Some preliminary thoughts on the Special Zones for Disaster Recovery in Fisheries (Tokku)

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1 Some preliminary thoughts on the Special Zones for Disaster Recovery in Fisheries (Tokku) Dr. Johannes Wilhelm (Lecturer, University of Vienna) URL of presentation:

2 Events regarding Tokku (a timeline) April 5 Miyagi Fishery Regulatory Commission decides restrictions on aquaculture April 14 1st meeting of Quake Reconstruction Design Panel/Council (QRDP ) Members: Govenors of affected prefs., professors (Anthropologist Akasaka Norio or Umehara Takeshi as special advisor among others, but, no local fishery expert) April/May Beginning of "Hitokuchi ownership" groups May 10 4th QRDP meeting Miyagi gov. Murai announces Tokku (emphasis on need to invite money from industry) May 29 7th QRDP meeting Summary of ideas Akahata's "Nomura sōken conspiration theory" June 11 9th QRDP meeting Murai tries to clearly define Tokku idea. Tokku= basically fishery sectors to invite non-fishery organizations to invest/operate June 21 JF Miyagi meeting with Murai Strong opposition by JF Miyagi. Collection of signatures by fishermen opposing Tokku plan. June 25 12th QRDP meeting Murai: proposal for rebuilding July 1 JF Miyagi press conference "Private investment would ultimately lead to instability and possible collapse of local fisheries." July 6 Minister Matsumoto's "high-handed remarks" "You should form a consensus within the prefecture, OK? Otherwise, we won't do anything (to help). Understand?" Zengyoren (National JF) emergency conference Discussion within the National FCA to prevent Tokku implementation July 27 JF Miyagi general meeting Election of new Miyagi FCA president. No changes in opposition to Tokku. July 29 Inclusion of Tokku in National Basic Recovery Plan August 17 Final draft of Miyagi Pref. Recovery Plan (by pref. admin.) Inclusion of Tokku as one of three main pillars (move to higer ground, radiation problems). However, no clear details so far, yet, ports to be summarized to ⅓. Upcoming September 15 Miyagi assembly Final proposal of Miyagi Pref. Recovery Plan to be passed. Some representatives oppose Tokku. Pref. admin. likely to water down initial idea of Tokku as basic plan for coastal fisheries. Possible outcome: Tokku as possible consideration in fishery recovery Recovery plan for fishery villages after September Opinions of fishermen to be heard & collected. (mediation; similar to making of 1901 Fishery Law after protest in 1875/76 (1894) )

3 1. State of Japanese fisheries and its structure in Sanriku and Miyagi 2. Administrative aspects of (sectoral) fishing rights assignment 3. What are Tokku? 4. Discourse and Opinions on Tokku 5. Conclusion

4 State of Japanese fisheries and its structure in Sanriku and Miyagi

5 14000 Japan's Fishery Production, in decline Pelagic Offshore Coastal Cultivation

6 900 Miyagi's Fishery Production in 1000 t decline Pelagic Offshore Coastal Cultivation Source:

7 !"#$!%%!&"#'# $& "$$$$&!$$$$& +$$$$& *$$$$& (!)*+!,-#.!-/01)#21&3456&"#78*%409# )*!)$& )#%('& )"'"*& *$%%"& *(%'$&!"#$%&!"'"(& ')#!%& '))#%& '*%!!& ')%$$& "$$$& "$$(& "$$"& "$$'& "$$!& "$$#& %)!)*& ($$$$$& )$$$$& *$$$$& stable %$$$$&,-./012& +$$$$& & #$$$$& 97/5:/.&!$$$$& 9;.<=/<7>& '$$$$& A7:/.& "$$$$& ($$$$& $& Source:

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9 !"#$%&$'()*()+*,&-*)./0*-123) 8""""$ 2""""$ '""""$ &""""$ %""""$!""""$ #""""$ "$!""#$!""!$!""%$!""&$!""'$ ()*+$,-.-/01$ ##2"3$ 4"&!$ 3!'&$ 3224$ #!4%'$ 5/06.7$ ##'8!$ 8343$ 3#8&$ 3'42$ 9*:);)/<$ 8%"3$ 8!&!$ #""83$ ##&42$ 24%%$ 5:/00.=$ #'%&#$ #2%3"$ #''"3$ #&%4&$ #!83%$ '2!8&$ '232!$ '2223$ 2"#&8$ ''#48$ A/B/6<$ #!4"8$ #&#44$ #48&%$ #3&#&$ #3&3#$ %#82!$!2332$!88"#$!%44"$!42"4$ Source:

