1 By Bonnie A. Nardi, Diane J. Schiano, Michelle Gumbrecht, and Luke Swartz Bloggers are driven to document their lives, provide commentary and opinions, express deeply felt emotions, Blog WHY WE articulate ideas through writing, and form and maintain community forums. Blogging is sometimes viewed as a new, grassroots form of journalism and a way to shape democracy outside the mass media and conventional party politics . Blog sites devoted to politics and punditry, as well as to sharing technical developments (such as receive thousands of hits a day. But the vast majority of blogs are written by ordinary people for much smaller audiences. Here, we report the results of an ethnographic investigation of blogging in a sample of ordinary bloggers. We investigated blogging as a form of personal communication and expression, with a specific interest in uncovering the range of motivations driving individuals to create and maintain blogs. ILLUSTRATION BY GARY CLEMENT COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM December 2004/Vol. 47, No
2 Blogs combine the immediacy of up-to-the-minute posts, latest first, with a strong sense of the author s personality, passions, and point of view. We investigated blogging practice to help determine why people blog, finding that bloggers have many varied reasons for letting the world in on what they think (see Figure 1). We conducted in-depth interviews with bloggers primarily in and around Stanford University, audiotaping in-person and phone interviews from April to June The interviews were conversational in style but covered a fixed set of questions about the Figure 1. Image from a blog in our study showing the blogger s daughter in a blogging T-shirt. informants blogs, blogging habits, thoughts on blogging, and use of other communication media as compared to blogs. We interviewed most of them at least twice, with follow-up sessions in person or by phone, , or instant messaging. We read their blogs throughout the time we were writing this article. To identify motivations for blogging, we analyzed the content of the blogs and the interview data. Interview follow-ups helped us clarify puzzling questions and gain additional understanding of the reasons for blogging. We interviewed 23 people altogether, 16 men and 7 women, aged 19 to 60. All lived in California or New York and were well-educated, middle-class adults in school or employed in knowledge work or artistic pursuits. We developed the sample by searching Google s Stanford portal (www.google.com/univ/stanford/) for blog and for Weblog, creating an initial list of Stanford-hosted blogs. We also contacted several bloggers we knew personally. We then snowballed the sample, asking informants for the names of other bloggers to contact. We used pseudonyms when discussing specific informants and obtained permission for all quotes and images. Blogging Practices The informants typically found blogs through other blogs they were reading, through friends or colleagues, and through inclusion of the blog link in an instant message profile or homepage. Most blog pages reserve space for linking to other blogs. Some bloggers post multiple times a day, others as infrequently as once a month. Bloggers sometimes poured out their feelings or ideas and sometimes struggled to find something to say. One informant stopped blogging when he inadvertently hurt the feelings of a friend he had mentioned. He took down his blog and later put up another, this time without advertising the URL in his instant messenger profile. Other bloggers experienced blog burnout and stopped blogging from time to time. We found tremendous diversity in blog content, even in our limited sample. On the serious side, Evan, a graduate student in genetics, posted commentaries on science and health, covering such topics as AIDS, heart disease, science education, and health care policy. On the other end of the scale blog-as-personal-revelation Lara, an undergraduate, wrote: I ve come to realize rather recently that I can t regret that I didn t form any romantic attachments [my phrases for such things are always overly formal to the point of stupidity, and I don t know why or what to use instead, but bear with me] because, at the end of the day, a boyfriend would have taken away from all the awesome things that happened with people in the dorm, and all the great friendships that I formed and that will hopefully continue after this year (if you re reading this blog, you re most likely one of those people). Thinking back to the last couple of years, it s pretty obvious that I was really stifled by my insular, extremely time-consuming group of friends, and part of my discontent stemmed from a relative dearth of fun, casual relationships with interesting people. My friends are great, but they are also tightly knit to the point of being incestuous, and when I hang out with them it is difficult to maintain the time and energy necessary to play with other people. This post encouraged a future connection to friends while Lara worked through her emotional issues. Most bloggers are acutely aware of their readers, 42 December 2004/Vol. 47, No. 12 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM
3 Bloggers sometimes poured out their feelings or ideas and sometimes struggled to find something to say. even in confessional blogs, calibrating what they should and should not reveal. Although Lara s post appears highly personal, she also kept a separate paper diary. Many bloggers have personal codes of ethics dictating what goes into their blogs (such as never criticize friends or express political opinions that are openly inflammatory). Not that bloggers eschew controversy quite the opposite but they express themselves in light of their audience. One blogger of liberal political opinions sometimes wrote posts she knew would irritate her Republican uncle. She was tactful enough to keep lines of communication open. Another blogger kept his writing suitable for a family audience: Yeah My mom mentioned something that was in [my blog] my grandma reads it, too; she just got the Internet It means that I kind of have to censor less cursing and stuff. Blogging thus provides scope for an enormous variety of expression within a simple, restricted format. Motivations Previous survey research [1, 6] examined some reasons people blog but without the rich data of indepth interviews. In our sample, we discovered five major motivations for blogging: documenting one s life; providing commentary and opinions; expressing deeply felt emotions; articulating ideas through writing; and forming and maintaining community forums. This list is not exhaustive, covering all bloggers, but does describe our sample. These motivations are by no means mutually exclusive and might come into play simultaneously. Blogs to document my life. Many informants blogged to record activities and events. Harriet, a Stanford graduate student, blogged to document my life for her family and friends in Iceland, as well as for her fellow students. Blogs were used by many as a record to inform and update others of their activities and whereabouts, often including photos. Depending on the audience and content, a blog could be a public journal, a photo album, or a travelogue. Don, a technology consultant, called blogs belogs because he felt blogging is used to log your being. This took a serious turn for him when his wife became gravely ill. He took over her blog to document the progress of her illness and treatment through text and photos. Blogging was an important way for him to communicate during this time: [Blogging is helpful] when people s lives are compromised in some way when [my wife] was sick, [I] was going through [the] hospital with the lens of how can I share this with others? Keeping family and friends abreast of life events is a key use of blogging. Katie, a graduate student, said she blogged to relate her life to others by telling her own personal story in close to real time. Even Evan, whose blog was primarily about scientific subjects, let his friends know of his whereabouts and sometimes to report a cold or other minor disturbance in his life. Arthur, a Stanford professor, and several others, found blogging a superior alternative to mass [I started blogging] to communicate with friends and family, as well as [for] professional connections. It s easier than sending lots of . I ll just put it on my blog. Why use blogs instead of just sending ? Arthur felt blogging involves less overhead (such as addressing) than , with added scope for other communication, including rants and speculation. Several bloggers emphasized the broadcast nature of blogging; they put out information, and no one need respond unless they wished to. Blogs are not intrusive. No one is forced to pay attention, observed Lara, as they are with . Reading is voluntary, when convenient. Why not Web pages? A blog is a kind of Web page. What drew writers and readers alike to blogs is the rhythm of frequent, usually brief posts, with the immediacy of reverse chronological order. Writers could put up something short and sweet, expecting their audience would check in regularly. Readers knew they would be likely to get fresh news of friends, family, and colleagues in the convenient format of the blog, with no work-related or the distractions often found on a homepage. Several informants saw homepages as more static than blogs, more formal and carefully considered, and somewhat less authentic. Jack, a poet and avid blogger, said, [With a Web page] you don t hear their voice in the same way. Blogs as commentary. Our bloggers found their voices by using blogs to express their opinions. While COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM December 2004/Vol. 47, No
4 blogs are often portrayed as a breakthrough form of democratic self-expression, the darker side of the stereotype casts blogs as indulgent chatter of little interest to anyone but the blogger. Many of our informants were sensitive about this characterization and emphasized they blogged to comment on topics they found pertinent and important. A blog, said one, can be a point of view, not just chatter. Sam, a technology consultant, was knowledgeable about information technology and politics in developing countries. He started blogging to comment on a conference he attended but then decided to devote his blog to technology in developing countries: [My blog started as] a critique on [a] conference called Figure 2. Journey into the swamp: where I end and you begin, an individually authored blog focusing on the author s daily life and her thoughts on literature and pop culture. World Summit on the Information Society, which was a project that began a few years ago by the International Telecommunications Union I was kind of interested in the