Construction of a Fencing Mask

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1 Academy of Historical Arts & HEMAC Construction of a Fencing Mask Author: Keith Farrell Version: 01 Date: 5th May 2012

2 Version and Copyright Information Version: 01 Date: 5th May 2012 Research: Copyright c Keith Farrell, 2012 Typesetting: Copyright c Keith Farrell, 2012 This document is released freely for personal and academic purposes, but may not be distributed for commercial gains.

3 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Protective Hard Shell Mesh What material is used? How is the material tested? How is the mesh constructed from the material? How is the completed mesh tested for safety? Test to ensure construction is correct Test to ensure construction can endure deformation Tests to ensure the mesh can protect the head properly Low velocity penetration test Impact energy test In-person punch test What do the ratings mean? Protective Cloth Bib What material is used, and how is the bib constructed? How is the completed bib tested for safety? Ergonomic testing Bib attachment testing High velocity test What do the ratings mean? Joins and Rib What profile should the join have? How are the joins tested for safety? Straps and Restraint System 9 6 Internal Padding and Support System How is the padding tested for safety? Why do some masks have more internal padding than others? External Padding 11 8 Back-of-Head Protection 11 9 Bibliography and References 12 1

4 1 Introduction Fencing masks are very important pieces of equipment for practitioners of modern sports fencing and also historical fencing. Almost everyone involved in the practice of historical European martial arts will use a fencing mask at some point, and so it is important to understand how a mask is made and what the ratings mean. Only then can the ratings be used to help us make an informed opinion about what sort of mask is best suited for our activity. A fencing mask is made of four main parts with an optional fifth part: 1. mesh (the wire construction that protections the face and head); 2. bib (the cloth part that protections the neck); 3. rib (a metal rib that joins the various sections together); 4. straps (the parts at the back that keep the mask in place on your head); 5. padding on the inside of the mask (or other support system). A mask for historical fencing may have an additional two external parts: 6. external padding (something like detachable coaching padding); 7. back-of-head protection (something to protect the back of the head). This article will look at each of these component parts in turn and discuss the different purposes, constructions and ratings. The two main documents from which the information will be drawn are as follows: British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, chest, abdomen, leg, genital and face protectors for fencers - Requirements and test methods. (Hereafter referred to as EN ) Hopefully this examination of the various requirements and tests that masks and their components must undergo will help to shed some light on this very complicated issue. The issue of fencing masks with transparent plates in the mesh has been avoided, as the issue of plain mesh masks has been confusing and complicated enough. 2

5 2 Protective Hard Shell Mesh The mesh of the mask is designed to protect the front, sides and top of the head from impacts by weapons [1]. 2.1 What material is used? The construction of this part of the mask is a tight mesh of steel wire, wire that has been made to a high standard throughout the whole process. The steel must possess excellent qualities of strength and a high level of elasticity and plastic deformation, as well as a very good resistance against corrosion [2]. In terms of the specification of steel wire, to receive certification from FIE the steel wire must be round stainless steel wire CrNi [3]. According to EN 13567, Level 1 mesh shall be plated or coated to prevent rusting or shall be of stainless steel. Level 2 mesh shall be made from stainless steel or similar corrosion resistant material [4]. 2.2 How is the material tested? The steel must be able to be bent to 180 around a 2 mm mandrel; after bending the wire must be examined and must not show any cracks at the point where the bend occurs [5]. The steel must pass a further traction test [6] and a micrographic examination of the structure of the steel [7] before it is recognised as being of sufficiently high quality for use in a fencing mask. To certify that steel meets the necessary requirements for fencing masks the manufacturer must deliver a certificate of conformity of the chemical composition and a certificate of control of the mechanical characteristics and the results of the bending test and the micrographic examination [8]. What this all tells us is that before the wire is turned into a mesh it must pass a series of tests to ensure it is good enough at a chemical and molecular level. Only if the wire itself is good enough will it be taken forward to construction into a mesh. 2.3 How is the mesh constructed from the material? The construction of the mesh is also important, as all the materials of which fencing masks are made and the corresponding manufacturing processes must ensure an excellent mechanical resistance, a high degree of visibility and comfort for the fencer and a sufficient resistance to wear and tear and ageing [9]. The mesh must be made from woven steel wire where the gaps between the wire are at least 1.9 mm but not greater than 2.1 mm (on the curved front section of the 3

