO International Conference in Nagoya, Japan. A Pacific ESD Framework was developed and endorsed at a ministerial meeting in Nadi, Fiji, in Arab States regional launch of the DESD The regional launch of the DESD took place in Bahrain. This provided an opportunity for countries in the region to exchange views and dialogue. The Regional Guiding Framework of Education for Sustainable Development in the Arab region was launched in United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Rio Earth Summit Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development were adopted by 178 governments. Agenda 21 is a global action programme for sustainable development. UNESCO was designated task manager of Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 on education, training and public awareness, as well as Chapter 35 on Science for sustainable development. The UN Millennium Summit The largest gathering of world leaders in history sets the Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by The MDGs seek to address extreme poverty income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter and exclusion, while promoting gender equality, education and environmental sustainability. 57th session, UN General Assembly Adopted resolution 57/254 that declared the period between 2005 and 2014 as the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UN DESD) and designated UNESCO as lead agency. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development ( ) Officially launched at UN Headquarters in New York. Latin America and the Caribbean regional launches of the DESD The Ibero-American Conference on Sustainable Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, marked the launch of the DESD. The Caribbean Regional Conference on ESD: New Approaches for the Future, held in Kingston, Jamaica, served as the Caribbean regional launch of the DESD. The regional strategy document, Building Education for Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, was placed online for comments in 2005 and finalized in Africa regional launch of the DESD The Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Biennial Meeting served as the launch of the DESD and its regional Strategy for Sustainable Development for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSAED) held in Libreville, Gabon. 18

20 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 UNESCO s mid-desd World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development (Bonn, Germany) The Bonn Declaration provided the international community with an action plan on ESD and outlined steps for implementing the remainder of the DESD. To guide its work, UNESCO developed a UNESCO Strategy for the Second Half of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), Brazil The Rio+20 outcome document, The Future We Want, contained commitments made to education as important for a green economy, for work and social protection, and for training for sustainability. Member States resolved to promote education for sustainable development and to integrate sustainable development more actively into education beyond the DESD (para. 232). Tbilisi+35 commemorates 35 years of global educational efforts toward a sustainable world An Intergovernmental Conference (Tbilisi+35) brought together delegates from all over the world to carry forward the global appeal for environmental education as a means for sustainable development. UNESCO World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development Learning Today for a Sustainable Future Conference has the following four objectives: i) celebrating a decade of action; ii) reorienting education to build a better future for all; iii) accelerating action for sustainable development; and iv) setting the agenda for ESD beyond The Conference marks the end of the DESD, celebrating its achievements and launch the Global Action Programme on ESD. Final Global Monitoring and Evaluation Report Completion of the third and final phase of the DESD global monitoring and evaluation process: This focuses on the impacts and outcomes of the DESD Fourth International Conference on Environmental Education Towards a Sustainable Future The Fourth Conference in a series of conferences on environmental education was held in Ahmedabad, India, looked into the current status of environmental education (EE) and its development to meet the challenges of sustainability and the objectives of the DESD. The first international conference, a milestone for environmental education, was held in Tbilisi, Georgia in First DESD Global Monitoring and Evaluation Report Completion of the first phase of the DESD monitoring and evaluation process: provided a review of contexts and structures for ESD. Second DESD Global Monitoring and Evaluation Report Completion of the second phase of the DESD monitoring and evaluation process: provided a review of processes and learning for ESD. 37th session, UNESCO General Conference Adopted 37 C/Resolution 12, which endorsed the Global Action Programme (GAP) on ESD as the follow-up to the DESD. 19

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