Stand-alone and Biorefinery ways to produce bioenergy from solid biodiesel wastes in Colombia

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1 Stand-alone and Biorefinery ways to produce bioenergy from solid biodiesel wastes in Colombia Carlos A. García V., Valentina Aristizábal M., Carlos A. Cardona A. Instituto de Biotecnología y Agroindustria, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Manizales-Colombia

2 Outline Introduction Methodology Results and Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgements References 2

3 Introduction Policy for energy security Uncertainty of oil prices Environmental concerns Oil sources are decreasing 3

4 Introduction Alternative feedstocks Alternative fuels 4

5 Introduction 6

6 Introduction Palm Oil and Empty Fruit Bunches Colombia is the fifth producer of palm oil in the world and the fourth world producer of oil palm due to its favorable agroecological conditions. Oil from palm and all the supply chain RESIDUES should be considered as potential sources of products having an economic potential. Colombian Raw materials 5

7 Introduction First generation feedstock Second generation feedstock Palm oil Empty fruit bunches Biodiesel Ethanol C1 to C2 Butanol Hydrogen Biogas 7

8 Methodology Raw Material Characterization Methods and Simulation Procedure Extractives content NREL/TP Ash content NREL/TP Holocellulose content ASTM Standard D1104 Lignin content modified version of TAPPI T222 acidinsoluble lignin in wood and pulp Methodological Approach Process synthesis. knowledge-based approach (Hierarchy, sequence and integration concepts) Mass and Energy Balances Generated in Aspen Plus V8.0 (AspenTech) after flowsheet modelling Economic Analysis Calculated using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer at the Colombian conditions 8

9 Methodology Description of Technologies Empty fruit bunches Butanol (1) Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, (2) ABE fermentation of glucose using Clostridium beijerinckii Hydrogen (1) Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, (2) Dark fermentation of glucose using Anaerobic Digestion Model (ADM1) Biogas Remaining material submitted to anaerobic digestion Palm oil Biodiesel Transesterification reaction with methanol and catalyzed by NaOH Ethanol Glycerol as residue of biodiesel production by fermentation using Escherichia coli 9

10 Methodology Process Simulation Description 10

11 Results and Discussion Experimental Characterization EFB Component Content (wt %) Cellulose 13.75±0.44 Hemicellulose 12.79±0.40 Lignin 7.79±0.08 Ash 0.63±0.04 Moisture 65.04±

12 Results and Discussion stand-alone biorefinery Product Yield Product Yield Hydrogen kg/kg EFB Hydrogen kg/kg EFB Butanol 0.04 kg/kg sugars Butanol kg/kg EFB Biogas 0.3 kg/kg EFB Biogas kg/kg EFB Biodiesel kg/kg palm oil* Biodiesel 1.14 kg/kg palm oil* Ethanol 0.27 kg/kg palm oil Ethanol 0.31 kg/kg palm oil *change for methanol or Ethanol *Methanol 12

13 Results and Discussion Economic Analysis 70,00 60,00 Share (%) 50,00 40,00 30,00 20,00 10,00 0,00 Hydrogen Butanol Biogas Biodiesel Ethanol 13

14 Results and Discussion Economic Analysis of the biorefinery NPV (M. USD/year): Production costs 1,50E+07 1,00E+07 Product Value Unit NPV 5,00E+06 0,00E+00-5,00E+06-1,00E+07-1,50E+07-2,00E Biodiesel 0.74 USD/kg Hydrogen 1.35 USD/kg Biogas 0.76 USD/kg Butanol 1.41 USD/kg Ethanol 0.56 USD/kg -2,50E+07 Year Payout Period (Years):

15 Conclusions According to the results, a biorefinery to produce different energy carriers is seen as a clear idea for the integral utilization of raw materials such as EFB from biodiesel supply chain for the production of biofuels. The use of biomass as raw materials for bioenergy and biochemical production is encouraged by a reduction of fossil CO 2 emissions, the need for a secure energy supply, and a revitalization of rural areas. A key driver for the development and implementation of energy biorefineries is the growth in demand for energy and fuels. The stand-alone option is weak when comparing it to a biorefinery that produces different energy carriers by the integral utilization of raw materials such as palm for the production of bioenergy. 15

16 Acknowledgments The authors express their acknowledgments to the Universidad Nacional de Colombia at Manizales and research group on Procesos Químicos, Catalíticos y Biotecnológicos. The authors express their acknowledgments to the Programa Nacional de Apoyo a Estudiantes de Posgrado para el Fortalecimiento de la Investigación, Creación e Innovación de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia The authors express their acknowledgments to the Convocatoria Nacional Jóvenes Investigadores e Innovadores 645 año 2014 of Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación - Colciencias-. 16

17 References R. Borja, a. Martín, E. Sánchez, B. Rincón, and F. Raposo, Kinetic modelling of the hydrolysis, acidogenic and methanogenic steps in the anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive pomace (TPOP), Process Biochem., vol. 40, no. 5, pp , Apr R. Maria, D. B. Alves, C. Augusto, J. F. O. Granjo, B. P. D. Duarte, and M. C. Oliveira, Kinetic Models for the Homogeneous Alkaline and Acid Catalysis in Biodiesel Production, vol. 27, no Elsevier Inc., 2009, pp V. Gadhamshetty, Y. Arudchelvam, N. Nirmalakhandan, and D. C. Johnson, Modeling dark fermentation for biohydrogen production: ADM1-based model vs. Gompertz model, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp , Jan N. Chaudhary, M. O. Ngadi, B. K. Simpson, and L. S. Kassama, Biosynthesis of Ethanol and Hydrogen by Glycerol Fermentation Using Escherichia coli, vol. 2011, no. July, pp , L. E. Rincón, J. Moncada, and C. A. Cardona, Analysis of potential technological schemes for the development of oil palm industry in Colombia: A biorefinery point of view, Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 52, pp , Jan L. E. Rincón, V. Hernández, and C. A. Cardona, Analysis of technological schemes for the efficient production of added-value products from Colombian oleochemical feedstocks, Process Biochem., vol. 49, no. 3, pp , Mar F. Cherubini, The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals, Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 51, no. 7, pp , Jul

18 Thank you for your attention Carlos A. García V., Valentina Aristizábal M., Carlos A. Cardona A. Instituto de Biotecnología y Agroindustria, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Manizales-Colombia 18

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