6 mask where a uniform 1. 9 mm cannot always be the case) [3]. 2.4 How is the completed mesh tested for safety? There are a series of further tests that must be undergone to prove the safety of the mask Test to ensure construction is correct. According to EN it shall not be possible at any point to pass a cylindrical probe with a diameter of (2.1 ± 0.05) mm, or a flat probe (0.2 ± 0.05) mm thick and (4.0 ± 0.1) mm wide, through the mask with light manual force [10] Test to ensure construction can endure deformation. The mesh should also be able to resist deformation, to the point where it shall not be possible to pass the cylindrical or flat probes through any point on the mask when it is not compressed or when it is compressed between flat plates laterally with a force of (900 ± 50) N [11]. The same test should be conducted with the mask compressed vertically instead of laterally [11], and after compression in each direction inspection shall show no fractures or failures of joins have occurred [11] Tests to ensure the mesh can protect the head properly. Assuming that the mesh is constructed correctly and passes all of the previous tests, the mesh then undergoes two further tests to ensure that it gives the correct level of protection to the wearer: a low velocity test and an impact test [12] Low velocity penetration test. The low velocity test for the mesh is a penetration test, or rather a test to prove that the mask is penetration-proof to the required level of force. The mask lays on an apparatus described in EN [13], with the penetrating implement angled to test the mesh from an assortment of positions and angles [14]. For a standard mask without a clear plastic visor in the mesh of the mask, six separate penetration tests are performed, plus a further two tests on each type of join present in the hard shell [14]. The penetration tests themselves are simple and methodical. The mask and penetrator implement are aligned as required, then contact is made between the penetrator and the mesh. The penetrator is then advanced at (100 ± 10) mm/min into the mesh [15], so the penetration force increases each minute until the performance requirement force limit is met or if penetration happens below the required value [15]. After all the tests, the deformation of the mesh should be measured; the 4

7 permanent deformation of the mesh shall be less than 10 mm [16]. Also it should still be impossible to insert a probe with the same dimensions as the end of the penetrator through the hard shell, lateral protection, visor or any join between them at any angle of presentation of the probe [16]. The probe dimensions should be a square with a width of (3 ± 0.05) mm [17] Impact energy test. The mask is set up in a drop rig, in which a mass of (1.5 ± 0.1) kg including an attached square penetrator with a width of (3 ± 0.05) mm falls in a guided fashion from an appropriate height to give the required impact energies for the different levels [18]. A system will be provided to arrest the falling mass so that only the penetrator strikes, not the falling mass itself [18]. In a similar fashion to the low velocity penetration test, the impact energy test shall be carried out in a series of positions [19]. The impact energy tests are even simpler than the low velocity penetration tests. The penetrator should be fixed to the falling mass, the mask should be positioned as required, the mass should be raised to the appropriate height and then released [20]. The person running the test should then determine whether penetration has occurred, by examination and use of a penetrator as a probe [20] In-person punch test. At events, the mesh of masks may be assessed for strength and safety by way of a punch test. To be passed as safe, the mesh must be able to withstand, without permanent deformation, the introduction of a conical instrument, the angle of the surface of the cone being at 4 to the axis and at a pressure of 12 kg [21]. Tactile mask punches are available for precisely this purpose and in fact the Organising Committee must provide the FIE technical delegates responsible for checking the weapons and equipment with at least the following apparatus:... Devices for measuring the flexibility of blades and the resistance of the mesh of masks [22]. The tactile mask punches may be bought online and allow an individual to apply a 12 kg punch test to mask meshes [23]. 2.5 What do the ratings mean? CEN Level 1 means that the mesh should be able to withstand (600 ± 10) N of penetration force and also 5.5 J of impact energy [24]. CEN Level 2 means that the mesh should be able to withstand (1000 ± 10) N of penetration force and also 8.5 J of impact energy [24]. 5