10 ()%*+,*&"#!"#-!.,/!#0+,%)12# #!"""$ #""""$,"""$!"#$!%%!&"#'#."""$ &"""$!"""$ "$!""#$!""!$!""%$!""&$!""'$ ()*+$ &",'$!-!"$ %-&.$ %/..$ &,-&$ 0*1)2)34$ ',.$../$,!.$ /#!$ '/,$ $ &'%!$ &&%'$ %-&"$ %,/-$ &"#%$ 9:*;<=$ /'%&$,",-$ /.!"$ /-/%$ /.#%$ #%!/$!%/%$ %!/-$ %"#,$ %!&#$ A7=)$ #""&'$.&//$././$ '%,!$./!-$ Source:

11 !"#$%&'()*"+#("*(,"'-."( :666' 9<88' 9>9=' 9=86' 9=9:' 9??6' 9766' 9666' 8=7>' 8>??' 8=:<' 8?=;' 8?>=' 8766' 8666' 766' ;:' 79' 78' ;<' 6' ;=' 9668' 9669' 966:' :=' ;;' 966;' ;9' ;:' 9667' ;7' /2134&3.5' /.&%0&1'(%)"*+',-%).*"'(%)"*+'!""#$%"&'(%)"*+'

12 Changes in Miyagi's Fishery Workforce (by number) Source:

13 Changes in Miyagi's Fishery Workforce (Age distribution in %) Source:

14 !)(((&!"#$"%&'()##)*#'"%'+",-&"' +")&!%)((&""(&!%(((& )+#&!")((& ++#& ""%& )+$& +!"& "%!& )+*& +(%& "%)& )"(&!$(& +$$& )"!&,-./0&!((&1&!(2**&1& )2*&1& -03.4&)&1&!"#$%&!"#'(&!"'#!&!"(((&!")$*&!"%%'&!+)((& +((!& +((+& +(("& +((%& +(()& Source:

15 Fishing Vessels (Lost in Tsunami) Registered Lost % Miyagi ,31 Aomori ,369 Iwate ,03 Fukushima ,42 Total ,43 Quelle: Kahoku Shinpô, 14. Mai Dr. Johannes Wilhelm (Universität Wien, Japanologie),

16 !" #!" $!!" $#!" %!!" %#!" &!!" &#!" '()*+," -,.+/+0," -+12/3" "78+6.9" "7:+;9" <2=,,62" >+(+0," '+0()23=+" 461,/+" AB,61,0+" C61,)20+/,"78+6.9" >2023=+" -2*+/(" '+63" E+.+)21+" '+?+*+" C61,)20+/," '1,25+0+" '1,25+0+"78+6.9" F=+.2" -+=+/3?+" G61,0+" '1,61,2=," -(6())30+" >+.63,?+" -+,+5(" C?+)30+" <+02.2" I+=36(" >,;+.2" >,;+.2"7E(6.9" E+.+=," < " >+.6361,0+" <25+6+/," <261,*+" D+)+K3L1," '1HK3.+" > ,)+.2" M,N3" CO361,0+" 4)+5+?+" 8)261,0+" G;+" >2.2;261," F.+.63" 4.1(=" P22Q(=+RS(" TUA" TPA" P20Q+);" U=,S+.(" Source:

17 !%++#!$++# ('#!"#$%&'()*%&+,-.(/-"0#(123345( (in Miyagi Pref.)!+++# &++# "$# "++#!$%&# %%# %++# $++# +#!#!"# $)#!!'# ()!# +# $+$# *# %# *!# %# **# **#!#!+%# $#!('# +#!(#!*# *&*# $#!%&# "+!#,-./01# #, # :60# ;0<5=1# A <3:34160# B0<0=1# C06065<5# K=1L0<-# M56N0.J# D0<3:34160#,41E # F1G:# H.080I0# D5<5J5341# D =17:#