way people reacted to it, putting a lot of resources into this conference, so I started tracking that, and I got very discouraged with what was going on. So I just switched to information technology in developing countries as a theme [for my blog], so that s really about all I ll write about, looking at it from a critical standpoint. Part of the allure of blogs is the easy way they move between the personal and the profound. Alan, a historian of science, started a post by documenting his life, describing an incident in which his daughter wanted to watch a Sesame Street video clip. He added commentary on how DVDs make it very easy to treat movies not as whole works, but as collections of scenes. He ended the post with a discussion of John Locke s worries about the way numbering biblical verses would change people s perceptions of the Bible (with a link to further discussion on Locke). Alan s post integrated comments on popular trends, works by other authors, relevant links, and personal experience. Arthur, a humanities professor, explained why he blogged, saying: I guess I m an amateur rock and cultural critic. I also comment on things that I d be embarrassed to to others. I mean [they would think], Why do I care? On the blog, you can be an amateur rock critic. Blogging provided an outlet for expressing a point of view on topics the authors considered much more than just chatter. Blogs as catharsis. Several of our informants viewed blogging as an outlet for thoughts and feelings. Their content was sometimes patently emotional. Lara described hers as me working out my own issues. Undercurrents of more subtle but deeply felt emotions fueled other blogs. Jack started blogging around the time of the start of the Iraq war in March 2003, because, despite attending demonstrations and supporting anti-war politicians, he felt futile and that no one was listening. Vivian, an attorney, called her blog Shout, writing about such topics as the misapplication of the death penalty in the U.S. justice system. Blogs helped explore issues the authors felt obsessive or passionate about. Blogs gave people a place to shout, or express themselves by writing to an audience of sometimes total strangers, sometimes their best friends and colleagues and family members. The format of frequent posts, diary-style, was both outlet and stimulus for working through personal issues. A blog often serves as a relief valve, a place to get closure out of writing, as Lara said of a post on the death of her grandfather. Another claimed, I just needed to, like, get it out there. Others needed to let off steam. Blog as muse. Still others found they could get it out there in a more constructive manner through what previous research termed thinking with computers  (see Figure 2). Evan liked blogging because for him it was thinking by writing. He wanted to see if he really had anything to say about what he had been reading in the news and in scholarly journals. Blogging let him test his ideas by writing them down for an audience. Alan said, I am one of those people for whom writing and thinking are basically synonymous. His blog forced him to keep writing, a discipline he deemed important for his work. Jack noted that as a graduate student, nobody wants to hear from me yet. For the moment, blogging gave him a small 44 December 2004/Vol. 47, No. 12 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM
5 audience and a chance to prove to myself that I can do it, that is, write. Jack, Evan, Alan, and Vivian observed that some of their posts might have a future life in magazine articles, scholarly research, or other conventional publications. Alan said scholars generate a tremendous amount of material that usually stays private but could actually be a public good if released and shared with a general-interest audience. Vivian saw her posts as good fodder for political arguments later on. Jack archived his posts himself because he wasn t sure how long they would last on the Web site and felt that some of them would continue to be interesting to me. For those who think by writing, blogging provides two main benefits: an audience to shape the writing and an archive of potentially reusable posts. Most bloggers reported they had regular readers. They could direct their writing at them, solving the key problem of knowing for whom they were writing. Having readers helped keep the writing moving along, as bloggers knew their readers expected new posts. Blogs as community forum. Some of our informants expressed their views to one another in community settings. One blog supported a community of poets. Two supported educational communities. Another was devoted to a collective of people who exchanged political opinions. We also learned of workplace blogs supporting workgroups we could not investigate directly because they were proprietary. Workplace blogs are a form of communication we expect to see much more of soon, as people become more familiar with reading and writing blogs. Rob, who taught a class called dorm.net/residentialrhetorics, focused the class blog on locating the intersection of residence community and all electronic communication tools, noting: We ll try to take advantage of the general nature of Weblogs as public journals in using them for personal reflection, in the context of a learning community, on issues that arise in the course, both rhetorical and content-related. He