8 3 Protective Cloth Bib Masks tend to be referred to as 350 N or 1600 N masks, and it is to the bib (not the mesh) that this number refers. 3.1 What material is used, and how is the bib constructed? Bibs should be made of flexible material that may be layers of cloth or other material that has sufficient stiffness to remain in place during normal use [25]. The layers of cloth should be firmly fixed to each other, and at least one [layer] on the inside must be made of Kevlar fibre or a similar substance [26]. The FIE Regulations of 1999 required a bib with a depth of 100 mm to 120 mm [27]. However, experience has shown that bibs larger than 120 mm or with excessive stiffness can cause the mask to be lifted from the face of some fencers during use [27]. In any case, the cloth so formed must ensure a high degree of resistance to penetration equal or greater than 1600 Newtons it must also hinder the forming of stiff creases or the rolling up of the bib itself [26]. 3.2 How is the completed bib tested for safety? There are three tests that the bib must undergo before it can be certified as safe: a simple penetration test of the bib itself, a test of the bib s stiffness, and also a test of the quality of the attachment between the bib and the rest of the mask Ergonomic testing. Bib stiffness should be assessed for safety by way of a simple ergonomic test [25]. The mask should be examined with the assistance of a fencer [28] and should be assessed as to whether it is adequately comfortable and permits all normal fencing movements [28]. This should be done by an appropriate size of subject wearing the bib attached to a mask [28]. The subject should then flex their neck so that the mask shell contacts their chest and then straighten their neck again; this should be done five times [28]. The subject should then report if the bib tends to lift the mask from the face on flexing their neck and whether the bib remains in contact with, or adequately close to, their chest on extending their neck [28] Bib attachment testing. The bib should be continuously attached to the hard shell and lateral protection by sewing, gluing and riveting, or gluing and sewing, or riveting [25]. The bib should overlap the lower edge of the lateral protection by at least 20 mm, and the hard shell by at least 10 mm [25]. The bib should not become detached from the mask 6

9 so that a probe can be passed through the place of attachment [25]. To perform this test, the mask to which the bib is attached shall be firmly fixed to a massive base or other support [29]. A clamp will be attached to the bib near the centre of its lower edge and a force rising to (1000 ± 50) N shall be progressively applied over a period of at least 30 seconds pulling the bib away from the mask in a direction at (45 ± 5) to the horizontal axis [29]. The attachment between the bib and the rest of the mask will then be examined with probes for separation [29]. Although EN does not provide any further information about how to determine the result of the test, it would be safe to assume that separation is a bad thing, and therefore a bib that does not separate from the mask during this test would be classed as safe, and separation would result in a failed test High velocity test. The bib may be tested in one of three ways to ensure safety, by way of a compression tester [30], a drop rig with the penetrator on the falling mass [31] or a drop rig with fixed penetrator [32]. According to EN at least 10 specimens shall be cut from each sample [33] and each specimen will be tested in the following fashion. The specimen should be fixed to a holder so that the outer face of the fabric faces the penetrator [34]. The machine should be adjusted so that the penetrator will contact the centre of the test specimen with a limit deviation of ± 1 mm and then the testing apparatus should be activated [34]. Either the compression tester will be set to advance and to stop when penetration occurs, the drop rig will drop the mass with the attached penetrator, or the drop rig will drop the mass with attached specimen onto the penetrator [34]. The force at penetration should be recorded for each specimen and then the mean of 10 results should be calculated. The result should be rounded to the nearest 1 N [34]. The mean value of the force recorded on the penetration tests should not be less than the value specific for the rating level of the bib, and no more than one individual result may be less than 96% of that value [16]. 3.3 What do the ratings mean? CEN Level 1 means that the bib should be able to withstand at least 350 N of penetration force [24]. CEN Level 2 means that the bib should be able to withstand at least 1600 N of penetration force [24]. 7

10 4 Joins and Rib Joins between parts of mesh should consist of connection by wire stitching, riveting, welding or other secure system that is irremovable except by intent [35]. 4.1 What profile should the join have? The join regions should have smooth outer surfaces with no steps greater than 2.5 mm in height that would be likely to arrest a blade tip. Changes in levels that are chamfered to an angle that is shallower than 45 are not regarded as steps [36]. Where there are apparently non-perforating gaps or channels between areas of outer surface material, in addition to meeting the requirements in the following paragraph, the gaps or channels shall be less than 2.5 mm wide if they are more than 2.5 mm deep [36]. It should not be possible at any point to pass a cylindrical probe with a diameter of (2.1 ± 0.05) mm, or a flat probe (0.2 ± 0.05) mm thick and (4.0 ± 0.1) mm wide [10], through the mask with light manual force [10]. 4.2 How are the joins tested for safety? It should not be possible to pass the cylindrical or flat probes through any point on the mask when it is not compressed or when it is compressed between flat plates laterally with a force of (900 ± 50) N or when it is compressed between flat plates vertically with a force of (900 ± 50) N [11]. After compression in each direction, an inspection should show that no fractures or failures of joins have occurred [11]. 8