18 Source: Fishery Census 2008

19 Source: Fishery Census 2008

20 Source: Fishery Census 2008

21 Source: Fishery Census 2008

22 Needs after the catastrophy Poll conducted among 42 mayors of affected districts in Iwate, Miyagi und Fukushima prefectures (June 10, 2011) Disposal of debris Reconstruction of groins and other catastrophy equipment ,5 15,0 22,5 30,0 Ending of problems of at Fukushima NPP 14 Revival of first sector 14 Construction of provisional houses Financial assistance of victims Setting up job opportunities Source:

23 People looking for jobs in Iwate Pref. Ōfunato (Harbor/Fishery industy) Miyako (Harbor/Fishery) March 2011 March 2011 Kamaishi (Harbor/Industry) Morioka (Pref. capital) March 2011 March 2011 Source: Iwate Pref., July 5, 2011,

24 State of local companies in affected areas State of business after March 11, 2011 Future Plans 1 % 10 % 5 % 38 % 52 % 38 % 55 % Resumed Paused Not clear Will be continued Cannot be continued In consideration Stopped N=4280 "Not clear" includes companies which lost their facilities. Source:

25 Administrative aspects of (sectoral) fishing rights assignment

26 Types of Fishing Rights Based on the Japanese Fishery Law there are fishing rights and licences in marine fisheries. Fishing Rights Stationary FR: Set-nets etc. Sectoral FR: Three types (cultivation, similar to field paddies or crop fields in agriculture) Common FR: Five types from smaller nets to common ground like Allmende Licences gear specific offshore and deep-sea fisheries Free fishery casual fishing etc.

27 Fishing Rights around cape of Yoriiso Onagawa NPP

28 Fishing Rights around Onagawa NPP It is interesting to see that NPPs are often built inbetween (or at the border to) two districts. Onagawa Onagawa NPP Ishinomaki

29 Border of Futaba and Ōkuma. Futaba Fukushima Daiichi NPP Ōkuma

30 Sectoral fishing rights are basically for cultivation of marine products. (seaweed, oyster, scallop, ascidian etc.) Like common fishing rights they are often based on customary use rights (similar to agricultural land), yet, they need some regulation (shipping routes etc.). Assignment to juridical persons else than FCAs are not common.

31 Sectoral fishing rights and possible Special Zones

32 Fishing rights are assigned by the MAFF put into practice by prefectural authorities. There is a special preference order (grading) to whom a fishing right is given. Regulative commissions decide in case of conflict. A sectoral fishing right is given for a period of five years.

33 Administrative order (grading) of fishing rights assignment 1. Fishery Cooperative Association 2. Juridical person of local fishermen 3. Juridical person of more than seven local fishermen 4. Fishermen or employee (incl. juridical persons) 5. Newcomers (incl. juridical persons)

34 What are Tokku?

35 Tokku are basically considered sectoral fishing rights that are granted via a different preference order (grading) to beneficiaries (at best a financially strong company or other private investor that is willing to invest mid to long term). Tokku are planned only in Miyagi prefecture, which is 2nd or 3rd important prefecture in Japanese fishery.

36 Miyagi's prefectural government hopes Tokku to become a fast recovery tool for mariculture from the private sector (investments) in the Tsunami hit coastal area of southern Sanriku.

37 Administrative order of fishing rights assignment Current 1. Fishery Cooperative Association 2. Juridical person of local fishermen 3. Juridical person of more than seven local fishermen 4. Fishermen or employee (incl. juridical persons) 5. Newcomers (incl. juridical persons) Planned 1st Group Fishery Cooperative Association Juridical person of local fishermen Juridical person of more than seven local fishermen 2nd Group Fishermen or employee (incl. juridical persons) Newcomers (incl. juridical persons)

38 Problems Assignment of fishing rights takes place every five years. (next time in two years, i.e. 2013) In 1875, the young Meiji government failed to impose a license/tax system of use rights (Kaimen kanyū sengen) owing to massive protest by fishermen who saw their customary rights endangered all along Japan's coasts. The government had to draw back these plans in 1876 and started a detailed inquiry on fishing methods and habits of coastal people that eventually led to the Fishery Law of Not only since this administrative "accident", fishermen consider their habitual (or customary) use rights their own "property".