required students to conduct field studies, post weekly blogs on assigned topics, and read and comment on one another s posts. He hoped to facilitate the building of the learning community by getting [students] in conversation with each other electronically. Students found that blogging created a sense of community that would be less likely to emerge in a conventional classroom setting. Colleen, an academic technology specialist, created a blog for an undergraduate archaeology course. The professor posted periodic reports on a class project involving the cataloging of artifacts from a 19th century San Jose Chinatown site. This blog succeeded as a Web site but failed to generate a sense of community among the students. The professor and teaching assistants made most of the comments, the students almost none. The students were either not moved to comment or decided not to, given the lack of a course requirement. As with other electronic media, blogs in themselves are not sufficient for building a community. The most authentic, grassroots blogging community we investigated was that of a group of poetry bloggers. Comments on blog posts flew back and forth on the blogs, in , and in person. Jack belonged to a poetry community and kept a set of links to others poetry blogs that map[ped] a community, as he described it. The community generated peer pressure to post regularly because people regularly checked the blogs for new posts. Jack said there was a kind of reciprocity expected because I read others blogs, so I have to make my contribution. This community changed over time. During the study, several poetry bloggers began to post original poems, although at first many considered it egotistical. Jack changed his mind on the issue, and the community became his muse; his poems developed as a conversation between himself and other bloggers. Jack began posting poems about halfway through the study, though he had initially told us the blog was not a proper forum for poems. Later he said: I discovered that allowing myself to post poems was helping me write poems, since I could think of it as material for the blog to be immediately posted, as opposed to being stowed in a drawer somewhere. Here, thinking by writing intersected with blogging as community forum. Most bloggers are acutely aware of their readers, even in confessional blogs, calibrating what they should and should not reveal. COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM December 2004/Vol. 47, No
6 Part of the allure of blogs is the easy way they move between the personal and the profound. Six Stanford students formed a political blog called The Cardinal Collective. Its members were selected to represent a political spectrum by the students themselves Only a few had met face-to-face; an invitation to participate depended on having interesting political opinions and writing skill, also as determined by the students themselves. The blog was also an intended for a wider audience, since people were invited to subscribe. Some posts were linked to InstaPundit, a widely read political blog, opening a wider frame of public participation for the blog. Various electronic media support communities , including chat [5, 11], group Web sites , listservs , and multi-user dimensions (MUDs) and MUD object-oriented technologies (MOOs) . Chat, MUDs, and MOOs are forums for textual interaction but generally don t provide access to archives or photos. Web sites support rich information but are usually limited in terms of interactivity. Listservs promote a higher level of interactivity than blogs. Blogs can be characterized as having limited interactivity [4, 6]. The modal number of comments in individually authored blogs has been found to be zero . Many of our informants liked the interaction-at-one-remove provided by blogs. Max said: I feel like I can say something in the blog and then have it be sort of like my safety net. Whereas like in a more immediate and personal like form of impersonal digital communication I would sort of have to face their reaction. Metaphorically speaking, anyway two bad things that blogging does for me, anyway, endorses [are] laziness and cowardice. Blogs combine information and modulated interactivity. Bloggers value that they can post and share their thoughts without the intensive feedback associated with other forms of communication. Conclusion In our sample, we found a range of motivations for blogging. Blog content was equally diverse, ranging from journals of daily activities to serious commentaries on important issues. Blogging is an unusually versatile medium, employed for everything from spontaneous release of emotion to archivable support of group collaboration and community. Our investigation is an early look at blogging as a mainstream use of the Internet. Much work must still be done in examining this flourishing phenomenon as it grows and changes. c References 1. Efimova, L. Blogs: The stickiness factor. Presented at BlogTalk: A European Conference on Weblogs (Vienna, May 23, 2003). 2. Fischer, G. Communities of interest: Learning through the interaction of multiple knowledge systems. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (Ulvik, Norway, 2001), Gillmor, D. Making the news. E-Journal: News, Views, and a Silicon Valley Diary (Apr. 11, 2003); Weblog.siliconvalley.com/column/dangillmor/archives/ shtml. 