11 5 Straps and Restraint System Some kind of support system that allows the mask to be placed comfortably on the user s head and face must be included as part of the mask [37]. The rear fixing device needs to ensure that the mask sits in the correct position around the fencer s head, and that it remains in a perfect position, even after blows or shocks [38]. This rear fixing device may be achieved using integral straps with buckles, touch and close fasteners, separate harness or other items of protective equipment or clothing [39]. The manufacturer of the mask should, in the information supplied with the mask, give details of how adequate restraint of the equipment may be achieved [39]. The British Fencing Association requires that every fencer wear a mask back-strap [40] where back-strap is defined as elastic at least 35 mm wide, secured to the mask side mesh at each end, passing UNDER any mask spring piece at the back, and tensioned to keep the mask firmly in place [40]. 9

12 6 Internal Padding and Support System Interior padding (or another support system) that allows the mask to be placed comfortably on the user s head and face must be included as part of the mask. The thickness and compressibility of padding or the properties of any other system should be limited so that under foreseeable impacts the mask does not move significantly onto the user s head with the consequence that their nose might contact the hard shell [37]. 6.1 How is the padding tested for safety? The desired result of testing is that the masks shall not be pulled off a test subject s head when a force of 20 N is applied..., nor brought into contact with a test subject s face when tested with a force of 50 N [39]. The method of testing is that an appropriately sized mask should be placed on a test subject s head (according to the instructions provided with the mask) and any restraint methods such as back straps should be adjusted to ensure a good fit. A thin wire or fishing cord should be attached to a point near to the centre of the mesh at the top of the head. Then a force of (20 ± 2.5) N shall be applied to the wire and movement of the mask observed [41] while the direction of force is varied through a 60 cone [41] upwards from the mask. Any contact between the mask and the subject s nose, chin or cheeks should be noted, as this is not desirable [41]. Next, the test subject s head should be suitably supported while a force of (50 ± 2.5) N is gently applied to the centre front of the mesh, pushing it onto the test subject s face [41]. Again, contact between the mesh and the nose, chin or cheeks should be noted as this is not desirable. 6.2 Why do some masks have more internal padding than others? Some masks simply include more internal padding than others as a design feature. Masks that are designed for fencers on a low budget will have less padding or simpler support systems, whereas better quality masks might well include extra padding for the comfort of the fencers who wear them. There does not appear to be any standard for precisely how much padding needs to be included inside a mask, as long as the above requirements for mask support are met. 10

13 7 External Padding Although not a mandated piece of equipment, detachable padding for masks can be bought from suppliers of fencing equipment [42, 43, 44, 45]. These usually take the form of a padded cap that fits over the top and sides of the mesh, with a strap that sits across where the mesh attaches to the bib. The purpose of this additional padding is to protect the top and side of the mask and head from repeated and/or heavy impacts. 8 Back-of-Head Protection This is something that is non-existing in the world of sport fencing, but something that is becoming more and more important in the world of historical fencing. Historical Fencing tournaments such as those held at the annual Swordfish event mandate back-of-head protection [46]. American organisations with activities similar in nature to historical fencing, such as the Society for Creative Anachronism and the Adrian Empire for example, have made the wearing of fencing masks with back-of-head protection mandatory during fencing-like activities for several years [47]. There are no regulations about how back-of-head protection must be made for sport fencing or for historical fencing. Various suppliers of fencing equipment have begun to make and sell back-of-head protection, with each offering looking quite different in terms of how it is made [48, 49, 50]. Presumably in time there will be some kind of standard instituted across the historical fencing community to define how much protection, and what kind of protection, back-of-head fixtures must provide. 11

14 9 Bibliography and References [1] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 3: Terms and definitions. Subsection 3.10: fencing mask. Pages 6-7. [2] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.1: Mesh of fencing masks. Subsubsection 2: General conditions of raw material. Page 56. [3] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.2: Shape, dimensions and methods of production of the elements of fencing masks. Subsubsection 4.1: Front and side mesh. Page 66. [4] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : Steel wire mesh. Page 17. [5] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.1: Mesh of fencing masks. Subsubsection 4.2: 180 bending test. Page 58. [6] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.1: Mesh of fencing masks. Subsubsection 4.1: Traction test. Page 58. [7] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.1: Mesh of fencing masks. Subsubsection 4.3: Micrographic examination of the structure. Page 58. [8] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.1: Mesh of fencing masks. Subsubsection 5: Documents. Page 58. [9] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.2: Shape, dimensions and methods of production of the elements of fencing masks. Subsubsection 2: General conditions. Page 64. [10] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, 12