39 Sectoral fishing rights and possible Special Zones

40 Changes in Miyagi's Fishery Workforce (Age distribution in %) Source:

41 Voices of some fishermen "We have waited and waited but neither the central nor the prefectural government will do anything, so we've decided to get on with it ourselves [...]". "The fishermen here want to get working as soon as possible. We have no boats, no nets, no home, but we love the sea. If you don't love the sea, you can't be a fisherman." "Now we are rescuing anything that can be reused. We have to start somewhere." "The hard truth is there is no money to repair the ports and boats, so we will need to change our game plan, create fewer ports and divide usage of those ports between several different cooperatives. Now is the perfect opportunity to do it... we can literally rebuild from scratch." "We have no choice but to look forward." Source: Japan Times, June 10, 2011, "Fishermen take matters into own hands: Debate rages over whether to privatize local fisheries"

42 Another fisherman "Under the existing law there is nothing stopping corporate participation [ ]. (In fact, there have been examples of this in the past, where a large fisheries company came in and at first increased the number of fisheries workers. But the moment market prices fell, the company pulled out, and numerous fishermen went bankrupt or out of business.) Fishermen here have been working the sea for hundreds of years. Why should we surrender all of that hard work to fly-by-night private investors?" Source: Japan Times, June 10, 2011, "Fishermen take matters into own hands: Debate rages over whether to privatize local fisheries"

43 Expert "Small fishing villages are very closed, and therefore outside companies... are not able to enter these communities under the present system." "It is quite clear that if we maintain the status quo, fishing communities will remain closed, private investors will stay away and the situation will only worsen. There is no other option available. If we do not act, the future will just be more and more subsidies. Fisheries cooperatives must try to make profits from their core business of selling fish." Source: Japan Times, June 10, 2011, "Fishermen take matters into own hands: Debate rages over whether to privatize local fisheries"

44 Discourse and Opinions on Tokku

45 Actors in Revival of Sanriku Fisheries Fishery administration (Miyagi prefecture) Miyagi Fisheries Cooperative Association Local Fishermen Local Wholesalers Hitokuchi ownership (individual stakeholder) groups Companies Media Public

46 Events regarding Tokku (a timeline) April 5 Miyagi Fishery Regulatory Commission decides restrictions on aquaculture April 14 1st meeting of Quake Reconstruction Design Panel/Council (QRDP ) Members: Govenors of affected prefs., professors (Anthropologist Akasaka Norio or Umehara Takeshi as special advisor among others, but, no local fishery expert) April/May Beginning of "Hitokuchi ownership" groups May 10 4th QRDP meeting Miyagi gov. Murai announces Tokku (emphasis on need to invite money from industry) May 29 7th QRDP meeting Summary of ideas Akahata's "Nomura sōken conspiration theory" June 11 9th QRDP meeting Murai tries to clearly define Tokku idea. Tokku= basically fishery sectors to invite non-fishery organizations to invest/operate June 21 JF Miyagi meeting with Murai Strong opposition by JF Miyagi. Collection of signatures by fishermen opposing Tokku plan. June 25 12th QRDP meeting Murai: proposal for rebuilding July 1 JF Miyagi press conference "Private investment would ultimately lead to instability and possible collapse of local fisheries." July 6 Minister Matsumoto's "high-handed remarks" "You should form a consensus within the prefecture, OK? Otherwise, we won't do anything (to help). Understand?" Zengyoren (National JF) emergency conference Discussion within the National FCA to prevent Tokku implementation July 27 JF Miyagi general meeting Election of new Miyagi FCA president. No changes in opposition to Tokku. July 29 Inclusion of Tokku in National Basic Recovery Plan August 17 Final draft of Miyagi Pref. Recovery Plan (by pref. admin.) Inclusion of Tokku as one of three main pillars (move to higer ground, radiation problems). However, no clear details so far, yet, ports to be summarized to ⅓. Upcoming September 15 Miyagi assembly Final proposal of Miyagi Pref. Recovery Plan to be passed. Some representatives oppose Tokku. Pref. admin. likely to water down initial idea of Tokku as basic plan for coastal fisheries. Possible outcome: Tokku as possible consideration in fishery recovery Recovery plan for fishery villages after September Opinions of fishermen to be heard & collected. (mediation; similar to making of 1901 Fishery Law after protest in 1875/76 (1894) )