4. Gumbrecht, M. Blogs as protected space. Presented at the Workshop on the Weblogging Ecosystem: Aggregation, Analysis, and Dynamics (New York, May 17 22). ACM Press, New York, Handel, M. and Herbsleb, J. What is chat doing in the workplace? In Proceedings of Computer Supported Cooperative Work 2002 (New Orleans, Nov ). ACM Press, New York, 2002, Herring, S., Scheidt, L., Bonus, S., and Wright, E. Bridging the gap: A genre analysis of Weblogs. In Proceedings 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Big Island, HI, Jan. 5 8, 2004). 7. Mortensen, T. and Walker, J. Blogging thoughts: Personal publication as an online research tool. In Researching ICTs in Context, A. Morrison, Ed. InterMedia Report, Oslo, Norway, Nardi, B. Beyond bandwidth: Dimensions of connection in interpersonal communication. J. Comput.-Supp. Coop. Work (2005). 9. Preece, J. Empathic communities: Balancing emotional and factual communication. Interacting with Computers 12 (1998), Schiano, D. and White, S. The first noble truth of cyberspace: People are people (even when they MOO). In Proceedings of CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Los Angeles, Apr ). ACM Press, New York, 1998, Wellman, B. Designing the Internet for a networked society. Commun. ACM 45, 5 (May 2002), Bonnie Nardi is an associate professor in the School of Information and Computer Science at the University of California, Irvine. Diane J. Schiano is a freelance consultant in user experience and a visiting scholar at the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Michelle Gumbrecht is a Ph.D. student in cognitive psychology in Herbert H. Clark s laboratory at Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Luke Swartz is a graduate of the Computer Science Department and Symbolic Systems Program at Stanford University, currently serving as an officer in the U.S. Navy submarine service. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee ACM /04/1200 $ December 2004/Vol. 47, No. 12 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM
SO YOU HAVE TO WRITE A DISSERTATION PROPOSAL? SOME THOUGHTS ON HOW TO KEEP FROM BEING OVERWHELMED AND MOVE STEADILY TOWARDS YOUR GOAL. By Elizabeth Ferry Department of Anthropology, Brandeis University
How to Have a Successful School Library or Classroom Blog By Karen Bonanno How to Have a Successful School Library or Classroom Blog From: Karen Bonanno September 2014 Once you have chosen a topic or focus
Dialog: VIP LESSON 049 - Future of Business A: We really embarrassed ourselves last night at that business function. B: What are you talking about? A: We didn't even have business cards to hand out. We
Chapter Four: How to Collaborate and Write With Others Why Collaborate on Writing? Considering (and Balancing) the Two Extremes of Collaboration Peer Review as Collaboration * A sample recipe for how peer
Communication Humor and Personality: Student s attitudes to online learning Originally published in the Academic Quarterly Exchange, Summer 2001 Diane Goldsmith Ph.D. Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium
International Jl. on E-Learning (2010) 9(3), 325-340 Using Asynchronous Video to Achieve Instructor Immediacy and Closeness in Online Classes: Experiences from Three Cases Michael Griffiths and Charles
Why Your Job Search Isn t Working 6 mistakes you re probably making and how to fix them I t s easy to think that your lack of success in finding a new job has nothing to do with you. After all, this is
Pastor Spotlight Martha Fisher, CBC Women s Pastor Inspiration Martha Fisher, Women s Pastor at Community Bible Church, leads with a passion to reach, teach and help the women of our community for Jesus.
Clinical Trials Clinical Trials This brochure is for people making decisions about cancer treatment. You may be thinking about a clinical trial for you or your child but need to know more before you decide.
Transcript Tips for Effective Online Composition and Communication with Dr. Gary Burkholder [ MUSIC ] HI, I WANT TO DISCUSS FOR YOU TODAY TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ONLINE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION. AS WALDEN
Sample Process Recording - First Year MSW Student Agency: Surgical Floor, City Hospital Client System: Harold Harper, age 68, retired widower Date: November 18, 20xx Presenting Issues: Cardiologist observed
Assessment of the project International Marketing Offensive for Smart Phones in China 1. Assessment of the project itself In November 2014 we started preparing our project which was an international marketing
Blogging as Social Activity, or, Would You Let 900 Million People Read Your Diary? Bonnie A. Nardi University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92697 USA +1 949 824 6534 firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT "Blogging"
An Introduction to Business Blogs, their benefits & how to promote them This document is protected under the Creative Commons license. No commercial use and no changes are allowed. You can, if you wish,
LOTUS NOTES USER PROTOCOLS Introduction From monitoring how South Yorkshire Police staff make use of the software, it became apparent that there was a need for a set of regulatory instructions to supplement
Health Management Limited has been appointed as the supplier to deliver Fit for Work (previously Health and Work Service) in England and Wales. The following is a personal account of a service user s journey.