15 methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : Mask hard shells, lateral protection and visors. Page 17. [11] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : Resistance to deformation. Page 17. [12] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : General. Page 25. [13] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : Low velocity test for the hard shell, lateral protection and visors of masks. Subsubsubsection : Apparatus. Page [14] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : Low velocity test for the hard shell, lateral protection and visors of masks. Subsubsubsection : Test positions. Page 28. [15] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : Low velocity test for the hard shell, lateral protection and visors of masks. Subsubsubsection : Procedure. Page 28. [16] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.8: Penetration resistance. Subsubsection 4.8.2: Masks. Page 19. [17] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : Penetrator. Subsubsubsection : Penetrator dimensions. Page 26. [18] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, 13

16 5.10.4: Impact test for the hard shell, lateral protection and visors of masks. Subsubsubsection : Apparatus. Page 28. [19] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : Impact test for the hard shell, lateral protection and visors of masks. Subsubsubsection : Test positions. Page 29. [20] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : Impact test for the hard shell, lateral protection and visors of masks. Subsubsubsection : Procedure. Page 29. [21] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Chapter 2: Equipment and Clothing. Section m.25: The national uniform. Subsection 7: Mask. Page 26. [22] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Chapter 3: Checking of Material. Section m.42: Personnel and equipment required for checking. Subsection 2. Page 36. [23] accessed 27th April [24] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.8: Penetration resistance. Subsubsection 4.8.2: Masks. Table 6: Fencing mask - Penetration resistance requirements. Page 19. [25] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : The bib. Page 18. [26] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.2: Shape, dimensions and methods of production of the elements of fencing masks. Subsubsection 4.3: Bibs. Page 66. [27] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, 14

17 methods. Annex B: Levels of protection. Section B.4: Masks - bibs. Page 40. [28] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 5: Test methods. Subsection 5.5: Ergonomic testing. Page 22. [29] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 5: Test methods. Subsection 5.9: Bib attachment testing. Page 24. [30] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : High velocity penetration test for mask bibs, clothing fabrics and other clothing materials. Subsubsubsection : Compression tester. Page 30. [31] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : High velocity penetration test for mask bibs, clothing fabrics and other clothing materials. Subsubsubsection : Drop rig with the penetrator on the falling mass. Page 30. [32] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : High velocity penetration test for mask bibs, clothing fabrics and other clothing materials. Subsubsubsection : Drop rig with fixed penetrator. Page 30. [33] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : High velocity penetration test for mask bibs, clothing fabrics and other clothing materials. Subsubsubsection : Test specimens. Page 32. [34] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, : High velocity penetration test for mask bibs, clothing fabrics and other clothing materials. Subsubsubsection : Test procedure. Page 32. [35] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, 15

18 methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : Join construction. Page 18. [36] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : Join profile. Page 18. [37] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.7: Construction materials and construction details. Subsubsection 4.7.2: Fencing masks. Subsubsubsection : Interior padding or any other system to support the mask on the head or face. Page 18. [38] British Fencing, Rules for Competitions; Book 3, Material Rules. Annexe A. Section 2: Standards for the Manufacture of Fencing Masks. Subsection 2.2: Shape, dimensions and methods of production of the elements of fencing masks. Subsubsection 4: Essential constituent elements. Pages [39] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 4: Requirements. Subsection 4.4: Restraint requirements. Page 9. [40] British Fencing, Janaury Guidelines on safety in fencing for fencers, coaches, referees, clubs and competition organisers. Section 2: Accident Prevention - Fencers Responsibility. Subsection A: Masks. Page 2. [41] European Standard EN 13567, July Protective Clothing - Hand, arm, methods. Section 5: Test methods. Subsection 5.8: Restraint testing of masks. Page 23. [42] com_oscommerce&osmod=product_info&itemid=3, accessed 27th April [43] listino&cat=6, accessed 27th April [44] accessed 27th April [45] id/155/cpath/23, accessed 27th April

19 [46] Göteborgs Historiska Fäktskola, Rules for the Joachim Nilsson memorial tournament at Swordfish Section: Equipment. Subsection: Steel longsword and sabre tournaments minimum protection requirements. Page 3. [47] Imperial Estates Writ #17, March Combat Manual. Section III: Armor and Weapon Standards. Sections B and C: Shinai Combat, and Rapier Combat. Page 13. [48] schermastorica&cat=2, accessed 27th April [49] accessed 27th April [50] accessed 27th April

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