47 Opinions on the Tokku

48 Opinion: Fishery Administration (Miyagi) Need to further discuss for improvement Media = way too hysteric FCA opinion is 'old school' Not all FCA members are opposed to Tokku Ostracism Discourse created by media A regulating system for matching of Tokku partners (companies and fishermen) is planned Financial aspects will be solved after 3rd supplementary budget plan will be enacted (will be about 4 times the amout of the preceeding two)

49 Opinion: Nōrinchūkin Bank Thinktank Miyagi prefecture must clearify details of Tokku idea Discussion for improvement badly needed Faults in history (Kaimen kanyū sengen) Media = hysteric Not all FCA members are opposed to Tokku 3rd supplementary budget plan will surely be enacted (in autumn 2011 or spring 2012)

50 Opinion: FCA Customers decide what they buy (not companies nor administration) Tokku are faulty figments of imagination by authorities and not needed It is possible to invite companies in the current system Administration is way too slow because they are focussed on Tokku rather than the 'real' problems Tokku would cut autonomy of FCA thus of fishermen

51 Opinion: FCA members Reliance on local economic powers (traditional village headmen and money lenders) who know the situation at place Opposition (of locals to non locals, i.e. companies) Bad experience with non local investors (salmon aquaculture) No exact knowledge about future household plans of government and what amount to receive at present Jobs, jobs, jobs...

52 Opinion: Hitokuchi project members Administration is way too slow "Let's do something and see what happens" Media are good for propagation FCA opinion is 'old school'. Let the elders (ancient regime) do what they want, we do better. "We have our financiers at place, but, we need financial assistance, too. Missing any payments so far." Tokku are figments of imagination by authorities

53

54 A Hitokuchi group in Ogatsu is planning a WWOOF like facility/company The members more or less ignore the Tokku discussion that is "Kudaranai" for their point of view.

55 Conclusion Tokku are not unconditionally needed as it is possible to invite companies in the current fishing rights system Implementation and discussion of Tokku will likely affect revival of Miyagi's coastal economy in comparison to other areas (Miyagi's fishery administration is slow because they are focussed on Tokku rather than the 'real' problems (compared to Iwate) Tokku would cut autonomy of FCA thus of fishermen (locally fitting matching and regulation has been in the hands of FCAs) Question whether companies are likely to invest regarding the age and organizational structure of Miyagi's fishery sector Strong opposition of locals towards entrance of non local businesses

56 Conclusion (2) The initial idea of Tokku as prominent part in a recovery plan is being watered down by Miyagi's administration. But why? - There was no fishery specialist among the 16 members of the Quake Reconstruction Design Panel (QRDP). Only one expert (Osamu Baba, specialist on fisheries resource management in Fukushima) among sub-commissioners. - Maybe Gov. Murai thought that the term "sectoral fishing rights" (kukaku gyogyō-ken) fits best to describe fishery related aspects of his grand design of "Special zones", initially meaning some kind of "Smart village zones". - This caused trouble and he readjusted his public words after being taught about the nature of sectoral fishing rights. - Miyagi's fishery administration is simply following his meandering statements and lost track of the "real problems".

57 Informants/sources during/for fieldwork (July 21 Aug 28, 2011) Informants -Miyagi pref. administration (govenor, fisheries, intl. affairs) -Miyagi pref. assembly representative (LDP) -JF Miyagi ( ) -Wholesalers (Ishinomaki, Ogatsu, Oshika) -Fishermen (Ishinomaki, Ogatsu, Oshika, Karakuwa) -Evacuees -Journalists ( Resources -Newspapers etc. -Miyagi pref. assembly material -JF Miyagi material -Interviews -Historical materials ( etc.) -MAFF statistics etc.) -Elementary school teachers (Shizugawa, Oshika) -Volunteers (church, doctors)

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