The Public Sector Guide to Social Media Strategy and Policy Use social media with confidence. This guide contains practical steps that will help public sector agencies, organizations and departments develop
Student diaries: using technology to produce alternative forms of feedback NUZ QUADRI University of Hertfordshire PETER BULLEN University of Hertfordshire AMANDA JEFFERIES University of Hertfordshire 214
Creating Effective Podcasts for Your Business Podcasting is an exciting new way to communicate with people both inside and outside your organization. Effective podcasts build a loyal audience that keeps
1 Blood, Sweat and Tears: Insights into the Lived Experiences of Graduates of an Accelerated Undergraduate Degree-Completion Program Bonnie Flynn, Ed.D., MPH National-Louis University Abstract: This is
How to Share Information and Ideas Worldwide Completely Free Using the New Information Wonder Called Blogs Kingsley Oghojafor Kingsley Oghojafor at the hotel Le Loft in Bamako, January 2006. Photo M.B.
MIDDLETOWN FAMILY FINDS ITS NICHE IN NURSING FIELD Posted: April 25, 2015 By SALLY VOTH The Winchester Star The McNeely family (from left) Linda, Jennifer, Kyle and Keith, are shown at Winchester Medical
Nobody intends to become an addict. Nobody takes his first drink, pops her first pill, or snorts her first line thinking, I plan on getting hooked on this. Instead, people tend to think things like this:
Janet E. Helms, Ph.D. Augustus Long Professor, Department of Counseling, Boston College Interviewed by Carlos P. Zalaquett, Ph.D., L.M.H.C Department of Psychological & Social Foundations University of
Assessing Online Asynchronous Discussion in Online Courses: An Empirical Study Shijuan Liu Department of Instructional Systems Technology Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana, USA email@example.com
Requirements for reading responses Online answers are due by 9:00 a.m. on the assigned class day. In-person answers are due at class time. Requirement: Answer all of the questions briefly but thoroughly.
Julien Pain, France24 (Interviewauszug für ts.de) We published a summary about all the conspiracy theories around the Charlie Hebdo massacre, because everywhere in the world, you can find someone telling
The Life Equation By HO Yuen Ki (Sandy) 1 plus 1 equals 2. My school life has always been about getting the model answers in exams. I used to think about life as something like exams. You either get it
home find jobs post resume career tools recruiters More Recruiter Resources View Article Archive Sign up for Newsletter Submit an Article Last Week's Articles Clarify Expectations and Follow-Up with Those
Purpose for Social Media Guidelines: Guilford County Schools (GCS) realizes that part of 21st century learning is adapting to the changing methods of communication. The importance of teachers, students
Blogging in the Language Classroom Thea Pallut Teacher of French Grantown Grammar School Background Computers are now a one stop shop for students, which they use for shopping, talking to friends, creating
28 Preview Now More Than Ever: Community Colleges Daniel Wister When Miranda left for school at a faraway university, she thought that all her dreams were on their way to coming true. Then, once disappointment
The Writer s Block Project by Dr. Jane K. Dominik When writing papers for their college courses across disciplines, students often get stuck at various stages in the writing process: as they struggle to
Business Building Tips Contact Marketing After 9 years of involvement with Network Marketing, I came to a point in my recruiting where I needed another way to find more good quality people to join my Team;
Theory U Toolbook 1.1 Dialogue Interviews for regular updates: www.presencing.com Dialogue Interviews At a Glance Dialogue interviews are intended to engage the interviewee in a reflective and generative
Social Media Policy Overview... 2 Using Social Media on Behalf of Cedarville University... 3 Content Management... 4 Best Practices... 4 Facebook... 5 Twitter... 5 Blogs... 6 Photos... 6 Video... 6 Comments
BEST PRACTICE IN ENTREPRISE SOCIAL NETWORKING - 2013 BY WITH 0 ZYNCRO 2013. All right reserved CONTENU - 1/ GUIDELINES FOR USING ENTERPRISE SOCIAL NETWORKS - P.02 2/ HOW AND WHEN TO USE ENTERPRISE SOCIAL
Report How voters get information: Moving voters through the engagement continuum through voter information May 27, 2014 Dana Chisnell Whitney Quesenbery Center for Civic Design firstname.lastname@example.org
Meet Richard Saitz, M.D., MPH Richard Saitz, M.D., MPH, is a professor of medicine and epidemiology at Boston University, and also primary care physician and director of the Clinical Addiction Research
Module 6: How to Write the Book Okay, guys. Katrina Starzhynskaya here, and lesson 6, how to actually write the book: time frame, where to get your ideas from, and how to get inspired. Let s begin. Time
The Interview Series - Presented by SmartFunnel Interviews of Sales + Marketing Industry Leaders Louis Gudema: Founder and President of Revenue + Associates PETER: Hello folks this is Peter Fillmore speaking.
Hyper- Going Local Online How Captures Local Users through custom hyper-local ad channels: Generating value for your online media budget. Online Tops Newspapers as news source The Internet is now the most
Activity 3: Observe Psychological First Aid In this activity you have the opportunity to hear a conversation between a survivor of bomb blast and a Red Cross behavioral health volunteer. This role play
Hi, Congratulations for downloading this pdf guide on lead generation. At least you've taken a step forward in the right direction. You are going to learn 15 free sources to get leads online for your business.
Information Literacy A Review of the Research A Guide for Practitioners and Researchers 2 nd Edition David V. Loertscher Blanche Woolls Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2002 ii c. 2002 Hi Willow Research
5 Tricks of Trend Trading Copyright 2006 Rob Booker. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be sold or changed without the author s consent. Page 1 of 8 Guiding Principles of this ebook 1.
Structure of a Workshop: A Writer s Workshop: Working in the Middle from Jennifer Alex, NNWP Consultant For the last four years, writing and reading workshops have been the foundation of my classroom practice.
15 Toughest Interview Questions and Answers! Reference: WomenCo. Lifestyle Digest, email@example.com 1. Why do you want to work in this industry? I love to shop. Even as a kid, I spent hours flipping
Faculty-Librarian Collaborations at the University of Texas By Roxanne Bogucka and Michele Ostrow Opportunities for faculty-librarian collaboration can be difficult to find, especially in a large research
A Correlation of Prentice Hall Writing Coach 2012 To the Virginia English Standards of Learning A Correlation of, 2012, Introduction This document demonstrates how, 2012, meets the objectives of the. Correlation
NETREPS: MANAGING YOUR ONLINE REPUTATION netreps: managing your online reputation Are you Facebooked? Are you in a Google+ circle? What about LinkedIn? Do you tweet? Have you posted a comment on a company
Transcription of Questions and Answers from Virtual Open Event of Wednesday 23 rd February 2011 Topic Question Answer Administration Administration Administration Administration/Entry Requirements Is it
Realities Toolkit #10 Using Blog Analysis Helene Snee, Sociology, University of Manchester July 2010 1. Introduction Blogs are a relatively new form of internet communication and as a result, little has
EADS up stop think connect table of contents 2 4 8 12 Share with Care Interact with Tact The Protection Connection Word Search You text, you play games, you share photos and video. You update your status,
Kim Fredrickson, M.S., MFT Author and Coach How Do I Handle Unsupportive Friends and Family While Pursuing My Goals and Dreams? Relationships are at the core of everything we do, whether this is in our
McCord Web Services McCord Web Services LLC 2254 Ravenna Court Waldorf, MD 20603 Voice: 301.705.7303 Fax: 301.705.7618 The Tangible Benefits of Blogging Written and Researched by Nancy McCord, President
Body&Soul Peer Counseling Coordinator s Guide Body&Soul Peer Counseling Coordinator s Guide Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Recruiting Peer Counselors... 3 Maintaining the Privacy of Church Members...
Savings 2 MONEY MATTERS The BIG Idea What strategies will help me reach my savings goals? AGENDA Approx. 45 minutes I. Warm Up (10 minutes) II. Saving Tips (10 minutes) III. Opportunity Costs (15 minutes)
Ten Tips for Coaching Adults An Emotionally Healthy Approach Rebecca Ruth Curtis, Joy Allen Humbarger, and Terrell Ellene Mann KCPT Kansas City Public Television Sarah (program director, smiling as she
What If Customer Experience Has No ROI? By Bruce Temkin Customer Experience Transformist & Managing Partner Temkin Group www.temkingroup.com I m often asked the question: What s the ROI of customer experience?
THE STATESMAN Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2005 Happy Holidays! From George Wythe College On Campus Seminars: Dec 16-17 Mar 4-5 Mar 7-8 May 2-27 May 30-31 July 15-16 Roots of America How to Read a Book A
It seems just about everybody has a mobile phone now, including more than three-quarters of U.S. teens and a rapidly growing number of younger kids. For young people as well as adults, the technology has
TKT Online Self-study Guide TKT Online overview The Cambridge ESOL Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is a test of knowledge of concepts related to language, language use and the background to practical language
! Their stories are tragic. A new chapter starts now. now.! Bully is a movie that tells powerful stories about children and their families dealing with extreme pain and tragic consequences related to bullying.
Interview Paul E. Black (PB) Interviewers: Michael Davis (MD) Location: NIST, Gaithersburg, MD Date: Oct. 11, 2002 (approved) QUESTIONNAIRE SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS WRITE A CODE OF ETHICS 1. What is your educational
CONNY RAY Magical Transformations By Bobby Warren In his nearly six decades of performing, one could say Swedish magician Thorbjörn Holmqvist s best trick was a transformation effect or, rather, a series
Manifesto against Flatpack degrees (and for self-directed learning) Carl Schoenfeld, Film Producer & Lecturer Are you a lucky person? If you are, go straight into the industry, because it s all about determination.
Instructional Technology Survey January-February, 2008 Harvard University Department of Romance Languages and Literatures firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Executive Overview Project Mission: As digital technologies
THE WORD OF GOD SPOKEN BY PROPHETS (C.3.SPRING.4) Biblical Reference Jeremiah 1:1-19 Key Verse Jeremiah 1:9 Key Concept Just as the prophets spoke God s word, I too can share God s word with others. Educational
I M NOT AN ADDICT How could I be an addict? My life is great. I live in a very good area of Los Angeles, drive a nice sports car, have a good job, pay all my bills, and have a wonderful family. This is
podcast Hello, and welcome to this JISC podcast interview. In this series we re speaking to people working on projects being funded by JISC s research data spring project to find out more about what they
The Reading- Writing Poster Pack by Steve Peha Good Writing Has all of these traits Ideas that are interesting and important. Main Idea Details Showing Purpose Surprises Organization that is logical and
The Death of Seminars & the Birth of Virtual Events Since late 2007, the seminar business has been hurting big time. Filling seminars is getting harder and harder. In fact, at least one major seminar promoter
THE DOCTOR LUKE (B.3.SPRING.1) Biblical Reference Luke 1:1-4 Key Verse John 21:25 Key Concept God prepares me for the task I will be given in at the time God determines. Educational Objectives At the end
Case Study 2 Learning though blogging: a case study with business Spanish students at Reykjavik University Pilar Concheiro 1. Introduction In a knowledge society where competence domains are widened and
CEHD ipad Initiative Year One Report Fall 2010 Spring 2011 Treden Wagoner, M.A.Ed. Sheila Hoover, Ph.D. David Ernst, Ph.D. 2 Mobile Learning learning within various contexts and locations facilitated by
July 2010, Volume 7, No.7 (Serial No.68) US-China Education Review, ISSN 1548-6613, USA Using web blogs as a tool to encourage pre-class reading, post-class reflections and collaboration in higher education
Writing Academic Essays at University Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University Writing Academic Essays at University Page 2/ What is Research? Video 1 In this video series, I will be introducing you to the basics
Introduction to Inbound Marketing by Kevin Carney of Inbound Marketing University Page 1 of 20 InboundMarketingUniversity.biz InboundMarketingUniversity Published by Inbound Marketing University No part